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handle this volume 

with care. 

The University of Connecticut 
Libraries, Storrs 


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(Copyright By 
W. H. Gocher, 1928) 

111 18 



American Trotter 9 

Looking Backward 14 

Sleigh Bells 21 

Century of Progress .... 26 

First Colt Stakes 31 

Peter the Great 34 

Grand Circuit 41 

Drivers 48 

Trotting Register 58 

Making Mabel Trask 63 

Leaf from the Past 69 

Geers Flagged 76 

Walnut Hill Farm 86 

Uncle Sam's Morgan 
Horses 93 

Goldsmith Maid 99 

Wheels and Whips 105 

Justin Morgan 113 

Morgan Migration 124 

Trotting Tracks 130 

Peculiarities of 

Champions 145 

Standard Oil Trotters. . .152 

Canadian Horses 155 

Blazed Trails 159 

Doble 164 

Owners Yesterday and 

Today 171 

John D.'s Pal 183 

-Evolution of Track 

Equipment 187 


Murphy 197 

Oregon Horses 203 

Calumet Farm 206 

Trotting Rules 208 

American Trotter in 

Europe 210 

Columbus Ten Thousand.. 216 

New Jersey Trotters. .. .220 

Champion Plow Horse. ..223 

Drivers Past and 

Present 228 

Pennsylvania Horses . . . .240 

Racing at Fairs 245 

Michigan Speed 248 

Arden Homestead Farm. .252 

Andrews Called 254 

Champion Stallions 261 

California Horses 266 

Race Tracks That 

Passed 269 

Indiana's First 

Champion 274 

Gallant Grays 275 

Harvey Ernest 281 

Home of the Trotter 286 

Hollyrood Farm 289 

Stotesbury Horses 293 

Starting the "Trots" 298 

Connecticut Horses 302 

Trotting Turf Wit 307 

Ohio Horses 312 

INDEX — Continued 


Two Mile Record 314 

Fortune's Football 317 

Picking Winners 322 

John H. Shults 327 

Blue Ribbon 332 

David Bonner 339 

Splendid Cripples 348 

John Splan, the Wit 353 

M. and M 360 

Andy Welch 364 

Sealskin Brigade 369 

Tagging Father 374 

Owners Up 378 

Cat Tips 382 

Miracle Man . ., 385 

Margin of Victory 391 

Match Racing 394 

New Starter 399 

Last of the Old Guard.. 402 


Vanished Sleighs 405 

St. Clair 409 

One Horse Men 412 

Roan Racers ,. . .417 

Exit John Splan 424 

John D. and Bob Frost.. 430 

Bay State Circuit 433 

Marvin 441 

Stallion Booms 446 

"Knap" McCarthy 454 

Iskander 460 

Jack Batchelor 462 

Catch Colts 466 

Michigan's First 

Champion 468 

John A. Goldsmith 470 

W. E. Weeks 472 

Sensational Sales 478 

Madden's Horse Hints . . . 484 


Peter Manning Frontispiece 

Peter the Great 36 

E. Roland Harriman 58 

Walnut Hall 86 

Goldsmith Maid Monument 100 

Plan of Mile Track 131 

Plan of Half Mile Track 132 

Budd Doble and Father 164 

Thomas W. Murphy 198 

W. M. Wright 206 

Harvey Ernest 282 

Under the Kentucky Oaks 286 

John E. Madden 386 

Guy Axworthy 448 


Boost and the world boosts with you, 

Knock, and you're on the shelf; 
For the world gets sick of the one who'll kick, 

And wishes he'd kick himself. 
Boost when the sun is shining, 

Boost when it starts to rain ; 
If you happen to fall, don't lie there and bawl, 

But get up and boost again. 
Boost for your own advancement, 

Boost for the things, sublime, 
For the chap that's found on the topmost round 

Is the booster every time. 

I do not know who wrote the above selection but 
he can have my vote if he will come forward and put 
his name on the ticket. That is what these articles 
were written for and why they have been collected 
and published in book form. 


Hartford, Conn., July 1, 1928. 


The American horse dates from 1539 when DeSoto 
landed in Florida. He had 237 cavalry horses as 
well as a number of pack horses and mules. After 
DeSoto's death, the horses which had not been killed 
by the Indians were turned loose in the forest. Their 
descendants became the wild horses of the Western 

The first horses arrived in New England in 1629 
when twenty-five were landed in Boston. Six or 
seven also arrived at Salem that year. Plymouth 
did not have any horses until 1632. In 1636, when 
Thomas Hooker and his company moved to Connect- 
icut, they took their horses with them. 

The Rhode Island colony, started in 1636, took an 
active interest in horses. It produced the Narra- 
gansett pacers which were used for the saddle and 
racing. In 1721 the Reverent James McSparron 
stated in his diary that he had seen some of them 
pace a mile in a little more than two minutes and a 
great deal less than three. These horses were ex- 
ported to the West Indies, Virginia and adjoining 
states. They never became popular in New York 
where the first American race course was established 
in 1665 and over which the Dutch horses were raced. 

The colonial legislatures passed a number of laws 
against racing. In 1747 Maryland at the suggestion 
of the Quakers passed an act against pacing and run- 
ning races in Talbot county. In 1748 New Jersey 
limited pacing, running and trotting to certain days. 


The term trotting in this act is the first reference to 
that way of going in American annals. In 1749 
Rhode Island prohibited racing under penalty of for- 
feiting the horse and a fine of twenty-five pounds. In 
1778 Connecticut adopted a like measure but reduced 
the fine to forty shillings. 

After the Revolution, the horse interests began to 
improve. The English stallions which remained in 
the country were bred to the native mares while 
others were imported. Messenger was among the 
latter. Also with the introduction of vehicles for 
travel, the pacers began to disappear. They did not 
become prominent again for over half a century. 

Between 1825 and 1830, a few New York gentle- 
men decided that it would be possible to establish a 
breed of trotting horses. Prior to that date, a Bos- 
ton man imported a horse which had considerable to 
do with founding the leading trotting family of to- 
day. Kirk Boott, the father of this man, landed in 
Boston in 1775. He came from Derby, England. 
Blood had been shed at Lexington and Bunker Hill 
that year. A state of war existed, but when the 
English troops withdrew from Boston, Boott re- 
mained. In a few years he was a prosperous mer- 
chant and in time took his sons, John, Kirk and 
James into partnership. 

James was a bachelor. He made a number of trips 
to England. While there in 1822, he purchased the 
Norfolk trotter Bellfounder and shipped him to Bos- 
ton. This horse's name appears in the pedigrees of 
all but five of the champion trotters. 


The brothers B. T. and Timothy T. Kissem of New 
York were among those who were interested in the 
new type of horse. They were merchants and had 
occasion to go to Philadelphia and Boston in their 
business. During a Philadelphia trip, B. T. Kissem 
purchased the trotting mare Amazonia. After driv- 
ing her for a time, he sold her to his uncle, John 
Treadwell. He bred her to Mambrino, and in 1823 
she produced Abdallah. This was the first step 
towards founding the Hambletonian family of trot- 
ters. In 1829 or 30, Timothy T. Kissem made the 
second step by going to Boston w T here after seeing 
Bellfounder trot to saddle he leased the horse and 
shipped him to New York. 

Bellfounder stood at Poughkeepsie in 1831. He 
was in Orange County for the next two years. In 
1832 John Jackson made the third step when he 
booked the mare One Eye by Bishop's Hambletonian 
out of Silver Tail by Messenger to Bellfounder. She 
produced a filly which Peter Seeley purchased as a 
four year old. He took her to Long Island where 
she trotted to saddle in 2:43 and 2:41. This was 
fast in 1838. The world's record was then 2:31i/ 2 . 

After this performance, the filly was sold to a New 
York banker. He used her as a road mare. She 
was injured in a runaway and sold to Charles Kent. 
He bred her to Webber's Tom Thumb. While she 
was in foal, Jonas Seeley made the fourth step when 
he bought the crippled mare and led her back to 
Orange County. This was the Charles Kent mare. 
Her first foal was Belle, the dam of Green's Bashaw, 


one of the foundation sires of Iowa. In 1846 and 
1848, the Charles Kent mare produced fillies by Ab- 
dallah. Both of them died. In 1849 she dropped a 
colt by the same horse. Seeley sold him with his 
dam to William M. Rysdyk for $125. 

In 1852 Rysdyk and his neighbor, Samuel Roe, 
took their Abdallah colts to New York and exhibited 
them at the American Institute Fair. The Roe colt 
was a four year old. He was known as Abdallah 
Chief, while Rysdyk named his colt Hambletonian. 

After the fair, Roe and Rysdyk drove their colts 
to one of the tracks on Long Island. Shortly after 
their arrival they worked a mile together and Ham- 
bletonian won in 3:03. A few days later, Roe drove 
Abdallah Chief in 2 '.Sh 1 /^ As soon as Rysdyk heard 
of it, he hitched Hambletonian and trotted a mile in 
2:48, a good performance for a three year old in 

Believing that he had a great horse, Rysdyk went 
back to Orange County with his colt. In time he be- 
came the most famous stallion in America, the list of 
his get including Alexander's Abdallah, the sire of 
Goldsmith Maid, George Wilkes, Electioneer, Nettie, 
and Dexter. 

As the years rolled by, Hambletonian's name be- 
came a household word. His descendants were ex- 
ported to every country in the world. In the breed- 
ing ranks they submerged all of the other families 
while on the American turf the strain entered the 
list of champions in 1867 with Dexter and is still 
supreme. Peter Manning is its present leader. He 


was preceded by Goldsmith Maid, St. Julian, Maud 
S, Nancy Hanks, The Abbott, Cresceus, Lou Dillon 
and Uhlan. 

The first step towards establishing rules for light 
harness racing was taken by the New York Trotting 
Club in 1825, two years after the New York legisla- 
ture passed an act, allowing trotting, pacing and run- 
ning races on private property in Queens County. 
Philadelphia followed in 1828 with the Hunting 
Park Association. Kendall Park at Baltimore, Md., 
and the Eagle Course at Trenton, N. J., also date 
from this period. With but few exceptions all the 
races were to saddle, as in 1828, if anyone wanted to 
race to harness he was required to give three weeks' 

As the years rolled by, the managers of trotting 
meetings found that more than rules were required 
to enforce discipline. Irregularities occurred, and 
when detected, penalties could not be enforced be- 
yond their own grounds. This sentiment crystallized 
in 1869 when Amasa Sprague of Providence, R. I., 
issued a call for a meeting in New York, February 2, 
1870. When the delegates assembled, forty-eight 
associations were represented. They held sessions 
for two days and on February 4 adopted a set of By- 
Laws and Rules for the National Association for the 
Promotion of the Interests of the American Trotting 
Turf, a name that was subsequently changed to the 
National Trotting Association. 

The By-Laws, Rules and Regulations of the Na- 
tional Trotting Association stand as the com- 


bined experience of men identified with racing from 
1825. The rules selected in 1825 were those used on 
the Jockey Club tracks with the changes required to 
cover breaks and other features incidental to the new 
way of going. That code has been revised and 
amended until now they cover every angle of light 
harness racing. 


In 1860, John H. Wallace, at that time a resident 
of Muscatine, Iowa, was busy preparing for publica- 
tion an American Stud Book. It was completed in 
1866 and published the following year. According 
to the title page it was a "compilation of American 
and imported horses with an appendix of all animals 
without extended pedigrees prior to 1840." To this 
apparently as an after thought was added an 80- 
page supplement "containing all horses and mares 
that have trotted in public in 2 :40, and geldings that 
have trotted in 2:35, and many of their progenitors 
and descendants with all that is known of their blood 
from the earliest trotting races to the close of 1866." 

This was the first step taken to trace and publish 
the pedigrees of trotters. In making it John H. 
Wallace paved the way for his life work. It also 
resulted in a series of publications which for all time 
tacked his name to the history of the light harness 

Wallace prepared the copy for a second volume of 
his American Stud Book. It was laid aside after he 


decided to devote his time to the trotter instead of 
the galloper. This left the thoroughbred field open 
for Sanders D. Bruce, who had in 1868 published an- 
other American Stud Book. This is the one now 
owned by the Jockey Club. 

Wallace continued his work until 1891 when he 
sold to the American Trotting Register Association. 
At that time he controlled the American Trotting 
Register, Wallace's Monthly and the Year Book. The 
first volume of American Trotting Register appeared 
in 1871. It contained over three thousand pedigrees. 
The Monthly was started in 1875. Under the Wal- 
lace management it was the battle ground for breed- 
ing theories, disputed pedigrees and other subjects 
in which the horse world was interested. When it 
passed to other hands the militant spirit faded. In 
1894 it was discontinued. 

The Year Book was an outgrowth of the Monthly. 
In 1885 the race summaries and statistical matter 
which appeared in it was grouped and published as 
the Year Book. 

Among the eight hundred and fifteen horses 
which appear in the Trotting Supplement there are 
four mares whose names can be found in the pedi- 
grees of over ninety percent, of all of the trotters 
and pacers now in training. They are the tap roots 
of light harness racing. Their names are Charles 
Kent Mare, which is described in the pedigree of her 
son Hambletonian, Dolly Spanker, Princess and 
Tackey. Two of these have records, Princess hav- 
ing a mark of 2:30 and Tackey 2:26. The pedigree 


of Princess is given incorrectly while only a line is 
assigned Tackey and Dolly Spanker. 

In 1867, the year the Trotting Supplement was 
published, there were but two trotters in the 2:20 
list. In 1859 Flora Temple trotted in 2:19%. It 
was the best on record until 1867 when Dexter 
trotted the half-mile track at Riverside Park, Bos- 
ton, in 2:19, and later in the season placed his record 
at 2:17*4 at Buffalo. 

In the Trotting Supplement the breeding of the 
Charles Kent Mare is given as being by imp. Bell- 
founder, dam One Eye by Hambletonian, grandam 
Silvertail by imp. Messenger. This mare was foaled 
in 1833. Peter Seeley purchased her as a three 
year old for $300. The following year he took her 
to the Union Course on Long Island where she 
trotted two trials under the saddle in 2:43 and 2:41, 
Seeley sold this mare for $400. After passing 
through several hands she met with an injury and 
was sold to Charles Kent. He bred her to Webber's 
Tom Thumb, a Canadian horse of unknown breeding, 
which had trotted ten miles in twenty-nine minutes. 
In 1844 she produced a filly which afterwards be- 
came the dam of the western trotter and sire Green's 

Jonas Seeley gave Kent $135 for this mare and her 
Tom Thumb filly. He also bred two fillies from her 
by Abdallah. Both of them died as four year olds. 
In 1848 he returned the Kent mare to Abdallah. In 
1849 she produced a bay colt which he sold with the 
mare to William M. Rysdyk for $125. This proved 


the most profitable transaction ever made for a 

Rysdyk named the colt Hambletonian. In 1852 
he drove him as a three year old in 2:48 over the 
Union Course where his dam had trotted in 2 :41 in 
1837. This was all of his training. In 1866 Wal- 
lace in referring to Hambletonian said, "as a sire of 
trotters he stands far above all competitors in this 
or any past generation." What he said then applies 
to the family now as the male line of Hambletonian 
submerged all others. 

The Trotting Supplement made the following ref- 
erence to Princess: "Princess, bay mare foaled 18 — . 
Got by Michael Reaker of which nothing is known. 
Bred in New Hampshire, taken to Chicago by Mr. 
Gage and called Topsy. Taken to California and 
there called Princess. Returned and was pitted 
against Flora Temple and beaten in 1859 in harness 
in 2:231/2, 2:22, 2:23^." 

Later on the pedigree of Princess was traced. It 
was then found that she was foaled in 1846, got by 
Andrus' Hambletonian, dam Isaiah Wilcox Mare by 
Burdick's Engineer, son of Engineer by imp. Messen- 
ger, and that her breeder was L. B. Adams of Middle- 
town, Vt. 

After being taken to California Princess was 
trained by James Eoff. He gave her a record of 
2 :30 at San Francisco in 1858. The following year 
she was matched at ten miles to wagon for $36,500 
against Glencoe Chief and won in 29 :10 3 /i. The same 
pair met again the following day in a $5,000 match 


to harness. Princess won again in 29:16 1 / 4. She 
was then shipped to New York where she defeated 
Flora Temple at two miles in 5:02, 5:05. 

After being retired from the turf Princess was in 
1862 bred to Hambletonian. She produced Happy 
Medium. Happy Medium made a record of 2:321/2 
before he was retired to the stud where he got the 
champion trotter Nancy Hanks 2:04 and Pilot Med- 
ium through whom the line was continued to Peter 
the Great. 

The following is the reference to Dolly Spanker in 
the Trotting Supplement: "Dolly Spanker, brown 
mare. This is the dam of George Wilkes and in 
1853 trotted three times in 2:27." This is more 
speed than was ever claimed for Dolly Spanker. 
When her only foal George Wilkes began his turf 
career it was stated that Dolly Spanker was sup- 
posed to be by a grandson of imp. Messenger and it is 
so stated in the pedigree of George Wilkes in the 
Trotting Supplement. 

This is how matters stood until in 1877 when W. 
L. Simmons and Harry Felter told John H. Wallace 
that W. A. Delavan of New York purchased Dolly 
Spanker from John S. Lewis of Geneva, N. Y. When 
communicated with Lewis said that he purchased the 
mare from James Gilbert of Phelps, N. Y., and that 
she had about 3 :30 speed when he sold her as a five 
year old to Delavan. He also added that she was by 
Henry Clay out of Old Telegraph by Baker's 

John P. Ray investigated this pedigree for Wal- 


lace. He reported that what Lewis said was correct. 
Later on Ray claimed that he made a mistake in the 
dates and that Dolly Spanker was not by Henry Clay. 
By that time most of the people, who were familiar 
with the facts, were dead. The report had also gone 
abroad that a cross of Clay blood in a pedigree was 
not worth a handful of sawdust. Many believed it, 
notwithstanding the splendid turf careers of Ameri- 
can Girl, Lucy and Hopeful. They finally had to run 
to cover when St. Julien appeared and Green Moun- 
tain Maid's son Electioneer sent out a shoal of cham- 
pions from Palo Alto. It did not help Dolly Spanker. 
Her pedigree was lopped off. So far as inheritance 
is concerned Dolly Spanker stands just as she did 
when Harry Felter drove her on the road in New 
York. "Breeding unknown. " 

At present Dolly Spanker is second only to the 
Charles Kent Mare in the number of her descend- 
ants that have records. From her son George 
Wilkes this extreme speed line runs through William 
L., Axtell, Axworthy, to Guy Axworthy, the sire of 
four two minute trotters, Lee Axworthy 1 :5Sy4,, Guy 
McKinney 1:58%, Arion Guy l:59y 2 and Mr. Mc- 
Elwyn 1:59^. 

The Trotting Supplement presents the following 
reference to Tackey: "Tackey, gray mare. Trotted 
to harness at St. Louis, 1866, in 2:28%, 2:28, 
2:29^." This was the race in which she defeated 
Pilot Temple, John A. Logan and Nabocklish. 

The following year Tackey made her record of 
2:26 over the same course, when she won from Silas 


Rich, Molly and her sister Dixie. Later on she was 
registered as a gray mare foaled 1858 by Pilot Jr., 
dam Jenny Lind by Bellfounder. She was bred by 
C. G. McHatton of St. Louis. 

Tackey was sold by her Missouri owner and 
shipped to Pennsylvania where she was raced as: 
Polly in 1873. Later on she was retired to the 
breeding ranks where she produced Naiad Queen 
2:201/4, Pilot Boy 2:20 and Class Leader 2:221/^ In 
1878 she was mated with Happy Medium and the 
following spring dropped a gray colt. He was named 
Pilot Medium. Walter Clark took him to Battle 
Creek, Mich., where in 1894 he got Peter the Great,, 
the most remarkable sire of racing speed. In him 
the blood of the Charles Kent Mare, Princess and' 
Tackey are blended with Lady Patriot and Shadow. 

Many interesting facts, the most of which are 
either unknown or forgotten, appear in the Trotting 
Supplement. The following is the reference to Peer- 
less: "Gray mare, foaled 1853 by American Star,, 
dam a mare full of Messenger blood. Hiram Wood- 
ruff said she was the fastest animal he or anybody^ 
else ever drove to a wagon and that he drove her a 
quarter in thirty seconds and a mile in 2:23^* 
Owned by Robert Bonner." One of that kind would 
now be considered first class. 

The following is also interesting: "Boston Blue, 
gray gelding. In 1818 this horse was matched to 
trot a mile in three minutes and won. This was the 
first public trotting race in the country. He was 
taken to England where he won several matches. "* 


The trip against time was made over the road at 
Jamaica, Long Island. William Jones made the 

While this may have been the first match trotted 
in America it was not the first time that a horse beat 
three minutes, as in September, 1810, a Philadelphia 
correspondent of an English publication made the 
following report : "On Saturday, August 25, a chest- 
nut horse from Boston trotted in a sulky one mile in 
-2:48^ for $600. This horse is fourteen years old 
-and barely fifteen hands high." 


The mantle of snow which during the winter cov- 
ers the north country from the Atlantic to the Rocky 
Mountains, recalls the days when in every city or 
town the trotters were out for a brush to sleighs. It 
was continued until the congestion caused by autos 
and other wheeled vehicles relegated them to the 
speedways and race tracks. 

The seventies, eighties and nineties of the last cen- 
tury were the gala days of racing on the snow. In 
New York City, Seventh Avenue would be thronged 
with vehicles every pleasant afternoon from Central 
Park to the Harlem River, while those who stood on 
the curb had the pleasure of seeing all kinds of rac- 
ing as the horses ranged from Maud S., the reigning 
queen of the turf, to a peg legged pony from the 
shafts of a butcher's cart. The thousands of single 
hitches mingled with scores of splendid pairs, a few 


tandems and an occasional four-in-hand, all of them 
wearing bells and many colored plumes, while the 
style of vehicles ran from the spider web racing 
cutter to a Canadian pung. 

Nearly every afternoon up to the year he died, 
William H. Vanderbilt would flash by with Maud S. 
and Aldine or one of his other celebrated pairs of 
trotters. John D. Rockefeller would be out with 
Midnight and Kate McCall, his brother William with 
Independence and Cleora, Frank Work with the 
champions Edward and Dick Swiveller, Shepard F. 
Knapp with Charley Hogan and Sam Hill, W. M. 
Humphreys with the fast Electioneer geldings that 
Senator Stanford sent him as a present, Major Dick- 
erson with Aubine and Lady Wellington or Roseleaf 
and Zembia, and Russell Sage behind an unmarked 
pair of fast trotters, his only luxury. 

On the speeding ground the public never failed to 
recognize the jolly rotund figure of Gabe Case be- 
hind Great Western with John Murphy tucked in a 
corner of the sleigh to make ballast. For years Gabe 
offered a magnum of wine to the driver of the first 
sleigh that stopped at his road house on Jerome Ave- 
nue, and continued it when he removed to the Mc- 
Gowan Pass Tavern. John Quinn, the tall son of 
Harlem, won the most of them and saved the empty 
bottles with gay ribbons attached to adorn his stable 
in One Hundred and Twenty-Fifth Street, and also 
added many more after he removed to larger quar- 
ters in One Hundred and Twenty-Fourth Street near 
Seventh Avenue. 


In Chicago, James Murphy made all move over a 
trifle as he flashed down the side drive behind his 
triple hitch with Tom in the center. Charles Swartz, 
John W. Conley, Frank Waters and many others who 
have long since passed away, watched him rush by 
while on their way at top speed to Ed Smith's road 
house for one of his famous meat pies, which were 
served with something on the side on sleighing days 

Cleveland also enjoyed winter racing on Euclid 
Avenue, Myrtle R., the dam of Bronson, being the 
queen of the street the winter W. F. Putnam owned 
her. Harry Devereux always had a mount behind 
a member of his stable, a few from Colonel Edwards' 
barn or one from Miller & Sibley's farm at Franklin, 
Pa. C. F. Emery was prominent with the products 
of the Forest City Farm where the North Randall 
race track is now located, one of his best being the 
little Brown Wilkes gelding East End, while old man 
Brace never failed to put in an appearance with 
Harry Sparkle, a horse that he kept solely for racing 
on the snow, and let run to pasture for the balance 
of the year. 

Buffalo always had a splendid road brigade with 
the Hamlins, Dunbar, Perrin, Oliver Cabana, later a 
heavyweight in the Holstein cattle world; Perry 
Taylor and George Lattimer to clear the way while 
Belle Hamlin, Johnston, Mascot, Promise and The 
Monk led many a brush through Delaware Avenue. 
George Archer was the mainstay in Rochester for 
years and many a horse was purchased by James 


Whitney, Fred Cook, W. Bowman, James Hotchkiss 
and others to trim Snooks, but all of them failed to 
catch him. 

In Philadelphia Frank Bowers and his companions 
made Broad Street merry with the jingling bells and 
their swift double and single hitches, while John 
Sheppard was either in front or tapping at the door 
on the Mill Dam and the many other famous drives 
in Boston behind Mill Boy and Blondine, Reina, Arab 
and Senator L. In Waterville, Maine, Nelson and 
Aubine first made their prowess as trotters felt on 
Silver Street, while Crescius led in many a brush in 
Toledo with George Ketcham behind him. 

From the earliest days Hartford was famous for 
races on the snow. As a colt in the sixties Thomas 
Jefferson won a race for hard money on Albany Ave- 
nue, but the recognized speeding ground for years 
was from the South Green to Needham's Corner, and 
on to the Tunnel if the finish was close and the driv- 
ers were not satisfied with the result when they 
reached Sentinel Hill. When the traffic became con- 
gested on the upper end of the thoroughfare the city 
fathers passed an ordinance which placed a fine of 
five dollars on any obstreperous reinsmen that raced 
by the State House. 

That winter and for several preceding ones Frank 
Cummings owned a mare called Canada Girl. She 
was the queen of the snow path, but one pleasant 
afternoon a young man who was working in a bank 
appeared on the street with a big black mare and 
trimmed her. A few days later David Bonner, who 


was in the habit of coming each winter from New 
York to his old home for a few days' sleighing, ap- 
peared on the scene and Frank Cummings told him 
of Canada Girl's defeat. David did not approve of 
it, and made arrangements to drive her that after- 
noon. Before long the black mare and her youthful 
driver joined the horses, and in the first brush 
Canada Girl won. As they jogged back he asked Mr. 
Bonner for another trial and he consented. 

Turning at the South Green the pair came away 
at three-quarter speed down the slight grade to the 
stone bridge near Arch Street. Both of them were 
flying when they passed the First Church where the 
founders of Connecticut are buried, and Canada 
Girl's head showed in front at the State House in 
which the Blue Light Convention was held in 1812. 
Neither of the drivers thought of stopping, but raced 
on around Needham's Corner to the Tunnel where 
Canada Girl was a scant length to the good. Frank 
Cummings was delighted and paid the fine, but when 
the officers of the bank heard of the race they gave 
the young man the option of selling the black mare 
or filling another position, so he passed her along to 
another owner. 

Over thirty years elapsed before these two men 
exchanged words again. At that time the young 
man who drove the black mare appeared in the Hart- 
ford directory as President of the Charter Oak Bank, 
while David Bonner was then at eighty years of age 
a living example of the vigor and health which is the 
heritage of those who spend a few hours each day 


behind a good horse on the road. 

When the horse cars appeared on the streets in 
Hartford, the road drivers moved over to Washington 
Street where they reigned supreme each winter day 
until the traffic drove them to the speedway in Riv- 
erside Park. A few trials in the loose footing put a 
quietus on winter racing in Hartford, although a 
little is still done in other cities when there is suf- 
ficient snow and the footing can be made safe for fast 

On the mantel over the fireplace in my home there 
is a handsome silver cup which was awarded Senator 
L. when he won the championship to sleigh over the 
New York speedway in 1907, while that gallant trot- 
ter sleeps in the equine cemetery on Cedar Mountain. 
The mound that marks his resting place is beside the 
one that covers the Kentucky Prince gelding Guy, 
2:0914, who was also at one time a member of my 
stable of road horses. The latter was at times a 
peculiar tempered chap and at times a bad actor, 
but he had the flying foot of a trotter and was the 
only one I ever saw pull a high wheel sulky a quarter 
in thirty seconds. 


The trotting horse is an American product. Eng- 
land developed the thoroughbred, France the Perch- 
eron, and Russia the Orloff, all of which are typical 
of the nations in which they originated, but none of 
them can compare with the American trotter in the 


matter of utility, from the battle front to the plough 
or from the race track to a heavy vehicle. At the 
beginning of the second century of light harness rac- 
ing, it is well to stop and take a glance backward over 
the field that has been traversed by those who laid 
the foundation of the breed in a new country and 
assisted in reducing the record from the three 
minutes made by Boston Blue under the saddle on 
the Jamaica turnpike on Long Island in 1818, to 
Peter Manning 1:56% to harness at Lexington, Ky., 
in 1922. 

The trotter as a breed traces to the English race 
horse Messenger. He landed at Philadelphia in 1788 
and died at Long Island in 1808, after making twenty 
stud seasons in Pennsylvania, New York and New 
Jersey. He was during that period mated with a 
few thoroughbred mares, but the majority of those 
bred to him were descended from the Dutch horses 
which were brought from Holland by the founders of 
New Amsterdam, and which in the century that 
elapsed prior to his arrival spread over the states 
where he was located, as well as New England. Jus- 
tin Morgan, the founder of the family which bears 
his name, no doubt traces to the same source. This 
was the strain that put the trotting gait in the 
American horse just as a Dutch mare when mated 
with Polkan produced Barss, the progenitor of the 
Orloff in Russia. 

It would be absurd to admit that Messenger, a 
running horse, controlled the gait of the American 
trotter, but the stamina which he and his descend- 


ants possessed gave their progeny the nerve force to 
carry the new gait over a distance of ground when 
they showed a disposition to use it instead of the 
gallop. It is admitted that the thoroughbred horse 
can trot; in fact any animal can, but the pointed, 
dwelling stride of the running horse is a thing apart 
from the smooth, round stroke which distinguished 
all of the early trotters and which many of them 
could carry for two, three or even four mile heats 
under the saddle or to harness. 

Boston Blue, the first horse to win a trotting 
match, was shipped to Boston from Maine where he 
was at one time used towing boats on the Kennebec 
River between Augusta and Waterville. He also 
trotted a mile in 2:57 over the Lynn turnpike before 
Major Jones made his match of $1,000 with Colonel 
Bone of Maryland that he could produce a horse that 
could trot a mile in three minutes. His success 
prompted others to race at the trotting gait and also 
encouraged matches as in 1823 Topgallant defeated 
Betsy Baker at three miles in 8:42, a rate of 2:54 
for the mile. He was raced for many years and is 
credited with the first mile below 2 :40. 

The New York Trotting Club was organized in 
1825. It built a track on Long Island. In 1828 
Hunting Park was built near Philadelphia and in a 
brief period courses were established at Baltimore, 
Trenton, Jersey City and Mobile, while such old- 
timers as Screwdriver, Sally Miller, Topgallant, Rat- 
tler, Dutchman, Trouble, Awful and Lady Suffolk 
were busy racing over them, reducing their records 


each season until in 1845 Lady Suffolk started the 
2:30 list by winning a heat in 2:29V£ to harness. In 
the interval Rattler had in 1830 trotted in 2:32 to 
saddle, while in 1834 Edwin Forest won in 2:31 1 / / 2- 
Also when the trotters began to appear in harness 
Dutchman made a record of 2:32 in 1839. Ripton 
reduced it to 2:311/2 i n 1843. It was the limit until 
Lady Suffolk beat 2:30. She was raced from 1838 
to 1852. Leonard Lawrence of Smithtown, N. Y., 
bred her. He sold her as a two year old for $32.50 to 
Charles Little. William Blydenburg was her next 
owner. She cost him $62.50. He in turn sold her 
for $112.50 to David Bryant, who developed and 
raced her. 

The next change was made in 1852 when Tacony 
trotted in 2:28 and the following year Flora Temple 
reduced it to 2 :27. She ultimately left the mark at 
2:19% in 1859. From that date to the present the 
world's record was held by Dexter, Goldsmith Maid, 
Occident, Rarus, St. Julien, Jay Eye See, Maud S., 
Nancy Hanks, Alix, The Abbott, Cresceus, Lou Dil- 
lon, Uhlan and Peter Manning. 

While the world's record was being reduced a new 
breed of race horses was established. The average 
rate of racing speed also trailed along behind the 
champions as all of them after Flora Temple made 
their records against time. Racing champions also 
soon became prominent performers. In 1876 Smug- 
gler placed the stallion record at 2:1514 in a race at 
Hartford, while in 1884 Phallas reduced it to 2:13% 
in a fourth heat at Chicago. Maud S. made a race 


record of 2:13^ in her four year old form, while 
Nancy Hanks won in 2:12 as a five year old. None 
won below that point until the bike sulky appeared 
in 1892. After that date the race records dropped 
below 2:10. In 1927 the average rate of extreme 
racing speed hovered between 2:04 and 2:05. 

From the earliest days the blood lines of the trot- 
ters attracted attention. In the forties both Her- 
bert and Porter were familiar with the fact that al- 
most all of the early performers were either Mor- 
gans, descendants of Andrew Jackson, or sons of 
Messenger, while the horsemen of that period also 
considered Abdallah the greatest sire of trotters in 
his day. 

Prior to the sixties all of the old timers were dead 
and the struggle for supremacy began between Ham- 
bletonian, Mambrino Chief, Blue Bull, and the rep- 
resentatives of the Clay and Morgan families. In 
the number of performers Blue Bull led, but when 
the reproduction test came in subsequent genera- 
tions all of them faded in the male line except 

In the early days foreign blood was constantly in- 
troduced through the mating of thoroughbred or 
half-bred mares as well as mares of unknown breed- 
ing, many of the latter in time becoming the tap 
roots of successful families. A list of the latter pre- 
sents the names of Katy Darling, dam of Alexander's 
Abdallah; Dolly Spanker, dam of George Wilkes; 
Shanghai Mary, grandam of Electioneer, and Daisy, 
third dam of Axworthy. This is also one of the 


most remarkable features connected with the history 
of the trotting horse as no one has been able to ac- 
count for the success of stallions with what might be 
termed badly balanced pedigrees or in other words 
pedigrees in which the bulk, if not all, of the trotting 
inheritance came to them from the sire. This ap- 
plies to race horses as well as stock horses. On look- 
ing over the list of champion trotters it will be found 
that the breeding of the dams of all of them with 
the exception of Nancy Hanks, Alix, The Abbott and 
Peter Manning have very little to recommend them 
so far as trotting inheritance is concerned. Also by 
referring to the list of champion stallions it will be 
found that the breeding of the dams of all of them 
from Ethan Allen to Lee Axworthy, with the excep- 
tion of Kremlin, The Harvester and Lee Axw T orthy, 
have not over two crosses of recognized trotting 
blood, while all failed in the stud. 


The first colt stakes for trotters were given by the 
Spirit of the Times and the Turf, Field and Farm. 
These races were open to the world. They were also 
stakes in every sense of the word, all of the money 
paid in and in one instance the gate money going to 
the winners. 

In 1866 Wilkes' Spirit of the Times offered what 
was known as the Spirit of the Times Stake for foals 
of 1865 to be trotted in 1868. Twenty-one subscrip- 
tions at $500 each half forfeit or only $100 if de- 


clared out before January 1, 1868, were received. 
When the list of nominations was published George 
Wilkes received so many requests for a similar event 
to be raced the next year that he sent out blanks for 
another stake open to colts and fillies of 1864 to be 
trotted in 1867 on the same plan as the original race. 
It was called the Long Island Stake. Sixteen sub- 
scriptions were received. The list included Young 
Bruno, Peacemaker, afterwards the sire of Midnight, 
Cavalier, the first foal of Widow Machree by Hamble- 
tonian and that died of glanders in his four year old 
form; Kearsarge, half brother of Dexter and Dic- 
tator, and whose sister Hyacinthe appears in the 
pedigree of The Harvester, as well as the two Hart- 
ford youngsters Granite State by Duke of Welling- 
ton and Naubuc, the brother of Thomas Jefferson 
that after being taken to California sired the dam of 

The race was trotted over the Fashion Course, Oc- 
tober 10, 1867. It was won by Young Bruno; Cava- 
lier, who was very lame, finished second, and Granite 
State third. Ristori by Volunteer and the two Ham- 
bletonian colts Peacemaker and Puritan were dis- 
tanced. The winner was owned by Charles Kerner 
of New York. He was broken by John Mingo, a 
Shinnecock Indian that lived at Flushing, Long 
Island, prepared for the race by Carl Burr and driven 
by Budd Doble. Hiram Howe had the mount behind 
Cavalier and George Carpenter drove Granite State. 
The stake was worth $5,150, of which $500 went to 


When the bell tapped for the first Spirit of the 
Times Stake at Fashion Course, October 7, 1868, it 
was found that of the original twenty-one subscrib- 
ers all but five had fallen by the wayside. One of 
the missing was the Kentucky colt Eden Golddust, 
bred by L. L. Dorsey of Louisville, and that subse- 
quently was taken to Ontario, Canada, where he 
sired the trotter Gold Ring. Of the five that re- 
mained eligible, the owners of the two Hambletonian 
colts decided to keep them in the barn. One of this 
pair appears in the stud book as Virgo Hamble- 
tonian, the sire of Charley Hogan. The other was 
the second son of Widow Machree by Hambletonian, 
that afterwards fell through a bridge over the Hack- 
ensack River and was drowned before his breeder, 
Captain Rynders, considered him worthy of a name. 
As for the race it was over in one heat. George 
Hitchcock won it with Highland Ash in 2:48, R. 
Fletcher's filly by W. H. Denton and Xantheo by 
Volunteer being distanced. He received the entire 
stake, $4,050, as well as the gate money. 

The second renewal of the Spirit of the Times 
Stake was trotted over the Fashion Course, October 
12, 1869. On that day the turbulent Captain Isaiah 
Rynders led back the winner, it being Widow Ma- 
chree's third colt by Hambletonian. Hiram Howe 
had the mount behind him and after he had distanced 
the field the captain named the colt Aberdeen. The 
time was 2:46, the other starters being the filly Ida 
Schepper, driven by Dan Mace, and the favorite, 
Dexter Bradford, a colt that was not foaled until Au- 


gust 4, 1866, and is now referred to as the sire of 
Amelia C. After the race the captain was given the 
entire stake, amounting to $2,250, the subscriptions 
for the event having been reduced from $500 to $250. 
These events are not by any means the first races 
in which colts participated as in 1852 Ethan Allen 
as a three year old trotted in 3:20 at the Clinton 
County Fair, Plattsburgh, N. Y., while Rose of 
Washington, who was also foaled in 1849, won a 
race over Union Course in 2:54, April 27, 1852. Also 
as four year olds Ethan Allen defeated Rose of 
Washington over the Union Course, May 10, 1853, in 
2:36, establishing a world's record for four year olds 
as well as a stallion record which he subsequently 
reduced to 2:2614 in 1859, and which stood as the 
best on record until George M. Patchen trotted in 
2:25 the following year. The three year old events 
referred to above, however, are the first that were 
open to the world and in which the best colt and filly 
of their respective years were given an opportunity 
to race. 


A mistake made by a slave on the plantation of 
General T. J. Wells in Rapides Parish, Louisiana in 
the spring of 1861 started a chain of events which 
resulted in the production of Peter the Great. As 
he was the wonder sire of the century, anything in 
relation to him that is authentic is of interest. 

For years it was known that there was a doubt in 


regard to the breeding of Peter the Great's dam. 
This grew into a well defined rumor when he was sold 
for $50,000. 

The following appears in the American Trotting 
Register: Peter the Great, b h, foaled 1895 by Pilot 
Medium, dam Santos by Grand Sentinel ; second dam 
Shadow by Octoroon (Saddlerville) ; third dam by 
Joe Hooker ; fourth dam by Sam Johnson. 

D. D. Streeter of Kalamazoo, Mich., bred Peter 
the Great. S. A. Browne & Co. of Kalamazoo, Mich., 
bred Santos, his dam. Jonathan Hardin, Nashville, 
Tenn., a man who has never been located, is recorded 
as the breeder of Shadow. 

The trail of Peter the Great's pedigree runs from 
Alexandria, La., to Clarksville, Tenn., Trenton, Ky., 
Nashville, Tenn. and Kalamazoo, Mich. A gray 
mare named Bettie Wilson, said to be by Cumber- 
land, a son of imported Ambassador, is the tap root 
of the family. She was bred by Thomas Wilson of 
Clarksville, Tenn., and was sold by his widow to Nich- 
olas Barker. The latter lived on the Russellville 
Pike, two and one-half miles from the city on the 
Cumberland River. Cumberland was a gray horse. 
He was a good race horse and made several seasons 
near Clarksville from 1857 to 1860. Charles N. 
Merriweather, his owner, gave Cumberland to Gen- 
eral Albert Sidney Johnson in 1861. He and the 
General were both killed in the battle of Shiloh. 

The next in line in the pedigree of Peter the Great 
was started at the Metairie race track, New Orleans, 
in April, 1854. That was the month and year in 


which Lecomte defeated Lexington at four mile 
heats. General Wells owned Lecomte. He also 
started Edith at that meeting. She was by import- 
ed Sovereign out of the Glencoe mare Judith, whose 
dam Fandango was a half sister to Reel, the dam 
of Lecomte. 

After Edith was defeated in two races, General 
Wells bred her to Lexington. She was then shipped 
to Midway, Kentucky, where the Wellswood brood 
mares were kept. The following spring, Edith foaled 
a bay filly. She was then mated with Cracker, a 
son of Boston, and in 1856 dropped a colt. 

Both of these foals, after being weaned, were re- 
turned to the Wellswood Plantation in Louisiana. As 
a three year old the filly was trained until an attack 
of distemper thickened her wind and made her unfit 
for racing. From that date until the war between 
the states cast a cloud over the south, this mare was 
used as a run about horse on the plantation. In the 
interval her half brother by Cracker matured. He 
was named Milton Relf . 

In 1861 when the Confederate government called 
for troops, Scott's Louisiana Cavalry was organized 
at Alexandria. Thomas Montfort Wells, a nephew 
of General Wells, enlisted in Company D, of which 
John R. Williams was Captain. For mounts General 
Wells gave Captain Williams the horse Milton Relf, 
and Montfort Wells his six year old half sister by 
Lexington. The latter was bred that spring to a 
pacing horse named Aikenhead through a mistake 
made by the slave Ike Dixon who had charge of him. 



She was in foal when the troops departed for the 
north, although neither General Wells or her rider 
were aware of it. 

Aikenhead was a black horse which James Aik- 
enhead brought from Lyons, N. Y., to Louisiana. He 
could not trot or run, but paced, and showed a mile 
in 2:29 at that gait over the track at New Orleans, 
hitched to a wagon. Colonel Wells purchased Aiken- 
head to produce combination horse from turned out 
race mares. He thought he would get good saddle 
horses and drivers, which he did. 

Montfort Wells named this mare Lady Bess. When 
she became heavy with foal, the members of the 
company asked him to trade her off. He refused to 
do so, until after the fall of Fort Donalson. It was 
in February and the snow was deep. 

While retreating Company D passed through 
Clarksville and over the Russellville Pike. When it 
arrived at Joe Thomas' blacksmith shop, which was 
located almost opposite the house of Nicholas Bar- 
ker, Wells with others stopped to have their horses 
shod. Lady Bess was then too heavy with foal to 
carry a soldier. Wells traded her to Joe Thomas for 
a gelding which was running in a lot near the black- 
smith shop. 

A few weeks later Lady Bess foaled a black colt. 
For the next year the pair lived on the blue grass in 
the fence corners along the pike. Thomas kept the 
mare to ride under the saddle and finally gave her to 
his son, F. A. Thomas, a resident of Clarksville. The 
colt was purchased by Samuel Johnson, a relative by 


marriage of Nicholas Barker. He was named 
Creole. His owner used him under the saddle. 

In the spring of 1866 when Creole was a four year 
old, Samuel Johnson bred him to the gray mare Bet- 
tie Wilson. She produced a black filly that was 
named Dixie. Her sire was destroyed by fire that 
fall. She was destined to become the third dam of 
Peter the Great. 

Nicholas Barker had a daughter. She was the 
wife of Dr. Greenfield. He made her a present of 
Dixie. In 1869 as a two year old this filly was bred 
to Octoroon Jr. In 1870 she produced another black 
filly, that in time became the grandam of Peter the 

Octoroon Jr. was owned by James Madison. He 
was a neighbor of Barker and Thomas and made a 
business of gambling and racing horses. 

While on a trip to Louisville, Ky., Madison sat in 
a poker game with a man from Lexington, Ky., and 
a few others. Fortune failed to smile on the Lex- 
ington visitor. He lost his bank roll. When it was 
gone he put up a horse named Octoroon. B. F. Gill, 
who was in the room, heard him say that he was a 
champion saddle horse and a clever trotter. Madi- 
son won him. 

The following morning Madison and Gill shipped 
Octoroon to Clarksville. The horse remained in that 
vicinity for a number of years. His career termi- 
nated when he was accidentally shot while running 
out on the farm of Miles Boone. 

Madison used Octoroon as a stock horse and raced 


him at every opportunity. In 1862 or 1863 while at 
Trenton, Ky., he bred him to a brown mare owned by 
Dr. Runyon. She was by Buck Dickerson's pacing 
saddle stallion Joe Brown, a son of Davy Crockett, 
and out of a saddle and running mare named Kate 
which John Lipscomb purchased in Lexington, Ky. 

The Dr. Runyon mare produced a dark chestnut 
colt. Madison purchased him when he was a two 
year old. He named him Octoroon Jr. and raced him 
under the saddle in events for pacers, rackers, trot- 
ters or runners. He was a very fast racker and al- 
ways went at that gait except when running. 

Octoroon Jr. is the horse which Ed Geers saw win 
three races in one day at Nashville. One of them 
was for pacers, one for trotters, and one over the 
hurdles. B. F. Gill also saw him do the same thing 
at Franklin. This horse got Lady Duncan, the gran- 
dam of Peter the Great. 

B. F. Gill purchased Dixie in the fall of 1870 for 
$200. He was offered her Octoroon Jr. filly for $25 
but did not take it. Dr. Greenfield sold her to a man 
named Quarles. He lived in Robertson County. 
Quarles trained her as a two and three year old. 
When she began to show speed as a trotter he and 
Dick Madison took Dixie's filly to Nashville. They 
sold her to William Duncan. He named her Lady 

In 1874 Lady Duncan was trained at Nashville. 
Her speed soon gave her a local reputation. This 
was increased when B. F. Gill arrived with her dam 
Dixie. He bred her to Enfield. When urged to 


show her speed on a trot, Gill drove Dixie a mile in 
three minutes without any preparation other than 
road work. 

William Duncan sold Lady Duncan to S, A. 
Browne. He took her to Michigan and started her 
in a few races in 1875. She proved too high keyed 
in company. Browne bred her to Grand Sentinel and 
got Santos, the dam of Peter the Great. He also 
changed the name of Lady Duncan to Shadow and 
had her registered as being by Octoroon, dam Swal- 
low by Joe Hooker, second dam by Sam Johnson, and 
stated that she was bred by Jonathan Hardin, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

No one has ever been able to locate this gentleman 
or any one who ever knew him. The facts set forth 
in this article changed the pedigree of Peter the 
Great to read as follows : 

Peter the Great, b h, foaled 1895 by Pilot Medium, 
dam Santos by Grand Sentinel; second dam Shadow 
(Lady Duncan) by Octoroon Jr. ; third dam Dixie by 
Creole; fourth dam Bettie Wilson, said to be by 
Cumberland, son of imported Ambassador. Lady 
Duncan, the grandam of Peter the Great, was 
bred by the wife of Dr. Greenfield of Clarksville, 
Tenn., and Dixie, the next dam, was bred by her 
father, Nicholas Barker. 

The blood lines of this remarkable horse presents 
a blending of trotting, pacing, saddle and thorough- 
bred strains. The trotting lines run through Pilot 
Medium and Grand Sentinel. The pacing and saddle 
strains runs through Octoroon Jr. to Octoroon, and 


through Joe Brown to Davy Crockett. The thor- 
oughbred and pacing blood is blended in Creole. 
Aikenhead, his sire, was a natural pacer and raced at 
no other gait, while his dam was the thoroughbred 
mare Lady Bess by Lexington out of Edith by im- 
ported Sovereign. This combination produced Peter 
the Great. 


The first Grand Circuit meeting was held at 
Cleveland in 1873. The idea of a mile track circuit 
was first discussed in 1871 during the inaugural 
meeting of the Cleveland Club. William Edwards, 
Lewis J. Powers and E. A. Buck were the leaders. 
In this group Colonel Edwards represented Cleve- 
land, L. J. Powers, Hampden Park at Springfield, 
Mass., and E. A. Buck, the driving club at Buffalo. 

As three tracks were not enough to go on with, 
the circuit idea was laid over until the following 
year, when the trio met again at Buffalo. On one 
of the days of the meeting in that city C. W. Hutch- 
inson joined them. He was the President of an 
association which had built a mile track at Utica. 
Before they parted plans were made for the forma- 
tion of the Quadrilateral Trotting Combination. 

The first meetings of the organization were held 
at Cleveland, Buffalo, Utica and Springfield in 1873. 
The premiums for the four amounted to $169,300. 
At that time Goldsmith Maid held the trotting rec- 
ord. It was 2:16%. The stallion record for trot- 


ters was 2:21 1 /2- It was held by Jay Gould. Pacers 
were not very numerous at that date, the record 
for his gait being 2:16i/ 2 , by Yankee Sam. In 1928 
these records read as follows: Trotting record, 
Peter Manning, 1:56%; stallion record, trotting, 
Lee Axworthy, 1:58^4; pacing behind a pace maker, 
Dan Patch, 1:5514, and in the open, Directum I, 
1:56%. All of them were made over Grand Circuit 

The stewards of the Quadrilateral Trotting Com- 
bination held their first meeting at Utica in 1874. 
The dates and programmes for the year were an- 
nounced. Before the racing season opened a mile 
track was completed at Rochester. It selected the 
week assigned Utica. Both were injured. 

In 1875 Rochester and Poughkeepsie, where a mile 
track was built in 1874, joined the circuit. Its name 
was changed to the Central Trotting Circuit. There 
was another clash that year. Poughkeepsie took 
the Buffalo dates. 

Hartford was the next recruit. Charter Oak Park 
was opened in 1874. After racing independent for 
two years the Connecticut course became a member 
in 1876. 

In the years which elapsed since the Quadrilateral 
Trotting Combination was organized thirty-seven cit- 
ies have at different times held membership. 

None of the members of the Grand Circuit have 
a perfect score. Cleveland is the nearest. Since 
1873 it has raced over two tracks and skipped one 
year. The blank was scored in 1908, when the 


meeting was declared off. In 1909 a transfer was 
made from Glenville, where Maud S. made her record 
of 2:08% to high wheel sulky in 1885, to North 

With the exception of 1879 Buffalo raced every 
year from 1873 to 1894. After a skip of three years 
racing was resumed at the Buffalo Driving Park. 
Later it was transferred to Kenilworth Park. This 
change marked the passing of C. J. Hamlin. Later 
on, when the New York betting laws were repealed, 
meetings were held at Fort Erie until 1914. 

Utica failed to give meetings in 1880 and 1885. 
It dropped out of the circuit in 1888 after a clash 
with Poughkeepsie. Springfield did not ask for dates 
in 1878, 1879 and finally withdrew in 1893. 

Rochester raced regularly from 1875 to 1896. Its 
most memorable events aside from the record duel 
between Maud S. and St. Julien, were the $10,000 
Flower City Purses, which were won by Jack and 
Star Lilly. The track at Poughkeepsie had a check- 
ered career so far as race meetings were concerned. 
It gave seven between 1875 and 1894. The Hudson 
River Driving Park appeared again in 1905 and re- 
mained in with a few exceptions until the close of 
1922. During that time Jacob Ruppert and Horatio 
N. Bain were the leaders. After their deaths the 
meetings were financed by outside parties, the use 
of the grounds being donated by the Ruppert estate 
until 1922, when the track was closed. 

Meetings were held at Hartford each year from 
1876 to 1925 except in 1893, when its stake events 


were trotted at Fleetwood Park, New York, and in 
1895 and 1896, when the gates were closed. In 1883 
Hartford established the $10,000 Charter Oak 
Purse. Later on T. 0. King developed the futurity 
feature for colt racing, which proved very successful 
at other points. 

Pittsburgh joined the Grand Circuit in 1881. 
Homewood Park was opened that year. The in- 
augural meeting was made memorable by Maud S. 
trotting in 2:10Vk and Bonesetter- dropping dead in 
one of the races. After a run of four years the big 
line stables passed Pittsburgh until 1890. Another 
break followed in 1893, after which Homewood Park 
was closed. From that date there was no more 
Grand Circuit racing at Pittsburgh until 1912, when 
a meeting was given over the Brunot Island track. 
Two others followed, while in 1916 the Grand 
Rapids meeting was transferred to that course. 

Narragansett Park did not join the Quadrilateral 
in 1873 on account of the business reverses which 
overtook Amasa Sprague. Providence did not ask 
for dates until 1883. A meeting was given that 
year as well as in 1884 and 1885. The Rhode Island 
city then dropped out until 1899. From that year 
until 1906 F. E. Perkins made the "Raging Grand" 
a feature in Providence. 

Island Park at Albany was in membership from 
1884 to 1889. Detroit joined in 1886. It withdrew 
the following year, but annually gave an independent 
meeting prior to Cleveland until 1893. In that year 
Hamtramck Park was again added to the list. In 


time it was followed by the Grosse Point course and 
the track on the grounds of the Michigan State 
Fair. This was continued until 1917. There was 
then a skip to 1927. 

New York held its first Grand Circuit meeting 
at Fleetwood Park in 1888. It then dropped out 
until 1893. Another blank was scored in 1898 when 
Fleetwood was dismantled. The Empire City Park 
was opened in 1899. Nine Grand Circuit meetings 
were held over it between that date and 1916. when 
it went over to the gallopers. 

Point Breeze at Philadelphia was a member of 
the circuit from 1890 to 1894. In 1917 Belmont 
Park came in and continued until 1922. Saginaw 
was a member from 1894 to 1896. 

What was known as the "New Grand Circuit'' was 
organized in 1896. Fort Wayne, Columbus and 
Indianapolis were admitted that year. Columbus 
remained until 1925. Fort Wayne was in for three 
years. Indianapolis dropped out. It came back 
again in 1911 and in 1926. 

Glens Falls and Readville were recruited in 1897 
and Portland was given a date for Rigby Park the 
following year. Glens Falls raced three years. It 
sold its dates to Brooklyn, where meetings were held 
over the Brighton Beach track from 1901 to 1904. 
The most conspicuous event decided there was the 
S12,000 special between Cresceus and The Abbott in 
1901. Cresceus won the first heat in 2:0314, the 
world's race record up to that date. The Abbott 
was distanced in the second in 2:06*4, after which 


Cresceus trotted a third heat alone in 2 :05. 

Races were held each year at Readville from 1897 
to 1912. This series was followed in 1918 by the 
Boston Fair, which closed in 1925. The four-cornered 
track at Terre Haute, over which Nancy Hanks 
trotted in 2:04 and Mascot paced in the same notch, 
was a member of the circuit for three years from 
1900. Syracuse joined in 1901. It was the first 
fair admitted to membership. Except from 1902 
to 1905, when its dates clashed with Hartford, Grand 
Circuit meetings have been held annually at the 
New York State Fair. The $10,000 Empire State 
Purse is the feature event. Oakley Park at Cin- 
cinnati was also a new member in 1901. It was 
closed in 1906. 

The Grand Circuit horses made their first visit to 
the southland in 1904, when Billings Park was 
opened at Memphis. After the second trip in 1905 
the crusade against speculation changed that point 
to a winter training camp. 

There was a scramble for members in 1908. 
Kalamazoo and Long Branch, N. J., were admitted. 
The latter fell by the wayside while the Michigan 
city is still in line. 

In 1911, Grand Rapids, the Michigan State Fair 
at Detroit and the "historic track" at Goshen were 
admitted. Columbus withdrew on account of the 
new Detroit member being given one of its Septem- 
ber weeks. This difference was adjusted in 1912 
when the circuit opened at Grand Rapids and closed 
at Columbus, the other points being Kalamazoo, De- 


troit, Cleveland, Fort Erie, Pittsburgh, New York, 
Readville, Hartford, and Syracuse. 

The following year the stewards met at Pitts- 
burgh. Windsor was given a date but did not race. 
This made Cleveland the starting point. Salem, N. 
H., and Lexington, Ky., were added to the list of 
members. The latter had been holding meetings 
annually from 1873, when the Kentucky Trotting 
Horse Breeders' Association was organized. At first 
it raced over the running track but in time acquired 
grounds of its own. 

In 1915, when Fort Erie dropped out, a two-week 
meeting was put on at Montreal. The ship to that 
point was made from Grand Rapids. Atlanta joined 
in 1916 and remained in six years. Toledo made 
its debut in 1918 with a free-for-all pace in which all 
of the heats were below two minutes. 

No change was made in the circuit membership 
from 1918 until 1922, when Dade Park was given 
the Atlanta dates. In 1926, when Hartford and 
Readville dropped out, the Grand Circuit had sev- 
eral open weeks. The same state of affairs fol- 
lowed in 1927 and 1928. 



Light harness racing brought a new figure on the 
turf. The jockey in top boots found a rival in the 
man with the whip. Weight does not bother the 
latter. He spins along on the light vehicles until 
old age calls a halt. 

Budd Doble, who marked the champions Dexter, 
Goldsmith Maid and Nancy Hanks, was in the sulky 
for sixty years. Geers raced over fifty. As a por- 
tion of their active careers lapped, the two of them 
covered the years which elapsed between the advent 
of the first 2:20 trotter and the two-minute per- 

Doble began racing as a boy. Starting as an 
exercise lad for his father, he had his first mounts 
in saddle races. The next step was to the sulky. 
He died in California. 

Geers was a Tennessee product. As a boy, he 
developed a desire to drive. Starting with a pair of 
calves, he found an opportunity to make a trade for 
a horse. The latter improved under his care. It 
found a buyer at a profit. Thomas W. Murphy was 
a farm boy. In fact, there is no medium which has 
brought out so many boys from the farm as the 
light harness horse. The list includes the Gold- 
smith brothers, James and John; Harvey Ernest, 
Orrin Hickok, and scores of others. 

Murphy's first mount was behind a goat. It was 
followed by a milk wagon horse of doubtful sound- 
ness. His next selection was a mare named Blue 


Bird. When she was sold, he purchased the cross- 
firing pacer, Dr. Dewey, which his owner considered 
worthless. He cost $225. In a crude way, Murphy 
made a set of shoes with which this horse went 
clear. This was followed by a sale for $2,500. 

The half-mile track trotter, Nelly Gay, was his 
next selection. She was followed by Hetty G., Susie 
N., Rudy Kipp, R. T. C., Frank Bogash, Jr., Peter 
Volo, Peter Scott, Peter Manning, and scores of 

These horses took Murphy to the mile tracks early 
in life. His reputation was established before Wal- 
ter R. Cox appeared on the larger ovals in 1903 to 
drive at a New York meeting for James Y. Gatcomb. 
Prior to that date, Cox was in the butcher business 
with his father at Manchester, N. H. Racing was 
taken up as a side line. After a few years, he de- 
voted all of his time to it. 

The lure of the half-mile tracks held Cox until he 
joined Gatcomb. He remained. His skill as a 
reinsman and manager secured a list of patrons 
w T hich increased as the years rolled by. For them 
he raced such horses as Margaret Druien, Lady 
Wanetka, Mary Putney, Earl Jr., Frank Dewey, 
Mabel Trask, Lu Princeton, Busy's Lassie, Mc- 
Gregor the Great, Mignola, Ethelinda, Grayworthy, 
Sam Williams, Hazelton and Fireglow. As a sales- 
man he also moved up among the leaders when he 
disposed of Peter Scott for $30,000 and secured large 
amounts for George Gano, Belvasia, Lady Wanetka, 
and Adam. 


Cox, like George Fuller, trains close to nature. 
All of the horses in his stable race with low heads 
and short toes. The manufacturers of complicated 
contrivances to control horses cannot get any 
orders from him. His remedy is to sell the horse. 

Geers, on the other hand, would try anything. 
In 1892, when the bike sulky appeared, Budd Doble 
was shipped the first one set up. He was requested 
to drive Nancy Hanks to it. When he hesitated, 
Geers borrowed the bike and won. A few trainers 
smiled at the crude looking vehicle. When Geers 
won again with an outclassed horse, they woke up. 
In a week, the high wheel sulky disappeared. 

With each decade light harness racing presents 
the names of new groups of drivers. In the early 
days, the admirers of the trotters talked of Hiram 
Woodruff, Dan Pfifer, Whelan, who took Rattler to 
England, and Hoagland. They were followed by 
James Eoff, Budd Doble, Dan Mace, William Trimble 
and D. Tallman. As these men were not so powerful 
physically as those who preceded them, they were 
compelled to drive with a light hand and assist 
nature in balancing a horse, instead of keeping them 
on their gait by taking hold of them when at speed. 

Mace was the pioneer in devising modern appli- 
ances. He made boots, bits and shoes of different 
weights and shapes. The first overdraw check was 
made by Hiram Woodruff. It was used on Stone- 
wall Jackson. 

Up to the seventies, trainers gave but little at- 
tention to balancing a horse with a short foot, square 



or long toe. Nature was supposed to take care of 
that. A pound shoe was considered light. So long 
as a horse went clear, the trainer was satisfied. 

Goldsmith Maid, during the ten years that she 
was raced, never wore less than a pound shoe on 
each foot, except when it was reduced by wear. The 
weight and shape of it depended largely upon the 
idea of the man who shod her. After Doble had 
driven Nancy Hanks in 2:04, he said that if he had 
known as much about shoeing and balancing when 
he had the Maid, he could have marked her in 2:10 
to a high wheel sulky. 

Mace made the first long heeled hind shoes for 
Lady Thorn. He also made the first snaffle bit and 
planned a number of the boots. At Buffalo in 1872 
he made a record that has never been equalled. In 
one week he won three $10,000 purses with Sleepy 
John, Kilburn Jim, and Judge Fullerton, and fin- 
ished second to Lucy in a fourth with American 

John Splan and W. H. McCarthy graduated from 
the Mace stable. The former proved one of the 
most brilliant reinsmen of his day. He was fortu- 
nate in getting Rarus early in life and made a 
world's record of 2: 13 y± with him at Buffalo. Other 
successful performers followed, the best being 
Wedgewood, the pacer Johnston, Newcastle and 

With Splan, life was one long holiday. McCarthy 
was a plodder. Mace picked the latter up at El- 
mira, N. Y., where he saw him riding running 


horses. "Knapsack/' as he was called, remained 
with him over a dozen years. His first outside 
venture was with H. V. Bemis, for whom he raced 
Little Brown Jug, Bonesetter, the latter dropping 
dead with "Knap" in the sulky, and Belle F. Later 
on he raced Zoe B., Felix, and Geneva S., before 
being employed by D. D. Withers to train his gal- 
lopers. McCarthy did not find the new work con- 
genial. When he returned to the trotters, he raced 
Norman B., Derby Boy,* Dan Cupid, and Frank Agan. 
In 1917 he also prepared June Red for a trip to the 
races the following year. Death cancelled his plans, 
and Geers won with her. 

In the seventies, Doble, Marvin, and Hickok were 
the leaders. Smuggler was Marvin's first great 
performer. He was a converted pacer which he 
developed in Kansas. Heavy shoes and patience 
made him a champion. Marvin's success with 
Smuggler led up to his life w T ork at Palo Alto, the 
farm which Senator Leland Stanford established in 
California. At this place he developed the Elec- 
tioneer trotters, which at different times held all of 
the world's records. The stars of the collection were 
Arion, who made a two-year-old record of 2:10% to 
a high wheel sulky; Sunol, 2:08 1 / 4, and Palo Alto, 
2:08%, to the same style of vehicle. 

Marvin was the first master trainer. He substi- 
tuted the brush system for repeats. His success 
prompted others to adopt it. Hickok, a martinet of 
the old school, profited by his association with him. 
Through it, late in life he added to the reputation 


made with Lucy, St. Julien, and Santa Claus by 
bringing out Arab, Hulda, and Thorne. 

Of the old-time drivers none had a career that 
could be indexed with Bob Kneebs. He was born 
in England. When he landed in the United States, 
his name was Hill. It was changed between New 
York and Wisconsin, where he lived for a few years 
before moving to Sioux City, Iowa. At that time 
it was near the frontier. Might was right. The 
man who drew first won. 

When Kneebs stopped on the banks of the 
Missouri River, he was short of funds. He wanted 
a race horse but could not find an owner who would 
purchase one. At that time, there was a house boat 
on the river. It was used as a club by a few who 
wooed fortune across the green table. One morning 
the owner of the boat was found drowned in the 
river. His bank roll was missing. No one ever 
knew what became of it. As the dead man had 
no relatives, no one cared. A few weeks later 
Kneebs purchased the trotter, Dakota Maid, for 
$800. She started him on a stormy turf career, 
which ultimately landed him in a German prison for 
ringing Bethel on the European tracks. 

John Turner paralleled the careers of Hickok and 
Doble. He was born in Ireland. He earned his 
first dollar in America taking care of horses at the 
Philadelphia road houses. Saving every penny, 
Turner soon had sufficient capital to buy the trotter, 
May Queen. She proved a winner and was sold 
for $11,000. May Queen was followed by Hannis, 


Edwin Thorne, whose series of races with Clingstone 
was never duplicated until St. Frisco and Mabel 
Trask appeared, Spofford, and Rosalind Wilkes. 
After spanning the seventies, Turner lapped over 
into the next decade, when he raced with Bair, John 
and James Goldsmith, Bither, Van Ness, Fuller, 
Davis, John Murphy, Alta McDonald, Feek, McDow- 
ell, and Andrews. 

Bair made his reputation by developing Maud S., 
2:08%. The Goldsmith brothers started their 
careers with the horses bred on their father's farm 
near Washingtonville, N. Y. Their list of winners 
included Driver, Alley, Powers, Sister, Unolala, 
Bateman, Walnut and Domestic. When the Walnut 
Grove Farm horses were sold after the death of 
Alden Goldsmith, James became a public trainer and 
made good with Atlantic, Star Lilly, Gean Smith, 
Mambrino Maid, Simmocolon, and started Pamlico 
on his career before he passed into the shadow. In 
the interval John went to California with Monroe 
Salisbury, for whom he raced Director before tak- 
ing up the Guy Wilkes family of trotters at San 
Mateo Farm. 

Van Ness made his first trip in fast company with 
St. James. He was followed by Albemarle and 
Harry Wilkes, one of the best racing trotters that 
ever wore a shoe. Bither started the 2:10 list with 
Jay Eye See, and made Phallas and Kremlin cham- 
pion stallions. Alta McDonald, after a busy career, 
found Sweet Marie and Major Delmar, when near 
the horizon. Feek paraded the eastern tracks with 


Lysander Boy and the tall trotter, Great Eastern, 
before he developed Lady Whitefoot and Kitefoot. 

McDowell started in life as a jockey. As his 
weight increased, he took up driving. Fuller was 
his first fast mount. His route led him to Texas. 
Drifting from there to California, he raced on the 
Pacific coast for several seasons before Marcus Daly 
sent him east from Montana with Prodigal and Yolo 
Maid. Later on he returned with Azote and Alix, 
when they were in Monroe Salisbury's stable. 

Jack Curry drove Alix in her greatest races, but 
McDowell made her a champion. Curry also had 
the mounts behind Joe Patchen when the black 
horse became a turf idol on account of his remark- 
able showing in races with Star Pointer, John R. 
Gentry, Frank Agan, and Robert J. 

Geers drove Star Pointer in his races before Dave 
McClary started the two-minute list with him at 
Readville, Mass., where he paced in 1:59% in 1897. 
Geers also made Robert J. a champion after C. J. 
Hamlin sold Hal Pointer, while Andrews came within 
half a second of driving John R. Gentry in two 

With the exception of Budd Doble, Andrews is 
the only trainer that started at the top of the lad- 
der and remained there. When C. J. Hamlin and 
Horace Brown parted, the Village Farm horses were 
turned over to him. He won with Prince Regent, 
Nightingale and Mocking Bird. They were followed 
by Mascot, John R. Gentry, Bouncer, Tiverton, 
Hamburg Belle, Tenara, Soprano and Lee Axworthy. 


The above are only a few of the drivers of yester- 
day. Those who recall Guy and Lou Dillon, the first 
two-minute trotter, know that both of them were 
trained by Millard Sanders, while Crit Davis made 
his name a fixture with Phil Thompson, Harrietta, 
and Prince Wilkes. George Fuller met the latter 
with Patron before he went to Russia to teach the 
reinsmen of that country to drive races. They were 
followed by Myron McHenry and W. 0. Foote, the 
tall Texan who made his presence felt by the races 
which he won with Rilma and John Nolan. 

New England has always sent a strong delegation 
of drivers to the races. The old guard was led by 
Golden, Bowen, Trout and Shillinglaw. They al- 
ways had horses with plenty of speed and good 
manners but none of them succeeded in uncovering 
a trotter that could compare with Nelson. He was 
foaled in Maine and developed by the man whose 
name he carried into the 2:10 list. 

While Nelson was attracting attention in the east, 
C. W. Williams, an Iowa telegraph operator, pur- 
chased two brood mares at a weeding out sale and 
shipped them to Kentucky. He bred them and got 
Axtell and Allerton. Both became champions, the 
honor coming to Axtell as a three-year-old. Wil- 
liams sold him for $105,000. He refused a larger 
amount for Allerton. 

Almost all of the changes in the equipment of 
trotters and pacers were made either by or on the 
suggestions of drivers. The Oregon trainer, Tom 
Raymond, brought out the bit which bears his name. 


He used it on Klamath, and McClary found that it 
improved Star Pointer. The Hutton check came 
from Kansas. When it got into litigation, it was 
found that Alta McDonald's father had used the 
feature before the man who put it on the market 
was born. The two-minute harness also met the 
same fate, the first set having been made for a mule. 

Pages could be written about toe weights and 
what has been done with them to improve the gait 
of horses. The idea originated with a French Ca- 
nadian. He appeared at Buffalo in the early days 
with a trotter which was balanced by fastening a 
leather pouch, filled with shot, to each of its front 
feet. Others experimented with toe weighed shoes 
until some one made brass weights, which were 
fastened to the hoof with screws or a spur on the 

Hopples is another appliance used freely to keep 
pacers from breaking. The first pair were made 
for C. E. Shepard of Marchfield, Vt., in 1885, to make 
a pacer trot. They are still owned by James Bout- 
well of Montpelier, Vt. They also did the work so 
effectively that the same harness maker put out 
several pairs for pacers. It was not long before 
they came into general use. 

Without the hopples, the public would never have 
heard of Frank Bogash Jr., the first gelding to beat 
two minutes in a race; Roan Hal, an ex-rural route 
delivery horse; Judge Ormonde; as well as the gal- 
lant grays, Earl Jr. and The Eel. 



When the stockholders of the American Trotting 
Register Association at its annual meeting in 1927 
authorized its new President, E. Roland Harriman, 
to transfer the headquarters from Chicago to 
Goshen, N. Y., they took the first step towards locat- 
ing the Trotting Register in the state in which it 
was started. It was founded by John H. Wallace, 
who began working on horse pedigrees while located 
at Muscatine, Iowa. 

When connected with the Iowa State Board of 
Agriculture, John H. Wallace found that all Amer- 
ican breeds of improved stock had registers in which 
pedigrees were recorded except the race horse. 
With them the information in regard to their an- 
cestors was passed from one owner to the other, 
while it was frequently changed or lost. 

Notwithstanding his early interest in the light 
harness horse and especially the Morgans, John H. 
Wallace's first pedigree work was done in connec- 
tion with the thoroughbred horse. In 1867 he 
published the first volume of the American Stud 
Book and inserted in the back of it eighty-eight 
pages of pedigrees of trotters which he investigated 
in connection with his other work. This addition 
was referred to as a Trotting Supplement. 

Wallace continued his work on a second volume 
of the American Stud Book, but cast it aside when 
he found that the demand for his first volume did 
not come from the owners or breeders of thorough- 



bred horses but from those who were making an 
effort to breed fast trotters. 

This information started John H. Wallace on his 
life work. With but little outside help he gathered 
together the material for the first volume of the 
American Trotting Register. It was published in 
1871. The second volume appeared in 1874 and the 
third in 1879. By this time it became apparent to 
Wallace that he was only recording pedigrees, many 
of which traced to other breeds, while still others 
ran into the bushes and were labeled unknown. He 
also found that many breeders kept adding lines 
which could not be verified. The most of these were 
alleged to trace to thoroughbred horses. 

This started a demand to restrict the trotting 
register to strains which raced at that gait. It re- 
sulted in establishing a set of rules which defined 
a standard bred horse. 

After considerable discussion the Kentucky 
breeders drafted a set of rules, one of which was 
given me by Lucas Brodhead, the manager of Wood- 
burn Farm. It was dated prior to the publication of 
the Standard, adopted by the American Association 
of Trotting Horse Breeders, which nominally con- 
trolled the Trotting Register, although it was owned 
by John H. Wallace. The standard adopted by both 
was based on performances of 2:30 or better. In 
other words, steps were taken to establish a breed 
of trotting horses based on performance. 

When the standard rules were adopted, Wallace 
in 1882 published the fourth volume of the Trotting 


Register under it. The stallions were assigned 
numbers, Abdallah. the sire of Hambletonian, being 
assigned number one, while Rysdyk's horse was 
given number ten. 

Wallace hewed to the line when he took up the 
work under the Standard. When he picked up a 
pedigree that could not be verified beyond one or 
two crosses he cut off the balance. This started 
many a battle, the most of the contests being in 
Kentucky, where a large number of the pedigrees 
rested on a thoroughbred foundation. 

When owners protested, Wallace demanded proof. 
Unless it was backed up with the best of evidence 
he refused to insert any of the disputed pedigrees 
in the Trotting Register. 

Finally a few of the leading Kentucky breeders 
decided to establish a Trotting Register of their 
own. They issued their standard rules and em- 
ployed J. H. Sanders to compile and publish what 
was known as the Breeders' Stud Book. 

This looked like a severe blow to John H. Wallace. 
At the time he was not very strong financially, while 
in addition to the Trotting Register he was publish- 
ing Wallace's Monthly, which was not as yet on a 
paying basis. Wallace also had some doubts as to 
whether the copyright on his book would protect 
him as there was nothing to prevent Sanders from 
going to the same sources for information for the 
breeding of the horses. 

In self defense Wallace decided to lay a few traps 
to snare his rival. When publishing the pedigree of 


Frank Pierce 3rd, he supplied him with a grandam 
by Tom Titmouse, pacer. Also when he issued the 
fifth volume he inserted three bogus pedigrees. 
They were not, however, required to catch the 

With a paste pot and shears Sanders compiled the 
Breeders' Stud Book. He used the Wallace publi- 
cation for copy and among other things reproduced 
the Tom Titmouse pacer cross in the pedigree of 
Frank Pierce 3rd. 

When the Breeders' Stud Book was published 
Wallace assailed the men back of the publication as 
pirates and branded their book the Tom Titmouse 
Register. All of the Kentucky breeders ran out 
in disgust. Sanders was paid off and used the 
money to found the Breeders' Gazette in Chicago. 

Wallace once more was master of the field. His 
publications increased in value and influence. In 
1885 he established the Year Book and carried on 
until 1891, when at a meeting in New York a num- 
ber of the leading breeders of light harness horses 
decided to control the Trotting Register or have one 
of their own. An adjournment was made to Chi- 
cago, where after a two-day session the properties 
of the Wallace Publishing Company were purchased 
from John H. Wallace for $130,000. The transaction 
was consummated by J. C. Sibley and accepted by 
the convention. 

Wallace retired. He devoted the balance of his 
days to travel and preparing the material for the 
Horse of America. 


The Wallace publications were taken over by the 
American Trotting Register Association. It con- 
tinued the trotting standard and also established 
one for pacers. The headquarters were located in 
Chicago, J. H. Steiner being elected Secretary and 
Registrar. He knew nothing about the work. On 
the suggestion of William B. Fasig he employed 
Frank E. Best to take up the detail end of it. 

From that time until February, 1927, Best re- 
mained at the wheel. J. H. Steiner was succeeded 
by W. H. Knight. Knight conceived the idea that 
he should employ and discharge all of the help, but 
died within a few weeks after he was given the au- 
thority. While going through Knight's papers Best 
saw what had been done, so he diverted the earnings 
of himself and wife from paying for the old home 
farm in Pennsylvania to purchasing stock in the 
American Trotting Register Association. 

After the death of William Russell Allen no one 
paid much attention to the affairs of the Register 
Association except Best and his wife. It stopped 
paying dividends and as the expenses of the Direc- 
tors for attending annual meetings were not paid, 
only three or four of them put in an appearance. 
Finally in 1924 it became generally known that Best 
had control of the stock of the Association. 

The Monthly was discontinued in 1894 and the 
Year Book, which was losing money on account of 
the light demand for it, was stopped in 1924. 

By this time Best had located his office in a little 
store on the northern edge of Chicago. He cut the 


running expenses so that the registration fees and 
interest on the reserve fund, which was laid aside 
when William Russell Allen was President, paid the 

At a time when the dissemination of information 
in connection with the pedigrees of the trotters and 
pacers had almost stopped, E. Roland Harriman 
told me that he would purchase the property. Of 
the 960 shares of stock issued, I purchased 450 for 
him from Frank E. Best for $30,000. Also when 
checking up the list of stockholders it was found 
that his father had owned two shares and that they 
stood in the name of his mother as Administrator. 

This transfer put new life into the organization. 
Volume 23 of the American Trotting Register was 
published and the Year Book revived. The future 
of the association is assured, with headquarters m 
Orange County, the cradle of the trotter. 


"There she is," remarked Walter Cox, as he 
stepped in front of a box stall, in the canary colored 
barn near the entrance to the Granite State Park at 
Dover, N. H., one spring morning in 1918. At the 
sound of his voice, the occupant of the stall walked 
toward the half door, over which she stuck her 
chestnut head with a couple of splashes of white in 
the face and whinnied softly for sugar. As none 
was forthcoming she took a glance down the line 
at Young Todd, Frisco Worthy, Busy's Lassie and 


Lu Princeton, and turned away, while the reinsman 
whose skill had made her name a household word 
took up the thread of the conversation and said: 
"In my opinion and from what I can learn, she Is 
the greatest race mare that ever wore a harness. " 

Later in the day in response to an inquiry as to 
how he selected Mabel Trask from the hundreds of 
horses offered him every year, Cox said: "I owned 
her two or three weeks before I saw her and I have 
always thought that someone wished her on to me, 
because none of the western people that had seen 
her trained and raced considered her worth bother- 
ing with. 

"I never heard of Mabel Trask until one morning 
in April, 1915, when I received a long night letter 
from Ed Allen of Marion, Iowa. He must have been 
saving up all winter to pay for that message, the 
substance of which was that there were two four- 
year-old fillies by Peter the Great out in the corn 
country that were for sale. He piled the bouquets 
on Jeanette Speed and wanted me to believe that 
she could win all the purses in the Grand Circuit, 
while her mate was a little, side reining, spitfire 
with a three-year-old record of 2:1414, made over a 
mile track. Now what do you think of that with 
two-year-olds going in 2:04, while I had to take the 
two or lose Jeanette? For all of this information, 
with the two fillies thrown in, Allen only wanted 
$3,500 and in order to keep him from sending any 
more messages, I sent him the money. 

"James Hogan, who had trained the fillies and 


filled Allen full to the lid with Jeanette Speed, was 
moving east to Rochester, N. Y., so he and Allen 
packed the two fillies into a freight car with Hogan's 
household goods and kissed them good-bye. From 
Rochester to Dover the pair put on a few airs, and 
some more expense, by riding in an express car. 

"When they arrived all of the big events for the 
year had closed, except at Columbus and Lexington. 
Like all of my horses, I started Mabel Trask off with 
a loose check rein and did not even put the bit in 
her mouth. I also soon found that she was as full 
of whims as a school girl. She would stop when- 
ever she felt so disposed, and would only turn one 
way on the track, and sometimes she would not even 
do that. She quit side reining, which I think was 
caused by being checked high, but it took some time 
to have her go where and when I wanted her. 

"Frequently when I was jogging her on the sand 
roads outside the park, she would hear someone 
chopping in the bush or a squirrel rustling in the 
leaves, and stop for four or five minutes. Then like 
a flash she would rush off at a ten gait. One day 
I decided to try what a stroke of the whip would do. 
I made the application but for the next five minutes 
I was so busy dodging her heels and keeping her 
from jumping the fence, that I never tried it again. 
Between times I also found that she had more speed 
for a brush, than any horse I ever sat behind, but 
in order to use it I had to get control and have her 
respond when I touched the button. 

"In the interval I also wrote Barton Pardee, who 


had requested me to find him a couple of trotters, 
and told him what Ed Allen had wished on me. At 
the same time I also told him that he could have 
the pair at cost. Mr. Pardee bought them just as 
I did, without seeing them, but before he did I wrote 
him that one of them was a wonderful trotter. I 
suppose it sounded like the same old story, as he 
suggested that I enter the good one in a couple of 
small purses at Cleveland, while I also named her 
in the $10,000 race at Columbus. 

"Mr. Pardee joined the stable at Cleveland about 
a week before the meeting. As soon as he arrived 
I advised him to hold Mabel Trask over. I also 
showed him a mile in 2:10, but that did not impress 
him very much. However, he decided to declare 
her out and when he did Mabel Trask was started 
on a slow preparation for 1916. When we arrived 
at Hartford, Mr. Pardee said he was going home. 
I asked him to remain over for another day, and 
told him to get out to Charter Oak Park bright and 
early with his watch. He was there, and after tim- 
ing Mary Putney a half in 1 :01, he saw Mabel Trask 
trot a mile well within herself in 2:04 1 / 4. That 
made him smile. I think it was the first time that 
summer. Later in the day, when someone offered 
$25,000 for her, he shook his head and walked away. 
After this mile I also decided to start her at Colum- 
bus. With but two weeks to get her ready, she 
trotted second to Peter Scott, while her manners 
were perfect. 

"After that race buyers were thicker than bees on 


a berry bush in June and one of them finally offered 
$35,000. You can better believe that I coaxed Mr. 
Pardee to sell. Finally one morning when he had 
grown weary listening to me talk, Mr. Pardee said 
that he would sell Mabel Trask but that I was not 
to bother him again until I was offered his price. 
When I asked him what it was, he said $250,000. 
It took me about three days to get my breath back. 
However, the mare was not sold, and I am glad she 
was not, even at that figure, which was twice the 
amount paid for Arion, and more money than was 
ever asked for any horse in the history of the world. 

'The public knows the balance of the story. In 
the past two years Mabel Trask was started in 
twenty-five races, of which she won eighteen, was 
second in six, and third in one. She has now a 
record of 2:021/4 and at Poughkeepsie I timed her 
myself in a second heat on the outside of St. Frisco 
in 2:01%. In twenty of her races Mabel Trask has 
met St. Frisco and with him she put up the best 
series of races that were ever recorded. He defeated 
her seven times while Mabel trimmed him in thir- 
teen events. I do not know how many records she 
has reduced but I know that in 1916 and 1917 she 
earned enough to pay all the expenses of Barton 
Pardee's horses and left a balance of over $47,000. 

"As a race mare Mabel Trask can carry her flight 
of speed farther than any horse I ever saw. She 
can also keep coming back heat after heat, the last 
half of each mile being a shade better than a minute 
if necessary. She knows the system of racing to a 


dot and resents any changes. I had a sample of 
this at Poughkeepsie last August. Before the last 
heat of the special with St. Frisco, H. N. Bain, who 
died a few days ago, requested Geers and myself to 
bring the two horses to the Judges' Stand and have 
them photographed. They trotted the mile in 
2:01%, and when I pulled up the mare wanted to 
walk out of the draw gait. At first she refused to 
go back and when I did get her as far as the Judges' 
Stand she kept twisting and turning until I thought 
she would wreck her sulky. Finally I succeeded in 
attracting her attention and she stood for a few 

"One day at Lexington, I asked a western man, 
who had seen Mabel Trask race as a three-year-old, 
why he or some other person did not buy her when 
she was peddled around for $1,200, and he said it 
was not a question of that price, but whether she 
was worth $120. Still all the change I made with 
her was to let her head down and allow her to go 
as nature intended. Of course I never allowed any- 
one to speak a cross word to her, and I also straight- 
ened the inside of her front shoes so that they would 
not scratch her knee boots as they cost money. 

"In the making of Mabel Trask her groom must 
also be counted in. Billy King's care and ability to 
keep her contented played as important a part on 
race day, as the driving. One morning at Kala- 
mazoo, after a hard ship from Detroit, a few of us 
were sitting near Mabel Trask's stall. It was hot 
and the big flies were biting. Billy King, as usual, 


was there whisking the flies off Mabel Trask's head 
and neck. As she seemed tired, I suggested that he 
let down the fly netting and see if she would not lay 
down. Billy said: 'If that is what you want, I 
will show you something/ Going into the stall he 
spread a couple of blankets on the straw and made 
a bed for himself. Kicking off his shoes he rolled 
over and called the mare to him. For a minute or 
two she nosed him all over, giving him a couple of 
bunts in the ribs just like a pet lamb. As Billy did 
not move, Mabel decided that he was asleep, so after 
taking a turn or two around the stall like a big dog 
she flopped down on the straw and lay there for 
three or four hours. That is the kind of care that 
keeps a horse fit." 


In 1875 the National Trotting Association sent a 
questionnaire to its members, asking for informa- 
tion in regard to the equipment and history of their 
courses. The answers made interesting reading. 

In the early seventies there were almost as many 
mile as half-mile tracks. Now the former are in the 
minority; the bike sulky, increased value of land 
near large cities, together with the cost of main- 
tenance, being the principal causes. 

Fifty years ago Prospect Park was one of the 
popular tracks in the vicinity of New York. It was 
located at Gravesend and the report stated that a 
railroad was expected in 1875. This park was 


opened in 1868. At that time Fort Hamilton was 
the nearest telegraph station. Fleetwood Park was 
opened at Morrisania in 1870. It was owned by 
W. H. Morris. Darius Tallman, who drove George 
M. Patchen to his record, was the superintendent. 

The Northern Ohio Fair grounds made its first 
bid for public patronage in 1870. It was located at 
Glenville, five miles from Cleveland. Today the city 
runs for miles beyond it while children romp on the 
streets located where Smuggler defeated Goldsmith 
Maid in 1876 and Maud S. made her record in 1885. 
Clevelanders go to North Randall to see the races. 

The mile track at Utica was opened in 1872. It 
was one of the original members of the Quadrilat- 
eral Trotting Combination, which in time became 
the Grand Circuit. It was organized in 1873. The 
other members were Cleveland, Buffalo and Spring- 
field. In 1889 Utica dropped out. The grounds be- 
came the site of a Masonic home. 

Bangor, Maine, had a mile track that was opened 
in 1855. It was owned by Abraham Woodard. 
Rochester, N. Y., reported with one in 1874. It 
joined the Grand Circuit and gave meetings until 
1896. Homes now cover the site of the course where 
Jack and Star Lilly won the Flower City Stakes and 
France's Alexander the $10,000 stallion race in 1881. 

A mile track with 100 box stalls was opened at 
East Saginaw in 1873. It remained active to the 
days of Azote and Direct. In 1866 Dexter Park 
made its bow at Chicago. It was owned by the 
Union Stock Yards Company. 


Charter Oak Park dates from 1874. It started 
with eighty box stalls. Ebenezer Roberts was one 
of the first Presidents of the Hartford Course. The 
Philadelphia people began going to Point Breeze 
Park in 1865. Girard Point was the nearest rail- 
road and telegraph station. A. Lowden Snowden 
was its President before he went abroad as a Min- 
ister to Greece. 

The Canadians built a mile track at Hamilton, 
Ontario, in 1864. It was located on Main Street, 
one and a half miles from the city. Cambridge 
City, Indiana, had one from 1869, and Columbus, 
Ohio, one from 1863. The latter was controlled by 
the Franklin County Agricultural Society and dis- 
appeared before the Columbus Driving Park was 
opened. The latter closed in 1925. 

Passengers on the Boston & Maine railroad be- 
tween Springfield and Holyoke can still see a rem- 
nant of Hampden Park on the bank of the 
Connecticut River. Henry Ward Beecher opened it 
with an oration in 1857. General Knox won a race 
over it in 1864. 

The Terre Haute Trotting Association made its 
bow in 1866. Axtell, Nancy Hanks an$ Mascot 
made their records there. A half-mile track now 
occupies part of the grounds. San Jose, Cal., swung 
into line in 1869 and Los Angeles in 1871. In 1875 
B. G. Bruce wrote from Lexington, Ky., that "the 
Kentucky Trotting Horse Breeders' Association 
owns no park but are using the grounds of the 
Kentucky Association located about a mile east of 


the city." He also added "This will be the third 
year of the association." 

Hamtramck Park was the race ground at Detroit 
in the seventies. It was opened in 1860 and was 
succeeded in 1892 by Grosse Point. Hendryx won 
the first $10,000 M. & M. Purse over Hamtramck 
Park and Jack defeated Palo Alto there. 

There was once a mile track at Woonsocket, R. I. 
It was opened in 1849. Mystic Park was opened in 
1866. Whoever answered for Beacon Park said that 
he did not know when it was completed. Both Bea- 
con and Mystic have passed on. Readville is also 

The Agricultural Park at Sacramento, where the 
California State Fairs are held, dates from 1859. 
At that time it had three-quarters of a mile of 
stabling and a grand stand that would seat 6,000 
spectators. Occident equalled the world's record 
over it in 1873. He trotted in 2:16%. Stockton 
built a mile track in 1861. Later on it had a kite 
over which Palo Alto, Sunol, Arion and Stamboul 
made their records. 

The Hudson River Driving Park was opened in 
1874. Morgan L. Mott was its first President. 
Marysville, Cal., opened a mile track in 1867, and 
Cynthiana, Ky., in 1871. The latter was built by 
W. H. Wilson. His name is stamped on the trotting 
horse industry of Kentucky. Wilson started a boom 
when he took George Wilkes to the Blue Grass 

The Morely Trotting Park was opened at West- 


field, Mass., in 1863. It was a rival of Hampden 
Park at Springfield but failed to make much head- 
way. Pottstown, Pa., started with a mile track in 
1875, and Reno, Nev., in 1874. The State fair Was 
held there until transferred to Carson. 

The answers to the questionnaire shows that many 
of the half-mile tracks which were being operated 
in the seventies are still active. Lancaster, Pa., 
started in 1869, and Kingston, N. Y., in 1866. In 
1859 Hamilton Park was opened at New Haven, 
Conn., while the heirs of Fred Pompilly owned the 
Owego Driving Park at Owego, N. Y., in 1871. The 
Albany Avenue track in Hartford, Conn., was opened 
in 1855, and Oakland Park at Gardiner, Maine, in 
1873. Riverside Park at Ottawa, 111., was running 
in 1872. Deerfoot Park at Parkville, Long Island, 
was opened the same year by Joseph Hall. John 
H. Shults made it part of Parkville Farm. 

H. W. T. Mali, the President of the American 
Association of Trotting Horse Breeders that was 
snuffed out at Chicago in 1891, was the President 
of the Lee Trotting Park at Lee, Mass., in 1872. In 
1875 George H. Swift reported that the Smith Driv- 
ing Park at Cuba, N. Y., was built in 1867. 

The Valley City Driving Park at Grand Rapids, 
Mich., dated from 1865. Harrisburg, Pa., had a 
track in 1859. It was three or four miles from the 
city. In 1875 A. B. Post, President of the Associa- 
tion at Goshen, N. Y., reported that he did not know 
when the "historic track" was opened. It was there 
in the early fifties. Patrick Davie built a half-mile 


track at the west end of Queen Street in Toronto, 
Ontario, in 1868. Aurora, 111., started with the 
Northern Illinois Fair in 1869. The Worcester, 
Mass., track dated from 1850. In 1875 it was de- 
scribed as being located on Agricultural Street in 
the west part of the city. 

A trotting track was built at Corning, N. Y., in 
1858, and at Plattsburg in 1857. The latter was 
known as Cumberland Park. It was leased to the 
Clinton County Agricultural Society. 

In 1853 the Scott County Agricultural Society of 
Davenport, Iowa, built a track at Duck Station on 
the Davenport & St. Paul Railroad. Toledo, Ohio, 
got into line in 1855 with the Toledo Driving Park. 
This was the course on which in 1877 Goldsmith 
Maid made her last appearance. Rarus also reduced 
the half-mile track record to 2:16 over it in 1878. 
It stood until 1887, when Jay Eye See trotted in 
2:15V2 at Lincoln, Neb. 

The track at Newark, N. Y., was opened in 1869, 
and at Oneonta in 1873. The Montgomery County 
Fair Grounds at Dayton, Ohio, dates from 1874. 
Keene, N. H., built a track in 1875. Wyoma Park 
was built at Lynn, Mass., in 1853, and Norwalk, 
Conn., opened a Driving Park in 1856. Rutland, 
Vt., completed its plant in 1860, and Brattleboro in 
1866. The Geauga County Fair at Burton, Ohio, 
dates from 1860, and Kenosha, Wis., from 1870. 

The Agricultural Park at Northampton, Mass., 
was built in 1872, and Rhinebeck, N. Y., in 1870. 
Fred Cotting was the President of the latter. Fitch- 


burg, Mass., had a new track in 1860, and Ellenville, 
N. Y., in 1857. The Erie County Fair started at 
Sandusky, Ohio, in 1865, and Catskill, N. Y., in 
1866. Cocheco Park preceded Granite State Park 
at Dover, N. H. In 1875 it was owned by a lady. 

The trotters made their first appearance at Fox- 
croft, Maine, in 1866, and at Beaver, Pa., in 1853. 
Singleton Park at Quincy, 111., was opened in 1867. 
It was on this course that Sleepy Tom made the 
half-mile track record of 2:16 for pacers to high 
wheels when he defeated Rowdy Boy, Mattie Hunter 
and Lucy, September 12, 1879. 

Rockville, Md., the home of the Montgomery 
County Fair, began racing in 1855, and Waterloo, 
N. Y., in 1857. Waverly Park at Newark, N. J., 
was opened in 1867. It was the home of the New 
Jersey State Fair. Today it is known as Weequahic 

The Waldo County Agricultural Society began 
giving race meetings at Belfast, Maine, in 1860, and 
Manchester, N. H., in 1866. It was over the latter 
that Walter Cox started his career as a driver. Wat- 
kins, N. Y., dates from 1861, and Brockton, Mass., 
from 1874. 



Geers took the word for the last time at Wheeling, 
West Virginia, on September 3, 1924. The curfew 
rang for him on the trip to the three-quarter pole. 
A stumbling horse, a flight through the air and a 
thud on the track closed the career of America's 
most famous reinsman. In his last conscious mo- 
ments the hoof beats of the trotters throbbed in his 
ears. Geers died as he lived, surrounded by con- 
tending horses, snapping whips and cries of the 
drivers who saw the accident. 

The silent man from Tennessee, a tab which Wil- 
liam B. Fasig tacked on to him years ago, faded 
from the picture. The black cap and jacket with 
the significant number one on the shoulder was 
dusted and laid away for the last time. Its owner 
passed down the narrow path between life and the 
great hereafter. For seventy-three years and 
seven months Geers passed the barrier. Finally at 
Wheeling he found the gap and fell through with a 
suddenness that was appalling. In the twinkling 
of an eye he crossed the bar. With a flash Geers met 
"Twilight and evening star 
And after that the dark." 

For over half a century Edward Franklin Geers 
made his presence felt in the light harness racing 
world. As the years rolled by his name became a 
household word and a symbol that stood for honor 
and integrity on the turf. With his help he was 
stubborn and at times overbearing to such a degree 


that almost all of them were afraid of him. With 
Geers an employee was expected to obey like the 
horses he trained. For the world outside "Pop" 
Geers had a smile and a kind word for everyone 
from the leaders in every path of life who frequent 
race tracks to the dirty-faced boy that crawled under 
the fence on race day. 

Two generations of drivers passed in review dur- 
ing Geers' span of life. To the first, in which he 
found his friend and tutor, George Fuller, Turner, 
Hickok, Splan, McCarthy, Golden, Trout, Bowen, the 
two Goldsmiths and Marvin, all of which have 
answered the last bell, he was "Ed." To the next 
generation he was "Mr. Geers." Such men as Mur- 
phy, Cox, White, the Fleming family in all of the 
corners of North America, Ray, Palin, Pitman, Cro- 
zier, Valentine, Stokes, Dickerson, Caton, Rodney, 
Brusie, Nuckols, McKay, McDonald, Egan, Edman, 
Garrison, Leese, Childs, McMahon, Erskine, Snow,. 
Martin, Loomis, Hyde, and scores of others looked 
up to him as a master whose long experience and 
skill made it an easy matter for him to diagnose 
the difficulties which all trainers meet in following 
their profession. 

The rank and file who fill the grandstand and 
quarter stretch on race day remember "Marse" 
Geers as the quiet, limping individual who had met 
with many accidents in desperately contested heats 
but survived, coming back without fear or nervous- 
ness to do battle with younger men who had yet to* 
be jarred by a smash up or death when the wheels. 


were rubbing and the horses battled shoulder to 
shoulder within the dust screen on the track. With 
this also goes the pleasant memory expressed so 
well by Walter Palmer in the lines 

'Temptation knocked unheeded at your door, 
And passed on to fields that promised more." 

No finer tribute could be paid to a man. Geers' 
uncorruptible honesty stood like a beacon between 
him and the world and the public loved him for it. 

Edward F. Geers was born on a farm near Leb- 
anon, Tennessee, in 1851 and was always a resident 
of that state, except during a period of about ten 
years when he was in the employ of the Hamlins at 
Buffalo, N. Y. In his day he saw the pacers come 
to their own in light harness racing, while he also 
did more, than any other driver, to make them pop- 
ular. With the exception of Little Brown Jug and 
Storm he either developed or raced the best of the 
Hals and proved conclusively, over all kinds of 
tracks, that they were the gamest and most consist- 
ent bred of race horses that ever looked through a 
bridle. While doing this the trump of fame carried 
his name over the land while his skill as a trainer 
and reinsman made him the dean of his profession. 

Ed Geers drove his first race in 1871 for a Ten- 
nessee preacher. During the first twenty-five years 
of his career he developed and shipped from the 
sunny south land a formidable array of pacing horses 
whose breeding was unknown to northern folks 
until he made their blood lines familiar by topping 
the race summaries with Mattie Hunter, Joe Braden, 


Brown Hal, Hal Pointer, his formidable half brother 
Star Pointer, the first horse to beat two minutes in 
harness, Frank Dortch and the powerful Hal Dillard. 
They were followed by the flying squad of winners 
from the Village Farm and when that establishment 
disappeared, others took their places from his train- 
ing quarters at Memphis. 

As a lad Ed Geers developed and sold a few horses 
near his home town before he made a trip to Nash- 
ville in 1873, where he met George Fuller and made 
arrangements to work for him the following year. 
During the 1874 campaign Fuller took in a few 
Grand Circuit meetings and what Geers saw there 
convinced him that there was considerable to the 
racing business. In 1875 he hung out his shingle as 
a trainer at Nashville. He soon attracted the atten- 
tion of Major Campbell Brown who had a large farm 
near Spring Hill. Major Brown decided to send him 
a few horses and in order to be near his new patron, 
Geers located at Columbia and made it his head- 
quarters for the next twelve years. 

The Almont filly Alice West was one of the first 
horses trained by Geers at Columbia. In 1877 her 
young trainer made his first trip north, winning with 
her at Cincinnati where she defeated Keene Jim and 
Kentucky Wilkes and at Fleetwood Park, New York, 
where she finished in front of Hogarth and Sir Wal- 
ter whose son Sir Walter, Jr., afterwards sired the 
dam of Uhlan. The following week Alice West ap- 
peared at Hartford and was defeated by Hogarth 
after a six-heat contest that was spread over two 


days. The first heat of this race was won by Dore 
with Galatea, and when doing it she reduced the 
world's record for four-year-olds to 2 :25%. On the 
next trip Hogarth was marked for life at 2:26. Alice 
West then won a heat in 2:29*4 after which Hogarth 
showed in front again and Geers secured the fifth 
heat with the Almont filly. The race was then post- 
poned. After a night's rest Hogarth was able to 
win in 2:26^. 

In 1878 Geers brought out Mattie Hunter. Her 
first races were paced over the sandy southern tracks 
that fall. After she had defeated Sleepy George a 
few times he was convinced that she would do for 
the first flight in the Grand Circuit, which in 1879 
opened its first series of races for pacers. The free- 
for-all was the class selected. That did not stop 
Geers, but a sale to R. C. Pate placed Mattie Hunter 
in another stable. In a short time this handsome 
mare became with Rowdy Boy, Blind Tom and Lucy, 
the fourth member of the "big four" and that Mat- 
tie Hunter was as fast and game as any of them was 
shown at Chicago where she was only beaten a neck 
by Blind Tom when he reduced the world's record 
to 2:121/4. 

The sale of Mattie Hunter put Geers out of the 
spotlight and while he came north almost every 
year with a few horses, he failed to locate another 
top liner until 1889 when he arrived at Cleveland 
with Brown Hal and Hal Pointer. He won with both 
of them. Brown Hal pulled up lame and was retired 
while Hal Pointer started on a career which was 


continued successfully for six seasons, and during 
which he proved one of the greatest race horses that 
ever lived. In 1889 he won all of his races but one, 
his single defeat being over a heavy track at Roches- 
ter. The following year Hickok came over the 
mountains with Adonis and failed to defeat him, one 
heat at Cleveland being all that he could secure. In 
1891 California tried again with Yolo Maid but she 
could not even win a heat, but Direct, another prod- 
uct of the golden state, caught Hal Pointer in Ten- 
nessee late in the season and defeated him not only 
at Nashville but also at his home town, Columbia. 
All of the colored folk were broke that night. 

In 1891 after Harry Hamlin purchased Hal Point- 
er, a number of the Village Farm horses were placed 
in Geers' stable, the list including Belle Hamlin, 
Globe and Justina with which he made the triple 
team record of 2:14 to a wagon as well as that ster- 
ling race mare Nightingale, Moonstone and Glenden- 
nis. C. J. Hamlin was so well pleased with Geers' 
methods that in 1892 he made a contract with him to 
locate at Buffalo. It was the best investment Mr. 
Hamlin ever made in the horse business. 

With Geers in charge the Village Farm stable 
shipped east early in 1892. Among other places 
it appeared at Fleetwood Park, New York, where 
Glendennis was started in a slow pacing race, one 
of his competitors being a little knee sprung gelding 
called Robert J. that did not appear to have enough 
strength to ramble around a race track. After a 
couple of heats the little gelding had Glendennis 


down and out and while he was gasping for breath 
Geers told his owner to step over and purchase 
Robert J. The transfer was made and through it 
Geers secured a horse that combined all the ele- 
ments of extreme speed, gameness, endurance and 
gentleness, second to no horse that ever lived. For 
several seasons he appeared at all of the leading 
meetings, defeating every horse that ever started 
against him, and retired a champion with a record 
of 2:01i/ 2 . 

While at the Village Farm, Geers bred his Tom 
Hal mare Bessie Hal to Direct, the old rival 
of Hal Pointer and developed her foal which under 
the name of Direct Hal made a sweep through the 
Grand Circuit and retired from the turf unbeaten. 
He also made a sweep from Detroit to Lexington 
with The Abbe, his brother The Abbott, before he 
drove him to the world's record of 2:03 1 / 4, and won 
scores of races with Nightingale, Fantasy, Bright 
Regent, The Monk, Heir at Law, Lady of the Manor, 
Lord Derby and a host of others. 

After returning to Tennessee Geers continued the 
winning habit with such speed marvels as Walter 
Direct, Anvil, Dudie Archdale, the beautiful Ardelle, 
The Harvester which he took an unbroken colt and 
retired a champion, Etawah, Napoleon Direct the 
first horse he drove below two minutes, Billy Buch, 
Peter June and St. Frisco. 

Geers got what he aimed at during the winter and 
spring months as is shown by his uniform success 
in trotting turf fixtures. At Detroit he won the 


Chamber of Commerce and the M. & M. five times. 
At Hartford he won the Charter Oak Purse with 
Nightingale, Billy Buch, The Harvester and St. 
Frisco. At Lexington Geers was always fortunate. 
The summaries show that he won five of the Walnut 
Hall Cups, The Transylvania twice and the Kentucky 
Futurity with The Harvester and Etawah. 

Geers did not make a spectacular figure in the 
sulky. Wearing a black cap and jacket he sat rather 
low, leaning forward. As a rule all of his horses 
were good mannered and raced from behind. A shift 
of the bit or a light tap of the whip appeared to be 
all of the encouragement given to any of them in a 
close finish but like good ball players they looked 
for the signal and gave him all that they had with- 
out being punished. The mutual understanding which 
existed between Geers and his horses w r as one of the 
mysteries of the turf and made him in reality the 
Silent Man from Tennessee. 

C. J. Hamlin and Geers had many a battle the 
first year or two that they were together. Both of 
them were very positive men. Both had ideas of 
their own in the matter of balancing and rigging a 
trotter or pacer. In the end Geers won. When Mr. 
Hamlin ordered a change Geers let the horse remain 
idle or told Mr. Hamlin to try him himself. Finally 
the Buffalo magnate surrendered, satisfied that 
Geers was a master. In time he became one of his 

One year the Village Farm had a horse that was 
highly tried but proved a dud. Geers kept on with 


him, however. Finally one day at Detroit the horse 
showed that he was up to form. Geers told Mr. 
Hamlin. He suggested that Geers go an easy race 
and that they could make a winning at Cleveland 
the following week. Geers listened to his employer 
with great deference but said: "Mr. Hamlin, do not 
ask me to do that." He went on and won. Later 
C. J. Hamlin told of it. 

Geers differed in his profession from almost any 
other man who follows it. At all times up to the 
close of his career he was eager to learn from the 
other fellow. It did not make any difference who 
made a suggestion; if it looked good to him he 
tried it. 

In 1892 Sterling Elliott made the first bike sulky. 
He sent it after a few trials to Budd Doble and 
asked him to try it with Nancy Hanks. A meeting 
was in progress at Detroit when the cumbersome 
looking vehicle arrived. Doble hesitated. Geers 
came along and borrowed it. Honest George was 
worked a mile to the bike. Geers saw that he could 
step three or four seconds faster to it than he could 
to the high wheels. Ed said nothing but on race 
day borrowed the bike again. He won on a jog. 
After he repeated at Cleveland the following week 
the high wheel sulky disappeared over night. 

During his last three seasons Geers was seen in 
specials and a few races, in one of which he was 
killed. In 1922 and 1923 he did well with Sanardo 
and reduced his record to 1:59 V^ at Indianapolis. 
When he went lame Mrs. W. B. Dickerman loaned 


him Nedda. He made new half-mile track records 
with her at Malone, N. Y., and Lancaster, Pa. In 
1924 he reduced the half-mile track record for trot- 
ters to 2:021/9 with Peter Manning. 

Geers' imperturbable temper made him an ideal 
race driver. He never was excited but ever on the 
alert to take advantage of an opening. He knew all 
of the tricks of the trade and it took a wary driver 
to outgeneral him in the handling of a horse in a 
race. Geers was the first to let his rivals make the 
pace and break the wind for him. He got the idea 
from riding a bicycle. The electrical rushes of Hal 
Pointer and Robert J. were planned for them by 
their driver after he had given them all the protec- 
tion possible during the first three quarters of the 
heat or w T ell into the last quarter if the field was not 
very large. He could not adopt this plan with St. 
Frisco as he was a horse with which he had to work 
his passage. It kept him from putting his record 
nearer tw T o minutes than it stood when he died. 

Geers rarely made a free use of the whip. When 
he did he got results. One day at Cleveland he gave 
Hal Pointer a sharp blow. The gallant gelding re- 
sented and ran two miles before he could be stopped. 
Geers never struck him again. A swish through the 
air was all he required from that time as a signal 
to go on. 

As a trainer Geers was a hard taskmaster. A 
horse that would stand his training would race any- 
where and any number of heats. Like others he 
knocked out a few but when he found a gem the old 


master always got results. 

Geers won with all kinds. His sole aim was vic- 
tory. The lure of the betting ring and the tempta- 
tions which go with it never reached Ed Geers. In 
its place he had almost a boyish delight for a fast 
contest with a chance of winning from a favorite. 
When he was in a race the tempter passed by on the 
other side. After the lapse of over half a century 
America's most beloved driver of the light harness 
horse passed to his reward with a reputation as an 
honest man. 

"Green grows the turf above you 
My friend of better days, 

None saw you but to love you, 
None knew you but to praise." 


Early in the last century, when most of the hard 
surfaced roads of today were bridle paths in a 
wilderness and travel under the best conditions was 
difficult and dangerous, Louis Frasnoise came from 
New Orleans to Lexington and purchased four hun- 
dred acres of primeval forest land on the George- 
town Pike for a summer home. A large brick man- 
sion was built on the property, which in time was 
called Walnut Hall, from the native wood that was 
used in decorating the interior. 

This estate was not disturbed during the dark 
days which preceded and followed the war between 
the states. From time to time the title deeds were 



changed until in the eighties L. V. Harkness pur- 
chased it. He was a resident of Ohio and came to 
Kentucky with the intention of establishing a stock 
farm where light harness horses, cattle and sheep 
oould be bred. 

As stock was produced or purchased the Harkness 
holdings expanded until in 1927 when a great grand- 
son of the founder was in the home house, there were 
five thousand acres within its fences. In the inter- 
val horses bred and foaled at Walnut Hall carried 
the name of this great turf reservoir to every state 
in the Union, the Dominion of Canada, and almost 
all of the countries in Europe. 

Many of the pastures at Walnut Hall were never 
plowed. The virgin forest aside from the growth 
is the same today as when Boone and his followers 
came over the mountains to explore the back lands 
of Virginia. 

Many of the old stock farms in Kentucky were 
fading from the picture w T hen Walnut Hall Farm was 
started. Fairlawn, the home of Almont, Aberdeen 
and Happy Medium, was rapidly becoming a mem- 
ory, while since that time Woodburn, Ashland, Ash 
Grove, Highland and other places ceased sending 
crops of colts carrying the blood of George Wilkes 
and other horses to the market. 

After a time Walnut Hall Farm selected a few 
leaves from their books of experience and strength- 
ened its brood mare families with their best repre- 
sentatives to be mated with Moko and Walnut Hall. 
In this way the place became a nursery of futurity 


winners. The Moko filly Fereno was the first to 
show. She won both divisions of the blue ribbon of 
the turf, in 1899 and 1900. She was followed by 
Walnut Hall and Native Belle, the first two year old 
trotter to beat 2:10. Walnut Hall was foaled on the 
place and on account of his showing as a colt car- 
ried the name of his birthplace into the race 

After Ozanam won the Transylvania and Walnut 
Hall trotted his memorable race with Billy Buch in 
the $10,000 Charter Oak Purse at Hartford, the 
racing department was discontinued and every effort 
given to produce yearlings for the market. Almost 
all of the older brood mares were sold and lines 
noted for speed production substituted. New faces 
also appeared in the stud barn. Manrico was added 
after he won the Kentucky Futurity in 1912 and 
San Francisco at a time when he showed that he 
was one of the stoutest race horses in training. 
Later on Guy Axworthy was selected. While lo- 
cated at Walnut Hall this horse rose from a com- 
parative reject to the top of the ladder, with 
representatives in the two-minute list as well as a 
group of futurity winners that compare favorably 
with the get of any horse that ever lived. 

John H. Shults bred Guy Axworthy. He was 
got by combining the blood lines of the brothers, 
Guy Wilkes and William L., through Lillian Wilkes 
and Axworthy, son of Axtell. These brothers were 
got by George Wilkes out of a daughter of Mam- 
brino Patchen. Back of this was a cross to Seely's 


American Star, whose daughters came to the aid 
of Hambletonian in founding a family which won 
its way to public favor with such horses as Dexter, 
Nettie, Jay Gould and Aberdeen. 

The Clara line proved the most brilliant thread 
in this fabric. It contributed Dexter, the first horse 
to trot in 2:17*4; Jay Eye See, the first 2:10 trot- 
ter; while at Walnut Hall it was continued with 
The Harvester, 2:01, a champion, and was later 
represented on the turf by the brothers, Guy 
Reaper and High Noon. 

While the Axtell line was making its way into 
the racing columns through Axworthy and his sons, 
Guy Axworthy, General Watts and Dillon Axwor- 
thy, the greatest outcross of all time was trans- 
ferred to Kentucky from Massachusetts. The new 
arrival bore the name of Peter the Great. This 
horse was not a stranger in Kentucky as he won the 
Kentucky Futurity in 1898 and in 1903 he was rep- 
resented in that event by Sadie Mac. 

Six or seven years were checked off the calendar 
before the public showed much interest in Peter 
the Great and his get. Opportunity opened the 
gate after Peter Thompson, Peter Volo and Volga 
carried everything before them in the Futurities, 
while other representatives of the family had their 
names placed on the pay sheets wherever racing 
was conducted. 

The impression made by the get of Peter the Great 
convinced the public that there was a new star on 


the horizon and that in time it would dominate the 
racing world just as the Wilkes and Electioneers 
which had preceded him. Walnut Hall Farm met 
this move by selecting Peter Volo, Chestnut Peter, 
and McGregor the Great for its stud. The first of 
the McGregor foals was dropped in 1925. Chestnut 
Peter had a reputation as a sire when purchased 
at the Beaumont Farm dispersal. The fate of Peter 
Volo hung in the balance until Peter Maltby, Holly- 
rood Susan and Tippie Volo showed the world that 
the greatest sire and the greatest brood mare in 
trotting turf history had passed on the qualities 
which made them conspicuous. 

As a sire of voluminous racing speed Peter the 
Great never had a rival. As a dam of sterling 
racing material no mare that has ever appeared con- 
tributed such a group as Peter Volo, Volga and The 
Great Volo. Volga never lost a race. Peter Volo 
was the one, two, three and four-year-old champion. 
He lost but one race. It was a match with the 
champion, Lee Axworthy, which was foaled at Wal- 
nut Hall Farm. The Great Volo proved one of the 
stoutest and fastest race horses when the honors 
were disputed by such giants as Peter the Brewer, 
Czar Worthy, and Lee Worthy. 

This, however, would have been of no value if 
Peter Volo had, like Smuggler, Fearnaught, Maxey 
Cobb, Phallas, and many other champions, failed in 
the stud. Over sixty of the get of Peter Volo 
won races in 1927. This showing convinced the 
public that the head of the family was the most valu- 


able horse standing at the mid station of his career. 

The time is coming when Guy Axworthy will pass 
on. As a sire his fame is still increasing as is 
shown by the fact that for four consecutive years 
his get won the Kentucky Futurity. His four aces 
were Mr. McElwyn, Aileen Guy, Guy McKinney, 
the winner of the first Hambletonian Stake, and 
Iosola's Worthy, the winner of the second, while 
scattered in the winning column those who seek 
can find such names as Guy Richard, Guy Ozark, 
Guy Trogan, Arion Guy, Truax, David Guy and 

San Francisco, after acquiring the reputation as 
a sire of stout race horses with such performers as 
Lu Princeton, St. Frisco, Jeanette Rankin, Chilcoot, 
Sanardo, Fayette National and Mary Putney, to 
keep his memory green again broke into the futurity 
column in 1927 with the two-year-old champion, 
Fire Glow. 

In December, 1926, Fire Glow was shipped with 
the balance of the farm flock to New York. He was 
marked as a prospect but none of his admirers 
dreamed that he would trot in 2:04. In the matter 
of inheritance Fire Glow carries back of the San 
Francisco cross lines tracing to Axworthy, Prodigal, 
Baron Wilkes and George Wilkes, to the mare which 
produced Lady Stout, the first three-year-old that 
trotted in 2:30. 

The most valuable asset at Walnut Hall Farm is 
the brood mare families which have been strength- 
ened either by purchase or selection from the home 


product. For a number of years the Silk family 
was in the ascendant. At present its representa- 
tives are blended with the extreme speed lines from 
Nancy Lee, the dam of Nancy Hanks, Expressive, 
the best of the Electioneer mares ; Clara, which has 
been referred to, Rachel to whom Fire Glow and Full 
Worthy trace; Rapidan, one of the ancestors of 
Emma Harvester, Adioo Guy and Dillon Axworthy; 
Mamie, the taproot of the Hamburg Place family, 
to which Arion Guy, Dorothy Day, Guesswork and 
Royal Palm belong, and Ethelwyn, whose descend- 
ants include Ecstatic, Ecstacy and Ethel's Pride. 

In other fields there can also be seen descendants 
of Bicara, from which Walnut Hall Farm bred Guy 
Trogan, Sanardo and Tenara; Gaiety Girl, dam of 
Lee Axworthy, 1:58^; Expectation, which in addi- 
tion to producing the two-minute performer, Major 
Delmar, includes among her descendants The Real 
Lady, a champion. 

Nervolo Belle, in addition to having a son in the 
stallion barn, has in The Great Miss Morris, a daugh- 
ter among the brood mares. Near her under the 
oak trees, visitors frequently see Tilly Brooke, 1:59, 
the only trotter that ever raced into the two-minute 
list, and her sister, Alice Brooke, Nedda, 1:58^4, 
Miss Harris M., liBS 1 /^, as well as Mary Tipton, the 
dam of Trumpet, Tippie Frisco, Bugle Call and Dex- 
ter E. and Worthy Spirit, the dam of Fireglow. 

To the visitor this remarkable collection of speed 
producing matrons is a revelation. It also shows 
why the proprietors of other farms come to this 


great reservoir of speed to replenish their holdings. 
At Calumet Farm Guy Axworthy is represented by 
Truax. Arion Guy, another son, stands at Castle- 
ton, while Hollyrood Harkaway has been retained by 
Mr. Dodge for his establishment. He is by Peter 
Volo, out of Hollyrood Polly, one of the most noted 
mares in the stud book. 

A number of years ago Siliko, son of Moko, stood 
at Hamburg Place. He got Periscope, a futurity 
winner. The Harvester, another Walnut Hall futur- 
ity winner, was for years at the head of Forest 
Park Farm at Terre Haute, Indiana. Guy Trogan 
has a place in the Arden Homestead stud at Goshen, 
New York, which is within a few miles of Chester, 
where Hambletonian started the breed. 

With each passing year Walnut Hall Farm has 
increased its reputation as a mother plant of the 
breed which L. V. Harkness started to improve in 
the eighties. If continued for four more decades 
with the same care and foresight that has been used 
in the past, it cannot fail to become the mecca to 
which the followers of light harness racing will be 
compelled to come for advanced breeding lines and 


On October 1, 1920, when the bronze statue of 
a typical Morgan horse was unveiled at the United 
States Morgan Horse Farm near Middlebury, Vt., 
those who were present saw a spirited representa- 


tion of what a dealer would term a twelve hundred 
pound horse on short legs. The sculptor, Frederick 
G. R. Roth, produced a type for the management 
of the farm to breed up to. In his work he blended 
the airy poise of the Black Hawks with the sub- 
stance and power which made the Woodbury and 
Bulrush members of the family famous on the stage 
coaches before the railroads penetrated the remote 
corners of New England. 

Over one hundred years have elapsed since Justin 
Morgan died on a farm near Chelsea, Vt. In that 
century the Morgan horse climbed the ladder of 
fame, reigned supreme for a time in the show ring 
and on the trotting tracks, and then began to fade. 
The Denmarks and larger breeds took their place 
under the saddle, the Hackneys and mixed trotting 
breeds followed them in heavy harness, while the 
speed developed by the Hambletonian strains side- 
tracked them on the turf. 

TKe late Joseph Battell of Middlebury, Vt., saw 
the cloud coming. HeWned Daniel Lambert when 
he died and had General Gates, a brother of Lord 
Clinton, 2:08%, in the stud. Having faith in the 
Morgan as a utility horse, he met it by establishing 
the Morgan Register. Later on when he began to 
close up his affairs, Joseph Battell presented his 
farm to the government and transferred the stock 
on it for $10,000. 

Later, a group of admirers of the family organ- 
ized the Morgan Horse Club. It presented the 
statue to the government and controlled the Mor- 


gan Register. 

As soon as the government began breeding op- 
erations, a difference of opinion arose as to the 
proper size of the Morgan horse. Selections were 
made from the inbred descendants of Ethan Allen, 
the majority of them being nearer 14 hands than 
15, and weighing between 800 and 950 pounds. 

General Gates remained at the head of the stud. 
He was under 15 hands, had a bad temper, some- 
thing very unusual among Morgan horses, and bred 
small. His foals were stylish and had solid colors, 
the most of them being black like their sire. They 
were not, however, large enough for cavalry or 
farm work. 

H. R. C. Watson, who for a number of years bred 
Morgans at Brandon, Vt., was a strong advocate of 
the larger type. He was satisfied that the stages 
in the early days were not horsed by fourteen hand 
ponies. In 1911 he decided to make a canvass of 
Vermont and learn from the oldest horsemen what 
he could about the size of the old Morgan horses. 
Statements were received from men who bred or 
owned horses that were got by the sons of Sher- 
man Morgan, Bulrush Morgan, and Woodbury Mor- 
gan, the three sons of Justin Morgan which made 
the reputation of the family. 

Sherman Morgan sired Vermont Black Hawk, 
Billy Root, Whalebone and Flint Morgan. The 
Woodbury line was continued by Morgan Caesar, 
Chittenden County Morgan and Gifford Morgan. 
The Bulrush strain was continued through the Ran- 


dolph Horse, Jennison Colt and Morrill to Young 
Morrill, the sire of Fearnaught and Winthrop Mor- 

At St. Albans, Erasmus D. Fuller was located. 
He was born in 1834 and his father in 1797. The 
latter in the early thirties started the first livery 
business in St. Albans. Erasmus grew up with it. 
They used up to seventy-two Morgan horses a year 
on their stages and in the livery and sold from sev- 
enty-five to one hundred each season. All of these 
horses were from 15*4 to 15% hands, blocky built, 
and weighed from 1,050 to 1,100 pounds. They 
were prompt, cheerful drivers, good roadsters and 
could make ten miles an hour. They were largely 
of the Woodbury and Morrill strains. They were 
not as trim or handsome as the Black Hawks but 
were stronger and heavier. 

At Shoreham, W. W. Moore was found. He was 
born in 1826. He said: "The first Morgan horse 
I remember was Hale's Green Mountain Morgan. He 
would weigh 1,100 pounds and stood over 15 hands. 
This horse was very stylish under the saddle. I 
remember Black Hawk. He was a beautiful horse 
with a rapid gait. He stood 15 hands and weighed 
1,000 pounds. He founded a distinct family. 

"At the first state fair held at Middlebury there 
was a spirited controversy over the difference be- 
tween the Black Hawks and the Morgans. At that 
fair there were thirty black stallions in the show 
ring. All of them were by Black Hawk. I have 
never seen a family that could equal it in style, 


beauty and road endurance. The Black Hawk 
horses ran close to 15 hands. I had some under 
and some over, a few being 15% hands." 

S. D. Wells, who was born in 1825, said: "I was 
a blacksmith at Bridport in 1844 when Black 
Hawk was brought to the town. He was a noble 
looking horse and fast on a trot for those days. 
His colts averaged from 950 to 1,100 pounds, while 
one named Addison stood 16 hands. He weighed 
over 1,200 pounds and sold for $5,000." 

Elmer Barnum, who was born in 1834 at Shore- 
ham, said: "Black Hawk was the first Morgan 
horse I ever saw. He started a new race of horses. 
They won all the prizes at the fairs. I remember 
Green Mountain Morgan. He was a chestnut horse 
with a style entirely different from Black Hawk. 
The pair met in the ring at Rutland in 1852 and 
Black Hawk won." 

Melzar B. Walker of Whiting, Vt., was born in 
1832. He said: "General Gates was the nearest 
picture to Black Hawk. He was 15 hands high and 
his get ran from 15 to 15V2 hands. The Morrills 
were larger, stronger and faster than the Black 
Hawks. They ran from 1,000 to 1,200 pounds. Old 
Morrill was the finest looking Morgan stallion that 
ever stood. He was 15% hands and weighed 1,200 
pounds. The Lamberts, as a family, were like the 
Morgans. They were lighter horses and had more 
style than the Giffords or Morrills, but they were 
not as strong. 

Charles H. Williamson was born in Middlebury, 



Vt., in 1841. He said: "Black Hawk was an inch 
taller than General Gates. He was stocky made 
and with a beautiful head and small ears. He was 
a good knee actor and a square trotter. My father 
had constantly from sixteen to twenty Black Hawk 
horses in his livery stable. You could never drive 
one of them so far in one day but what you could 
get him back the next." 

Mr. Watson submitted this evidence. The man- 
agement of the Morgan Horse Farm also conformed 
with his views as to larger stallions and larger mares. 

When the Morgan statue was unveiled, the stal- 
lions, Troubadour of Willowmoore, Scotland and Ben- 
nington, were standing in front of it. Troubadour 
was a western product and inbred to Black Hawk 
through Jubilee de Jarnette. He was a solid bay 
with black points, over 15*4 hands. 

There was very little resemblance between Trou- 
badour and the typical Morgan in bronze. He had 
a long back, a neck like a shire horse and one front 
foot that toed out. In addition to this there was on 
each of his four feet a two-pound shoe. 

Any horse that had to carry that much iron to 
improve his action could not prove a sire of good- 
gaited foals and especially the stamp that is sup- 
posed to go with a Morgan. The breeders of trotting 
horses tried that with Smuggler and failed. 

Scotland was a chestnut horse with white trim- 
mings. He proved a good sire although a few of 
his foals paced. Bennington was a brown horse 
with a white splash in his face. 



In 1923, when Zev went over the top as the larg- 
est money-winning horse of all time, he took the 
honors from an American champion which held the 
laurels in North America for over forty years. 

When Zev passed Man O'War, who stood at the 
top of the American gallopers with $249,465 to his 
credit, the next objective was the English horse, 
Isinglass. He won $291,275. In the interval Zev 
also passed another American champion that won 
$264,537.50 while on the turf and that never started 
in an event in which the value to the winner ex- 
ceeded $5,000. 

A few weeks before he left Nashville, Tenn., on 
what proved his last trip to New York, Rensselaer 
Weston sent me a card on which the following was 
written : 

The American Champion 
Raced from 1865 to 1877 

Started in 123 races of which she won 

97, was second in 16, third in 7, fourth 

in 1, and unplaced in 2. 

Made 26 time record exhibitions. 

Trotted 367 heats in races and 61 

against time, total 428. 

Trotted 332 heats in 2:30 and 61 in 


Won $264,573.50 in races and exhi- 

Reduced world's record from 2:17^ 


to 2:14. 

Was world's champion from 1871 to 


Goldsmith Maid. 
This remarkable mare trotted her first race 
over the "historic track" at Goshen, N. Y., Sept. 
7, 1865. On that date she won a $100 purse from 
Uncle Sam and Mountain Boy in 2:36. She made 
her last appearance at Toledo, Ohio, Sept. 27, 1877, 
when in a trial against time she trotted three heats 
in 2:231/2, 2:23i/ 2 and 2:22 over a half-mile track. 
A few days later Charles Cochrane, who had charge 
of Goldsmith Maid during the last six years that 
she was on the turf, loaded her in a car for the last 
trip to Fashion Farm, Trenton, N. J. She died there 
September 23, 1885. 

Nowhere in the annals of the turf can there be 
found a horse which made such a remarkable cam- 
paign as Goldsmith Maid. She was foaled at Deck- 
ertown, N. J., in 1857. Nothing was done with her 
until she was six years old except to run a few races 
on the home farm. John Decker, her breeder, sold 
her for $260. Her purchaser sold the future cham- 
pion the same day for $360 to a man named 
Tomkins. The next transfer was made to Alden 
Goldsmith for $600. The Jersey mare learned to 
trot while owned by him and was sold in 1869 when 
she had a record of 2:19^2 to Budd Doble and B. 
Jackman for $20,000. They sold Goldsmith Maid 
to Henry N. Smith for $37,000. She died his prop- 



Goldsmith Maid began racing when she was eight 
years old. That season she won in 2:36. At nine 
she reduced her record to 2:32 and made General 
Butler trot in 2:23^ to defeat her at Copake, N. Y. 
The spring that Goldsmith Maid was ten years old 
she met Dexter in a $3,000 race at Mfddletown, N. 
Y., and was beaten in 2:28. Dexter was driven by 
Budd Doble. This was the year in which he made 
his record of 2:17*4 at Buffalo. 

Dexter was purchased by Robert Bonner that 
year. The horse was turned over to him in Sep- 
tember. The following month Doble took Gold- 
smith Maid and remained in charge of her until she 
was retired. 

Doble won his first race with the Maid at Provi- 
dence in October, 1867. He defeated the May Day 
mare, May Queen, and a few others in 2:28^4. From 
that date Goldsmith Maid gradually became one of 
the leaders. In 1868, when eleven years old, this 
new trotting marvel reduced her record to 2:22!/2- 
At twelve it was cut to 2:191/2 after a severe cam- 
paign in which she was defeated in six races by 
Lady Thorne and five by American Girl. 

George Wilkes, Hotspur, George Palmer, Amer- 
ican Girl, Lucy and Mountain Boy were her rivals 
in 1870 when she lost another race to Lady Thorne 
and was also defeated by Honest Allen in a race 
with running mate. Goldsmith Maid was not re- 
quired to beat 2:20 in any of her races that year. 
In 1871, when fourteen, the little mare acquired her 
first championship laurels at Milwaukee, Wis., when 


she defeated Lucy in 2:17. Dexter was no longer 
champion. She was unbeaten that year. 

In 1872 another change was made in the record 
when W. H. Doble, the father of Budd, drove the 
new queen a mile in 2:16% at Mystic Park at Bos- 
ton. She won all of her engagements in 1872 except 
two, one of them being in a $10,000 purse at Buffalo, 
where Lucy defeated her, and American Girl in 

2:18i/ 2 . 

The next change in this remarkable mare's rec- 
ord was recorded in 1874. At that time she was 
seventeen years old. In July she defeated Judge 
Fullerton at Saginaw, Mich., in 2:16 1 /2- At Buffalo 
in August in a trip against the watch she cut the 
figure to 2:15V2, while at Rochester the following 
week Doble won with her from Judge Fullerton and 
American Girl in 2:14%. The climax was reached 
at Mystic Park, Boston, in September, when she 
trotted in 2:14. 

In 1875, when eighteen years old, Goldsmith Maid 
won all of her races but one. She also trotted Char- 
ter Oak Park at Hartford in 2:14!/2- The climax 
was reached in 1876, when Goldsmith Maid came 
down the Grand Circuit with Smuggler, Lucille 
Golddust, Bodine, Judge Fullerton and Lula. Smug- 
gler won from her at Cleveland after a five-heat 
encounter in which she was credited with two. The 
following week she defeated Smuggler at Buffalo 
in 2:16, 2:15^ and 2:15, the three fastest con- 
secutive heats up to that date. She also won at 
Utica, Poughkeepsie, Springfield and Hartford, 


where Smuggler reduced the stallion record to 

Prior to the opening of the Circuit, Doble ap- 
peared with the Maid in a series of time record 
performances at Belmont Park, Philadelphia. On 
June 2 she trotted in 2:15; on July 9, 2:16%, and 
on June 23, 2:14, one of the watches making it 
2:13%. When will another trotter appear that will 
be able to equal the world's record in its nineteenth 

Doble shipped to California in the fall of 1876. 
The following spring he appeared with Goldsmith 
Maid in a series of races with Rarus, the next cham- 
pion. The Maid won at San Jose in 2:16%, at Los 
Angeles in 2:19, at San Jose again in 2:16%, and 
at Chico in 2:14^. This was followed by a defeat 
at San Francisco, after which she shipped east. 
In 1877, in her twenty-first year, all of Goldsmith 
Maid's eastern engagements were against time. At 
Cincinnati she trotted in 2:19, at Springfield in 2:17, 
at Chicago in 2:19, at Rochester in 2:1614, at Cyn- 
thania in 2:17%, at St. Joseph in 2:21%, at Kan- 
sas City in 2:20%, and finally at Toledo in 2:21V 2 . 

All of this is ancient history. Still in the rush 
for speed it does not do any harm to stop and see 
if there are any horses to-day that could measure 
up to those who entertained the fading generation. 

In the matter of endurance without any reference 
to championship speed Goldsmith Maid also more 
than doubled the records made by gallopers noted 
for their long careers on the turf. Of the twenty- 


six horses that have run more than one hundred 
races, Bad News started in hundred and eighty-five, 
of which he won fifty-four; Montgomery one hun- 
dred and seventy-nine, of which he won thirty- 
seven; Imp one hundred and seventy-one, of which 
she won sixty-two, and Badge one hundred arid 
sixty-seven, of which he won seventy. All of these 
look rather tame alongside of the four hundred and 
twenty-eight which were reeled off by this Amer- 
ican champion. 

After being retired Goldsmith Maid was bred to 
General Washington, a son of General Knox, and 
her old-time rival, Lady Thorne. She produced 
three foals, one of which died young. Her filly, 
Rosebud, failed in the stud. Her son, Stranger, 
sired forty-four trotters with records of 2:30 or bet- 
ter. Seven of his sons sired sixty-two trotters and 
nineteen pacers with records and twenty-two of his 
daughters produced twenty-five trotters and ten 
pacers. After Fashion Farm was abandoned as a 
stock farm Stranger stood for a time in Kentucky. 
Later on John H. Shults purchased him and kept 
him at Parkville Farm until he was sold for export 
to Europe. Stranger died in Austria. 

On October 26, 1926, a stone was erected over 
Goldsmith's grave at Trenton, N. J. It is located 
a short distance from the fair grounds. 



In the years which have elapsed since the trainers 
of trotters and pacers cast aside the saddle and 
spurs for the sulky and whip several generations of 
men have made reputations as expert reinsmen and 
race drivers. Many changes have also been made 
in the vehicles as well as in the manner in which 
the horses are trained and driven in races. 

In the dim past David Bryan started the 2:30 
list in 1845 by winning with the gray mare, Lady 
Suffolk in 2:29V2 over the Beacon Course at Ho- 
boken, N. J. This mare was kept on the go for 
fourteen years. She met all of the best horses of 
her day under the saddle, to the wagon and to sulky 
and won at one, two and three-mile heats. 

Lady Suffolk showed the stoutness of the Mes- 
senger blood in races with Dutchman, Confidence, 
Washington, Americus, Moscow, Pelham, and the 
pacer, James K. Polk. They as well as their drivers, 
Dan Pfifer, Peter Whelan, William Whelpley, Sim 
Hoagland, Isaac Woodruff, and his more famous 
brother, Hiram, have passed. They had their hour 
in the sunshine. The dust of time is now hiding 
their careers except w T hen a student turns to the 
old records in the hope of getting a little informa- 
tion from the days which are gone forever. 

Two drivers who lived in those days are still re- 
membered. They are W. H. Doble and James D. 
McMann. The name of the former was carried on 
by his sons, Budd, Charles and Frank. McMann 


made his reputation by giving Flora Temple and 
Pocahontas world's records. With the trotter in 
1859 he started the 2:20 list. She won in 2:193/4 
at Kalamazoo. In 1855 he placed the world's record 
for pacers at 2:17% when he defeated Hero with 
Pocahontas to wagon. 

McMann was a blacksmith. He banked the fire 
on his forge, hung up his leather apron, and went 
out to get money on the race tracks. What McMann 
won was invested in New York real estate. Today 
his descendants are living in comfort. 

At a later day Peter V. Johnston, another black- 
smith, adopted the same course as McMann. He 
closed his shop at Kalamazoo, Mich., and went to the 
races. He raced Piedmont, the world's champion 
pacer, Johnston, and the remarkable sire, Peter the 
Great. They were not all that Peter had but they 
were the best. 

Dexter was the last word's champion that made 
a record under the saddle. John Murphy rode him 
in 2:18% in 1865. Later on Budd Doble marked 
him in 2:17*4 to harness. Doble also drove Dexter 
in the race with Ethan Allen and running rate. 
Dan Mace won with the team in 2:15. In that heat 
Dexter was timed outside of the pair in 2:16. 

Toe weights, boots, shoes of different weights 
and shapes, long and short toes, and all that sort of 
thing which now goes to balance a trotter or pacer 
were unheard of in those days. One day Doble 
was asked how Goldsmith Maid was shod. He said 
that when they were out racing she was sent with 


the other horses to the nearest blacksmith shop. 
Whatever was put on her remained until it was 
worn out. He added, however, that they made a 
mistake by shoeing her behind with a three calk 
shoe. Until the calks were worn down she was al- 
ways sore across the back, but no one attributed it 
to the jar when she struck the ground at speed. 

Dan Mace was one of the first drivers who was 
convinced that the manner in which a horse was 
shod had considerable to do with his speed and 
racing qualities. He was not as muscular as Wood- 
ruff or McLaughlin and controlled his horse with a 
light hand instead of holding him together with 
the reins. He did considerable experimenting with 
bits and shoes and made the patterns for a number 
of boots to protect the legs of his horses when being 
trained and raced. He also made a set of goggles, 
some would call them spectacles, to correct the 
faulty vision of Fearnaught, with which he reduced 
the stallion record. 

Mace made a number of changes in the shoes 
w r orn by Lady Thorne. She improved under it and 
would no doubt have lowered Dexter's record. An 
injury while being loaded at Rochester placed her 
on the retired list when at the crest of her career. 

The contemporaries of Mace were John Turner, 
John Murphy, Jack Phillips, M. Higbie, Jock Bowen, 
James Golden, Jack Trout, Jack Feek and Mace's 
two pupils, John Splan and "Knap" McCarthy. For 
years they raced over both the mile and half-mile 
tracks, bringing out a number of horses which made 


reputations on the turf, on the road and in the stud. 

Turner's name will always be connected with the 
careers of Hannis, Edwin Thorne, and Spofford. 
John Murphy's name recalls his brilliant showing 
with catch mounts. He won a remarkable race at 
two-mile heats at Rochester with Steve Maxwell, 
floated off in front for a number of trips with Ma- 
jolica, and reduced the team record to 2:16 1 / 4 with 
Edward and Dick Swiviller. 

Golden and Bowen were located at the Boston 
tracks during the most of their careers. Golden 
handled all of John Sheppard's road horses. He 
had considerable to do with the showing of Mill Boy 
and Blondine, which at one time held the team rec- 
ord; Dick Swiviller, and Young Rolfe, the sire of 
Nelson. Pilot Knox, while not the fastest of 
Bowen's pupils, was his most successful performer. 

Trout started the Volunteer trotters on their way 
to victory for Alden Goldsmith. He remained at 
Washingtonville until James Goldsmith was old 
enough to take the farm products to the races. Few 
reinsmen were more successful than this man. For 
his father he won with Driver, Powers, Alley and 
a number of others. When the home stock was 
scattered in 1887 he opened a public stable and re- 
mained in front with such horses as Atlantic, Mam- 
brino Maid, Simmocolon, and Pamlico. Also during 
a lull in James' career his brother John took up the 
work. After a good showing he went to California, 
from which he returned with Director and Romero. 
Later on he started the Guy Wilkes family to the 


races. He won with Muta Wilkes, Hazel Wilkes, 
Lesa Wilkes, Una Wilkes, Rupee and Oro Wilkes. 

In his day John Goldsmith raced in California 
with Charles Marvin and Orrin Hickok. Both of 
them were older than the lad from Orange County, 
but it kept them busy to trim him. 

In 1879 Hickok reduced the world's record of 
2:131,4, held by Rarus, to 2:1214, with St. Julian 
at Oakland, Cal., in the presence of General Grant, 
who was then returning from a trip around the 
world. Later on this mark was cut to 2:ll 1 / 4. 
Hickok also raced many other clever horses, the lot 
including Santa Claus, Arab, and the Kentucky 
Futurity winner, Thorn. 

Marvin's masterpiece is the roll of world's records 
which stand to the credit of Palo Alto. At different 
times he reduced all of them with such horses as 
Palo Alto, Sunol, Arion, Sally Benton, Manzanita, 
Bonita, Norlaine, but with the race-going public his 
greatest work was in making a champion out of 

Splan's connection with light harness racing was 
made secure by making new world's records with 
Rarus and Johnston. McCarthy drove Little Brown 
Jug to a world's record before the Hal pacers were 
very well known and won a number of races with 
Bonesetter, Belle F. and Dan Cupid. He also gath- 
ered in many a second money with Felix and 
Geneva S. 

Feek found the most of his racing material in cen- 
tral New York. He raced carefully and did well 


with Great Eastern, Lysander Boy, Kitefoot and 
Lady Barefoot. 

Another group of reinsmen include Frank Van 
Ness, Ed Bither, Charley Forth, Charley Green, 
John Shillinglaw, Gus Wilson, George Vorhees, 
Charley Abbott, Crit Davis, George Saunders, 
George Fuller, W. W. Bair, Myron McHenry and 
Andy McDowell. As a young man Van Ness pur- 
chased St. James. After racing him for two sea- 
sons he sold him to "Lucky" Baldwin for $13,000. 
Later on he had Albemarle, Alcyone and Harry 

Bither as a young man raced Jay Eye See and 
Phallas. He gave both of them world's records. He 
also marked Kremlin after winning the Transyl- 
vania with him. Charley Forth came down the line 
with Rowdy Boy. He was one of the "big four" 
which first attracted public attention to the pacers. 
The other members of this group were Mattie 
Hunter, which was brought north by Geers, Lucy 
with Sammy Keyes of Pittsburgh up, and the blind 
gelding, Sleepy Tom. The last named was raced 
by Steve Phillips. 

Fanny Wilcox was the best trotter driven by 
Shillinglaw. George Vorhees' name is linked with 
the performances of Black Cloud and Abbott's with 
that of Jerome Eddy. George Saunders drove Cling- 
stone in his races with Edwin Thorne. That the 
Rysdyk gelding was up to something is shown by 
the fact that his mark of 2:14 to high wheels stood 
as the race record for a trotter over Grand Circuit 


tracks until the bike sulky appeared in 1892. 

Bair dropped into the front row with Maud S. 
and faded after she retired. George Fuller made 
Patron a leader when it looked as if the Kentucky 
bred colts would never catch up to the flood of speed 
released at Palo Alto. Crit Davis did a little record- 
breaking with Phil Thompson and won a number of 
splendid races with Prince Wilkes and Harietta. 

Charley Green while a contemporary ante dates 
the most of this group as is shown by his races with 
May Queen, Lula and Lucille Golddust. Later on he 
came back with Sprague Golddust and Illinois 
Egbert, with which he bowled over the betting ring 
at Rochester. Green's career was paralleled by Mc- 
Dowell. He started off with the pacer, Fuller, and 
reached the crest of his career when he marked 
Azote and Alix. 

McHenry was one of the greatest race drivers that 
ever sat in a sulky. All kinds looked alike to him 
as was shown by the races he won with Searchlight, 
Nutboy, Charleston and Anaconda. 

Gus Wilson did well with Hattie Woodward and 
landed the $10,000 stallion race at Rochester in 
1881 witB France's Alexander. 

A few more names of noted drivers flash by as 
the others pass in review. They include Scott Hud- 
son, Dan McEwen, Jack and Gil Curry, Billy An- 
drews, Ed Bowne, Dave McClary, Millard Sanders, 
Mike Bowerman and his brother, George. Bowne 
deserted Wall Street to drive Mohogany and the 
noted pair, John R. Gentry and Robert J. The Bow- 


erman brothers were breeders as well as trainers. 
Mike marked Moquette and General Watts and with 
George owned Wilton. McEwen made a number of 
trips from his Canadian home with The Eel. He 
won everywhere. The Curry brothers were clever 
reinsmen. Jack brought out Joe Patchen and won 
the $15,000 free-for-all at Chicago with Alix. Gil's 
name is linked with that of the gray pacer, Guy. 

Hudson was the most successful driver that ever 
shipped out of Lexington. He raced Eagle Flanni- 
gan ; Audubon Boy ; Jay McGregor ; the blind horse, 
Rhythmic, and Hawthorne. When his eyesight 
began to bother him he located at Atlanta and made 
good in other lines. 

From the beginning of his turf career Andrews 
was in a class by himself. Rensselaer Weston, who 
revived racing in Orange County, rated him as the 
best. As an evidence of it he selected Billy to help 
E. H. Harriman out when it looked as if he had the 
worst end of a match with Marcus Daly. 

McClary started the two-minute list in 1897 when 
he marked Star Pointer in 1:59*4 a t Readville. 
Millard Sanders also moved the first trotter up to 
that barrier in 1903 when he drove Lou Dillon in 
even time on the same course and later in the season 
at Memphis cut her record to 1:58V^. 

Geers was the link between the preceding group 
and the men who are now active. For over half a 
century he made a trip each year, winning races 
and making new records with such horses as Annie 
W., Mattie Hunter, Hal Pointer, Robert J., Frank 


Buford, Fantasy, Nightingale, Heir-at-Law, Lady 
Geraldine, Lord Derby, Nettie King, Anvil, Dudie 
Archdale, Onward Silver, The Abbot, The Monk, 
Bright Regent, Ed Easton, Dare Devil, Walter 
Direct, Napoleon Direct, Direct Hal, Hal Braden, Hal 
Dillard, Joe Patchen, Single G., Lady of the Manor, 
Star Pointer, Peter Manning, Sanardo and scores of 

The above are only a few of the reinsmen who 
placed their names in the front ranks of the trotting 
turf since Flora Temple and Princess were in their 
prime. Their names have faded from the race sum- 
maries, their places being taken by Murphy, Cox, 
McMahon, Childs, Crozier, Egan, Valentine, the dif- 
ferent members of the Fleming family from Texas 
to Manitoba, Ray, McGrath, Thomas, White, Snow, 
Edman, Kelty, Dickerson, Brusie, Martin, Mallow, 
Lacy, Leese, Morrison, Hyde, Stokes, Pitman, Berry, 
McDonald, Hodson, Rathbun, McDevitt, Vail, Tyson, 
Bennett, Sturgeon, Keyes, Nevers, Hedrick and 
scores of others. 


Within a radius of fifty miles of White River 
Junction, Vt., there was laid, between 1795 and 1821, 
the foundation of a breed of horses which car- 
ried the name of Vermont all over the world. It 
established a type which in time became the trade 
mark of the first great American family of horses, 
and it is so different from all others that when an 


Australian or an Englishman refers to a horse as a 
"Vermont Morgan," an idea of his general appear- 
ance is conveyed as lucidly to the resident of 
Australia or England as it would be if addressed 
to a New Englander. The words carry with them 
the memory of the ideal form of Ethan Allen as well 
as the pure trotting gait, nervy, stylish way of going 
and perfect manners which made that son of Ver- 
mont Black Hawk, a favorite with the patrons of 
the track and road in his day. 

Ethan Allen won his honors as a trotter. He was 
the champion four-year-old and the champion stal- 
lion of his time, and when Magna Charta, Fear- 
naught and Lady Maud acquired championship 
honors, those who were breeding utility Morgans 
made an effort to produce trotters which could com- 
pete with the descendant of Hambletonian and Mam- 
brino Chief. New strains of blood were introduced 
and in a few years the Morgan type began to dis- 
appear without an increase in quality and stamina. 
The brush was there, but the ability to carry it 
for a mile at top speed was wanting. 

For a few generations the Morgan was a male line 
family. The breeding of the dams of all the early 
stallions of note was either unknown, or when 
known traced to horses that did not possess any of 
the qualities which made their descendants famous. 
The germ of merit came from the sire, and notwith- 
standing this method of breeding the original type 
for a time increased in size and was reproduced so 
uniformly that it became fixed in New England. 


This was done by doubling the Morgan lines. 

Like methods did not prevail in Oregon, Cali- 
fornia, Iowa, where John H. Wallace, the founder of 
the American Trotting Register, owned and stood 
for service a Morgan stallion named Ethan Allen in 
1856, Illinois, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, etc., to 
which states many a Morgan stallion went in har- 
ness hitched to a prairie schooner. 

The breed which passed into history as the Mor- 
gan horse bears the name of the man who took the 
tap root to Vermont in 1795. While he was always 
in humble circumstances, and died in debt under the 
roof of a friend who had adopted two of his chil- 
dren, his fame will endure. 

Justin Morgan, the man, was born in 1747, in or 
near Springfield, Mass. Upon arriving at the age 
of 20 he developed tubercular symptoms, and as he 
was unfitted for heavy work on a farm, he took up 
school teaching, giving singing lessons, standing 
other people's stallions for public service, and finally 
keeping a tavern for a living. Up to 1788 he was 
located at West Springfield, Mass. At that time 
he owned two-thirds of an acre of land on which 
there was a house and barn. While there, among 
other horses, he had in 1784 one from East Hart- 
ford, Conn., named True Briton. He was also known 
as Beautiful Bay and later as Traveler, and had 
been standing for service at several places in Massa- 
chusetts for a number of years. At the beginning 
of his stud career, so far as public announcements 
show, True Briton was simply a stallion "to fame 


unknown," but later in life he was represented as 
an English horse, and finally he had a story tacked 
on to him in which it was set forth that prior to the 
Revolution he was one of Colonel DeLancey's race 
horses, was stolen from him during the war, and 
ridden into the American lines at White Plains, N. 
Y., ultimately sold by one Smith to Joseph Ward 
of Hartford, Conn., and he in turn sold him to Selah 
Norton, who lived in East Hartford. He was the 
owner of the horse when Justin Morgan stood him 
at West Springfield. 

In 1788, Justin Morgan, possibly on account of his 
health, sold his home in West Springfield for thirty- 
three pounds, seven shillings and sixpence and re- 
moved to Randolph, Vt., with his wife and daughter, 
Emily, born in 1784, and son, Justin, born in 1786. 
After his departure, John Morgan, a distant rel- 
ative, secured True Briton and stood him during the 
seasons of 1788 and 1789. He removed to Lima, 
N. Y., his departure from West Springfield dating 
from 1790, and he never returned. 

After locating at Randolph, Justin Morgan re- 
sumed school teaching and singing lessons. His fel- 
low townsmen also in 1789 elected him lister, and in 
1790 town clerk, an office which he continued to hold 
until March, 1793. Two daughters, Nancy and 
Polly, were added to the Morgan family circle after 
its arrival in Randolph. Justin Morgan's wife died 
in 1791, ten days after Polly was born. This broke 
up his home. The children were taken by neigh- 
bors, Emily and Justin, being adopted by David Car- 


penter, with whom Justin Morgan evidently lived 
when he was in Randolph, and he died there. 

While traveling about Vermont, teaching, Justin 
Morgan saw that there was an opportunity to make 
a little money with a good stock horse, so he com- 
municated with some one in Hartford, Conn., pos- 
sibly Selah Norton, the owner of True Briton, and 
procured a horse named Figure, which he advertised 
for service in the Windsor Vermont Journal in 1793 
as "the famous horse Figure from Hartford. " Jus- 
tin Morgan also stood Figure in 1794, and in 1795 
he again advised his patrons by an advertisement 
in the Rutland Herald that "Figure sprang from a 
curious horse owned by Colonel DeLancey of New 
York" and by that announcement an effort has been 
made to show that Figure was the horse afterwards 
known as Justin Morgan and that Justin Morgan 
bred him while he lived in West Springfield, not- 
withstanding the fact that Linsley and others, in- 
cluding Justin Morgan's son, fixed the date of this 
horse's birth at 1793. 

But three years of life remained for Justin Mor- 
gan. As yet he had done nothing to carry his name 
beyond the boundaries of Randolph. He had no 
home ties and his health was not any too good. In 
the summer of 1795, after making a season with 
Figure, he told his friends that he was going down 
the Connecticut river to Springfield to collect some 
money due him, possibly on the house and lot which 
he had sold in 1788. He rode away and nothing 
more was heard of him until he returned to Ran- 


dolph in the early fall, leading a three-year-old geld- 
ing and followed by a little nubbin of a two-year-old 
colt. At a later date he told his friends that he took 
the pair in payment of the debt, and that the colt 
was a Dutch horse. 

This was the horse that made Vermont famous, 
and those who discuss the merits of the family 
should stop for a moment to recall that dusty, 
travel-worn figure returning to Randolph with a 
three-year-old gelding and a two-year-old colt, 
neither of which could at that age bring in any 
revenue. William M. Rysdyk, the $125 purchaser 
of the Charles Kent mare and her Abdallah colt, 
that afterward stirred the trump of fame under 
the name of Hambletonian and which also made 
him a rich man, stands out in bold relief alongside 
of this poor schoolmaster, and the saddest part of 
it all was that he did not live long enough to know 
that the Dutch colt which he had taken for a debt 
was destined to stand at the head of the first great 
family of American horses. 

Fame and fortune passed him by, but his home- 
coming in 1795 meant much to Vermont, as he was 
followed by a horse that was destined to make the 
Green Mountain state and those bordering on it 
the headquarters of a popular type of horses. As 
for the horse, no one knows who bred him and the 
only suggestion that can be made is that it was the 
man who was in Justin Morgan's debt. That man, 
in all probability, was Abner Morgan. No one ever 
took the trouble to learn who he was, what he did 


for a living, what he owned, or what became of 
him. He is the missing link in the story of the 
horse Justin Morgan. 

The only statement in existence in regard to this 
horse from any one who knew Justin Morgan ap- 
peared in a letter written by his son to the Albany 
Cultivator in 1842. He said the colt was a two-year- 
old when his father brought him to Randolph in 
1795, and that his father called him a Dutch horse. 
That is all. The writer of this letter was 12 years 
old when his father died, and the only knowledge in 
connection with the origin of the horse Justin Mor- 
gan begins and ends with it. 

At a later date John Morgan, still living at that 
date at Lima, N. Y., introduced the True Briton 
story and ultimately supplied Justin Morgan with 
a dam. The record, however, shows that John Mor- 
gan never saw the man Justin Morgan after he left 
West Springfield in 1788, and it is self evident that 
he never had any correspondence with him in regard 
to this horse or he would have mentioned it when 
he wrote the Albany Cultivator. Half a century 
later John H. Wallace knocked every peg from under 
the True Briton end of the pedigree by showing 
that the horse did not stand for service at West 
Springfield the year Justin Morgan was got, even 
if he was bred there, which is a point that has never 
been determined. 

The Dutch horse was introduced to America by 
the founders of New Amsterdam, now New York. 
Some of them were brought from Utrecht, Holland, 


in 1625. By 1650 they were numerous and were 
used for all kinds of work. 

In 1665, after New Amsterdam was surrendered 
by the Dutch to the English, Governor Nicholls es- 
tablished a race course at Hempstead Plains on Long 
Island, and offered prizes for races. These events 
were contested under saddle. 

Racing was established among the Dutch in New 
York before the English race horse was considered 
a separate breed. It is therefore safe to presume 
that the horses which raced on Hempstead Plains 
in 1665 and for many subsequent years, were Dutch 
horses, tracing direct to those which were imported 
from Holland. 

Dutch horses were also sent to other ports than 
New Amsterdam, as there has been found at Salem, 
Mass., an entry in 1635, setting forth the fact that 
in that year two Dutch sloops landed twenty-seven 
mares and three stallions. The mares were valued 
at £34, while the English horse of that period cost 
£6, and £10 for freight. The difference in value can 
be attributed to the size of the English horse, be- 
tween 13 and 14 hands, while the Dutch horses were 
between 14 and 15 hands. By the Revolution this 
had been increased so that the average horse was 15 

Dutch horses were plentiful in New York and es- 
pecially in the valley of the Hudson river, where the 
wealthy burghers had large estates. That they were 
also bred in New England is evidenced by the fact 
that one of them named Young Bulrock stood for 


service at Springfield, in 1792, the year that Justin 
Morgan was got. He was described in an advertise- 
ment as a "horse of Dutch breed, of large size and 
a bright bay color." Was this the sire of Justin 
Morgan? Certainly there are better grounds for 
claiming it than that he was by True Briton, a horse 
that is not known to have been there that year, and 
which was advertised in the Connecticut Courant 
to stand in East Hartford, Conn., although the an- 
nouncement was afterward withdrawn. 

At this point, it would also be well to stop and 
compare the gait, form and style of the Dutch horse, 
with Linsley's description of Justin Morgan: 

"The original, or Justin Morgan, was about four- 
teen hands high, and weighed about nine hundred 
and fifty pounds. His color was dark bay with 
black legs, mane and tail. He had no white hairs 
on him. His mane and tail were coarse and heavy, 
but not so massive as has been sometimes de- 
scribed; the hair of both was straight, and not in- 
clined to curl. His head was good, not extremely 
small, but lean and bony, the face straight, forehead 
broad, ears small and very fine, but set rather wide 
apart. His eyes were medium size, very dark and 
prominent, with a spirited but pleasant expression, 
and showed no white round the edge of the lid. His 
nostrils were very large, the muzzle small, and the 
lips close and firm. His back and legs were per- 
haps his most noticeable points. The former was 
very short; the shoulder blades and his hip being 
very long and oblique and the loins exceedingly broad 


and muscular. His body was rather long, round and 
deep, close ribbed up, chest deep and wide, with the 
breastbone projecting a good deal in front. His legs 
were short, close jointed, thin, but very wide, hard 
and free from meat, with muscles that were remark- 
ably large for a horse of his size, and this super- 
abundance of muscle exhibited itself at every step. 
His hair was short, and at almost all seasons soft 
and glossy. He had a little long hair about the 
fetlocks and for two or three inches above the fet- 
lock on the back side of the legs ; the rest of the 
limbs were entirely free from it. His feet were 
small but well shaped, and he was in every respect 
perfectly sound and free from any sort of blemish. 
He was a very fast walker. In trotting his gait was 
low and smooth, and his step short and nervous ; he 
was not in these days what would be called fast, 
and we think it doubtful whether he could trot a 
mile much if any within four minutes, though it is 
claimed by many that he could trot it in three. " 

When the above and the accepted picture of the 
horse is compared with the type of English thor- 
oughbred of that period, they will be found as far 
apart as it is possible to be among horses of about 
the same weight. On the other hand, an English 
writer describes the Dutch Hartdraver, that is fast 
trotter, as follows : 

"These horses run from fourteen to sixteen hands ; 
the head small, the shoulders well laid back; the 
haunches prominent, the crop short and broad, and 
the limbs muscular and clean, but often fringed 


with longish hair up the sinew above pastern 
joints." This is taken from a book that was pub- 
lished in London in 1845, and would almost fit a 

Also, in order to show that the trotting speed of 
the Dutch horse was not of the mythical kind that 
was attributed to the Narragansett pacer, it is only 
necessary to refer to the history of the Orloff trot- 
ter. This breed was originated by Count Alexis 
Orloff. He began with an Arabian horse named 
Smetanka, which he bred to a Danish mare. She 
produced Polkan. He was larger than his sire, and 
was in turn bred to a Dutch mare, which breed at 
that time had a reputation for its trotting qualities. 
This Dutch mare, in 1784, nine years before Justin 
Morgan was foaled, produced Barrs, to whom all of 
the Orloff trotters trace, through his sons, Dobry, 
Lebed and Lubezny. 

In Russia, the Dutch mare gave the Orloff horse 
the trotting step. Did Young Bulrock do the same 
thing in America for the Morgans ? He came from 
a family that was noted for that quality, and the 
results in Russia show that he had the power to 
transmit it. True Briton, if any of the stories told 
about him can be believed, came from a family noted 
for its running qualities. 

There is nothing left but to add that Justin Mor- 
gan, so far as an established pedigree is concerned, 
was a "Topsy." He simply grew. That he had a sire 
and dam is admitted, but their breeding, if they had 
any, is unknown. The only clue is supplied by Jus- 


tin Morgan's son, who said that his father called 
the colt a Dutch horse. 

It is unfortunate that Linsley and other early- 
writers on the Morgan horse did not look up the 
Dutch horse. The fact that Linsley ignored it en- 
tirely shows that he never gave it a thought. At 
the time he was writing there were many people 
living in West Springfield, Mass., or that vicinity, 
who knew all about Young Bulrock, and those who 
had him. 


The Morgan is an American type of horse. It is 
the only one with the possible exception of the Ken- 
tucky gaited saddle horse which originated on this 
continent. For years it was believed that Justin 
Morgan, the tap root sire, was by the thoroughbred 
horse, True Briton. Wallace, however, exploded 
that and showed that there was a chance of him 
being a Dutch horse, as was claimed by the man who 
took him to Vermont. 

Justin Morgan was foaled at West Springfield, 
Mass., in 1793. He was taken to Vermont in 1795 
and died in 1821. He bred on through his son, Sher- 
man Morgan, Bulrush Morgan, and Woodbury Mor- 
gan. Of these Sherman Morgan sired Vermont 
Black Hawk, Billy Root, Whalebone and Flint Mor- 
gan. The Woodbury line was continued by Morgan 
.Caesar, Morgan Eagle, Chittenden County Morgan, 
and Gifford Morgan, while the Bulrush line runs 


through the Randolph Horse, Jennison Colt, and 
Morrill, to Young Morrill, the sire of Fearnaught 
and Winthrop Morrill. 

Within fifty years after the death of Justin Mor- 
gan, his descendants were found in every state in 
the Union. At that time over one-half of the light 
harness performers traced to him either through 
the sire or dam. The pedigrees of the leading trot- 
ters of today also show that a number of them carry 
a remote cross of Morgan blood ; Uhlan, Lee Axwor- 
thy, Hamburg Belle and The Harvester being among 

A national survey of the light harness foundation 
stock shows that the forty-niners began buying 
Morgans as soon as they were located in California ; 
Keokuk, Black Eagle, Black Warrior, Tyler's Black 
Hawk, Novato Chief, McCracken's Black Hawk, 
Dave Hill and Benecia Boy being taken there prior 
to the Civil War. The Oregon breeders also pur- 
chased Vermont and Oregon Pathfinder. They were 
followed by Winthrop Knox, Champion Knox, and 
Dick Flaherty. 

Kentucky was fortunate in selecting Blood's Black 
Hawk. He as well as his sons, Blood Chief and In- 
dian Chief, the sire of Lady de Jarnette, were almost 
invincible in the show ring. The Morgan stamp was 
also left in Kentucky by Dorsey's Vermont Hero, 
through Golddust, Downing's Vermont through 
Gill's Vermont, Red Jacket, Rattler, Peavine, and 
Honest Allen. 

Axworthy and Moko had each a Morgan cross. 


The line to Axworthy runs through Strideaway; to 
Moko through the Stockbridge Chief mare that pro- 
duced Gloster, 2:17. 

The Morgan tide reached Michigan in the early 
fifties, the leaders being Morgan Eagle, the sire of 
Magna Charta, Marshall Chief, the sire of Primus, 
Chauncey Goodrich, and Don J. Robinson, Western 
Fearnaught, Buell's Pathfinder, Oceana Chief, Royal 
Fearnaught, and Vermont Hero, the sire of General 
Knox. Stockbridge Chief died in Illinois, where he 
was joined by Ward's Flying Cloud, Woodward's 
Ethan Allen, which was afterwards taken to Ken- 
tucky, Swansbrough's Creeper, Captain Beaumont, 
Addison, and several Golddusts. 

In the early days, Wisconsin was the half way sta- 
tion for Morgan stallions that were being taken to 
California. A few of them made several seasons 
there before completing the journey, the group in- 
cluding Benecia Boy, Dave Hill and McCracken's 
Black Hawk. A number also remained in the 
badger state, the leaders being Coman's Gray Eagle, 
whose son, McKesson's Gray Eagle, got Charley 
Ford, 2:16%, Prince Pathfinder, Live Oak, and Black 
Flying Cloud, the sire of Badger Girl, 2:22i/ 2 . 

Iowa breeders developed a fondness for Morgans 
at an early date. Their selections included East- 
man Morgan, sire of Little Fred, 2:20, Panic, Ver- 
monter, General Stark, Vermont Boy, whose son, 
Reconstruction, got the dam of Bonnie McGregor, 
2:13V2> an d King Herod, while both McKesson's 
Gray Eagle and Young Morrill died in Iowa. 


King Herod and Stockbridge Chief were located in 
Ohio for a brief period. Jackson's Flying Cloud also 
after standing at Urbana spent the last five years 
of his life at Springfield, where he got the fourth 
dam of Binland, 2:03%. Many other Morgan stal- 
lions were also taken to the buckeye state, the list 
including Barre, Austin's Morgan Bulrush, and 
Knowlton's Morgan, by Bulrush Morgan, General 
Morgan, the sire of Mazomania, 2:20*4, Onderdonk, 
Case's Dave Hill, Nigger Doctor, Orr's Flying Cloud, 
and Black Squirrel, sire of the dam of Fred B., 

Ethan Allen, the idol of the Morgan family, died 
at Lawrence, Kansas, in 1876. He left a few foals 
in that state, which was for many years the home of 
Joe Young, 2:19^, sire of the dam of Joe Patchen, 
2:01Vi- Joe Young was foaled in Minnesota, w r here 
his sire, Star of the West, was located for a number 
of years. The latter was by Jackson's Flying Cloud 
and was foaled in Connecticut. Herod was also 
located in Minnesota, being brought there from 
Montana, where he, as well as Prospect and Jubilee 
de Jarnette, added to the horse values in the moun- 
tain state. 

Woodbury Morgan was taken to Alabama in 1836. 
He was followed by Dorsey's Vermont Morgan in 
1860. Seth Warner stood in Louisiana and Denning 
Allen was located in Arkansas, where he got Lord 
Clinton, 2:08%. Charles Caffrey made his reputa- 
tion in Nebraska, and Cottrill Morgan, the sire of 
the dam of Westmont, 2:13 3 4, was located at Clarks- 


burg, W. Va., when he got Bell Morgan, the sire of 
Lady Turpin, 2:23. 

Tennessee breeders purchased Naugatuck and 
Ben Franklin. Walker Morrill, after being located 
in Michigan and Maryland, closed his career in Vir- 
ginia, where he got Lamp Girl, 2:09, and Marendes, 
2:17 1 / 4, whose dam was by Sherman Morgan, Jr., 
a grandson of Flint Morgan. 

Patrick Henry and Black Prince were the Morgan 
pioneers in Maryland. The latter sired the dam of 
Maxie Cobb, 2:131/4. In New Jersey, North Morrill 
and Morgan One Eye preceded General Knox, who 
got General Washington and Charles Caffrey while 
located at Fashion Stud Farm. New York was the 
home state of Ethan Allan and Daniel Lambert. It 
was also the headquarters of Superb, a horse which 
was all that his name implied, Benedict's Pathfinder, 
Sam Houston, Humbird and Victor. 

New England has always been the headquarters 
of the Morgan horse. After the old stock disap- 
peared, Vermont retained the Jennison Colt, whose 
owner was given a pound of tea for his services 
when he got Morrill, Darkey, Highland Gray, who 
got the dam of J. J. Audubon, the sire of Audubon 
Boy, 1:5914, and Young Morrill. Vermont Black 
Hawk was located there from 1844 until he died in 
1856, and Daniel Lambert for sixteen seasons. Both 
Fearnaught and Vermont Black Hawk were foaled 
in New Hampshire. Star of the West, Naugatuck, 
Vermonter, Fred Allen, Hampden Boy, and Young 
Gifford were either bred or owned in Connecticut. 


Massachusetts was at different times the home of 
Ethan Allen, Winthrop Morrill, Fearnaught, and 
Daniel Lambert, while General Knox and Winthrop 
Morrill made their reputations in Maine. They suc- 
ceeded Morgan Caesar, sire of Mac, 2:28, Whale- 
bone, sire of Blackstone Belle, 2:28 1 /2> and the 
grandam of Hopeful, 2:14%, Brown Harry, Fear- 
naught Jr., and Holland's Ethan Allen, and were 
followed by Nelson, 2:09, whose grandam was by 
Vermont Black Hawk. The Morgan was also the 
pioneer light harness horse in Canada, a number of 
them being taken from Maine to New Brunswick 
and Nova Scotia. Canada Black Hawk, the sire of 
Drummer Boy, got a number of successful sires in 
Quebec, while Green Mountain Morgan, Fearnaught 
Gift, and Eden Golddust left considerable speed in 

At the present time the best Morgan horses are 
owned either on the government farm in Vermont 
or by the members of the Morgan Horse Club, but 
there are thousands who can recall the round bodied, 
trappy going roadsters which made the Concord 
wagons cluck as they whisked them over the New 
England roads. As sure footed drivers, they never 
had a superior, while their cheerful dispositions, de- 
pendable qualities, style and way of going made 
them favorites everywhere. 



How to Build a Track 

First get your land, then get a surveyor. Forty- 
nine acres are required for a mile track and fourteen 
acres for a half-mile track. This acreage is simply 
what is necessary for a track having a homestretch 
sixty-five feet and backstretch forty feet wide. It 
does not include the land required for buildings. 
That, and the width of a track, are matters for each 
association to decide for itself. 

In the calculations and illustrations presented, dis- 
tances are stated in feet, and (generally decimal) 
fractions thereof. The illustrations will give any- 
one a clear idea of how to lay out a track much 
better than any written description, if the ground 
be susceptible to having one built of regulation 
form. If not, then special engineering is necessary. 
Special mention need only be made of the methods 
for laying out turns, as the stretches are simply 
matters of distances fully explained in the illustra- 
tions. There are three plans. 

The Engineer's Plan 

For experts with approved instruments. For a 
regulation mile track (see fig. 1). From points of 
curve deflect angles of 3 degrees and lay off chords 
of 43.98 feet. Ordinates from these chords (see de- 
tail fig. 4) at one-fourth and one-half their length, 
are respectively 0.43 foot and 0.58 foot. 

For a half-mile track (see fig. 3) ; from points of 



Fig. 1 — Mile Track. 


Method of Laying Out Turn Recommended to Amateurs. 

Method of Laying Out Turn Recommended for Surveyors 
with Ordinary Instruments. Fig. 2 — Half-Mile Track. 



curve deflect angles of 6 degrees and lay off chords 
43.92 feet. Ordinates from these chords (see detail 
fig. 5) at one-fourth and one-half their length, are 
respectively 0.86 foot and 1.15 feet. 

The Surveyor's Plan 

For surveyors with ordinary surveying imple- 
ments. The illustrations (see figs. 1 and 2) will 
clearly indicate the simple methods for both mile 
and half-mile tracks. (As an assistance to surveyors 
in making a true curve, see details figs. 6 and 7). 

<ft 1+ N </l Ihe, 

Zs/o ° 

MlO '7 

Fig. 3 — Regulation Half-Mile Track. Engineer's Plan. 

This plan is susceptible of being worked by anyone 
with tape-line and wire, but, as it is necessary to get 
the ordinates at exactly right angles to the chords, 
and but a slight deviation therefrom would affect 
the curve, associations are advised to adopt 

The Amateur's Plan, 

which is so plainly illustrated in figs. 2 and 8. Hav- 
ing laid out the straight lines, as indicated, all that 



is then necessary, for a mile track, is a piece of wire, 
four hundred and twenty feet two and one-eighth 
inches long (420.17). From a stake driven at the 
intersection of the long middle line with the line 
that runs from the commencement of the turn on 

Detail Fig. 4 — For Engineers. Showing Chords and Sub-ordinates to Fig. 1. 
(Regulation Mile Track). 

one stretch to its commencement on the other, 
stretch this wire at any angle as many times as 
you like (the oftener the better) and its end will 
be a point on the turn. If the wire is held level it 
will be impossible to make a mistake in this simple 
method. If the ground is not level (slight inequali- 
ties will not affect the result) the wire should be 
raised at both ends so as to make it level. The 
oftener these radii are struck the easier it is to form 
a true curve. It is not necessary to observe any 



stated distances between the points on the curve. 
You cannot go wrong, for the end of the wire will 
always be at the turn; therefore, if some obstruc- 
tion exists, skip it and stretch the wire at shorter 
or longer distances apart at that particular place. 
For a half-mile track the wire will be two hundred 
and ten feet one and one-sixteenth inch (210.08 
feet) long/and the method is, of course, the same. 
A wire is better than a rope or cord, as the latter 
will stretch. 

Detail Fig. 5 (To Fig. 3)— For Engineers (Half-Mile Track). 

The foregoing gives the true mile or half-mile 
line. Set the fence just three feet inside this line, 
on both the turns and stretches (see' dotted lines in 
illustrations figs. 1 and 2), and a regulation mile or 
half-mile track is the result. Be sure and have a 
hub board on the pole fence. 

The turns on a mile track should be thrown up 
one foot in ten of width, so that a turn forty' feet 
wide would, at its highest point, be four feet higher 
at the outside than at the pole. On a half-mile track 
the turns should be thrown up one foot and thre*» 



inches in every ten feet of width, or five feet on a 
forty-foot turn. This rise cannot be made abruptly 
at the commencement of the turn. It should com- 
mence far enough back from that point so that one- 
half of the total rise is gained at the commencement 
of the turn. For convenience, it would be well to 
lay off stations of forty -four feet, commencing four 

Detail Fig. 6 — For Surveyors, Showing Chords and Sub-ordinates to Fig. 1. 
for the Purpose of Assisting in Turning Curves (Regulation Mile Track.) 

stations back from the point of curve and gradually 
raising one-half foot in each station, so that when 
the commencement of the turn is reached two feet 
of the outside elevation is gained. From that point 
the grade should be increased to one foot in each 
forty-four foot station, until the required outside 
elevation is reached. This throwing up of the turns 
should be commenced on both stretches for both 
turns and worked towards the apex of each. 



For draining purposes have the outside of the 
stretches one foot higher than the pole. Two feet 
inside the pole fence there should be a ditch at least 
a foot wide and the same in depth, to receive the 
drainage. At intervals of twenty-five feet, or oftener 
if required by wet spots, there should be small gut- 
ters from the inside edge of the track to the ditch. 
These gutters must be shallow, especially on the 
turns, to avoid carrying the water off too rapidly, 
and by so doing creating wash-out places on the 
track opposite them. 

Soil and Grades 

Natural soil, if the right kind, is the best. If, 
however, the soil is sandy, the roadbed must be 
covered with a dressing, about six inches deep, of 
clay or clay-loam, and as free as possible from peb- 

Detail Fig. 7 (To Fig. 2)— For Surveyors. Regulation Half-Mile Track. 

bles. In choosing between two locations, the one 
with the natural soil has many advantages, for the 
cost of top-dressing a track is a larger item than 



those not posted would imagine, even though the 
desired soil is close at hand. The natural soil wears 
much better than the artificial article. The latter 
has to be renewed every few seasons, while the 
former not only lasts much longer, but when worn 
out at the top can be plowed under and new soil 
brought to the surface at very slight expense. Be- 
tween clay, clay-loam, muck, or any rich soil that 
packs readily, with the least tendency to cup, there 
is little choice. A slight grade in a track is far from 
being a disadvantage. The descent should be on 
the last part of the mile. 

Pig. 8 — Best Method for laying out turns of mile track for amateurs, with 
a wire four hundred and twenty and seventeen hundredths feet ( — 420 
feet 2% inches) long. (For half-mile tracks reduce one-half. See 
Fig. 2). 

Track Equipment and Care 

Constant care is what makes a track safe and 
fast for racing. It cannot be neglected for fifty 
weeks in the year and be good for race week. As 
the soils of tracks differ there are no set rules which 


can be given to work them. That is something that 
the track manager has to work out for himself, after 
he has been on the job long enough to learn the good 
and bad qualities of the soil. 

In the line of equipment a track requires a 
sprinkling wagon, unless the association uses cal- 
cium chloride to keep the soil moist and at the same 
time keep down the dust, two harrows, one of which 
is kept sharp and one dull, a nail harrow, one or 
two floats, and a scraper. 

The first requisite to keep a track in condition is 
water or calcium chloride. Never use oil. It ruins 
a track for racing. When the heavens do not supply 
the water, the sprinkling cart must. Next to water, 
or a substitute, the harrow is both the life and death 
of a track. Just how much harrowing a track needs 
is something for the man in charge to determine. 

The proper time to harrow a track is after rain 
or after a sprinkling. Never harrow a dry track or 
you will make it cuppy. The same trouble follows 
too frequent or too deep harrowing. It separates 
the particles of the soil, causing it to loose its ad- 
hesiveness and results in a dead crusty surface 
which breaks away and becomes cuppy. 

A triangular nail harrow is a very useful imple- 
ment to use when drying a track after rain. It 
breaks up the surface and lets the air into the soil. 

A wet track on race day is a doubtful asset. At 
some places sheep, cattle and horses under saddle 
Tiave been clriven over the track to roughen the sur- 
face. At other places the water has been squeezed 


out of the soil and the slush pushed to the outside 
of the course by putting on a flock of automobiles. 
Each has advantages as it gets results and that is 
what is wanted on race day. 

What is wanted is to make the track so that the 
nail harrows can be put on to roughen the surface. 
As soon as this is accomplished a few trips around 
the course will make the dust fly or at least make 
the course so that it can be used for racing. The 
drivers of the ginger bread horses may draw them 
on account of the heavy footing but the mud larks 
will go on and entertain the spectators and at the 
same time win a purse or two which they might not 
get a piece of under more favorable conditions. 

The care of a track during race week is a serious 
problem. The success of the meeting depends upon 
it being kept in condition. If the weather is favor- 
able the man in charge does not have to worry al- 
though he may not get much sleep on account of the 
most of his work must be done in the night or early 
in the morning. Where the sprinkling wagon is 
used it should be out if the weather looks favorable 
after sun down and kept going until the track is 
wet thoroughly. Next morning the tractor, auto 
or horses should be out with the harrows, before 

If it looks like rain the track should be floated as 
soon as the races are over. Then if the weather 
breaks there will be no ridges or depressions to keep 
the water from running into the ditch. Some will 
sink in but not as much in the event of a heavy 


rain as it would if the track was rough. 

The float is the best implement ever invented to 
keep a track smooth and free from waves. It is 
made of two by four scantlings sixteen feet long, 
set upon their edges and spiked together, making a 
frame sixteen feet square. The float should be 
hitched to slightly at one side of the center so as 
to carry the surplus dirt and pebbles to the outside. 

No association has a full complement of track 
tools without a scraper. Its frequent use, however, 
is rendered unnecessary by the float. After a severe 
storm the loose dirt washes down to the pole, espe- 
cially on the turns. The scraper will remove this 
and carry it out. After it is used put on a light 
harrow and follow it with the float and you will have 
a fast track with a cushion that will take off the 
jar when a horse steps on it at speed. 
Judges' Stand, Etc. 

Put up brightly painted quarter poles so that they 
can be seen from the judges' stand and grandstand 
and mark the distances in yards on the pole fence. 
The flagman should always stand on the outside. 
He will then not do any guessing as to whether a 
horse is distanced or not. 

The judges' and timers' stand can be located on 
either side of the track or one on each side. If the 
judges* stand is located on the inside of the track 
it should be set back ten or twelve feet from the pole 
fence and on a mile track at least three hundred 
feet from the turn, or on a half-mile track at least 
one hundred and seventv feet from the turn. 


The judges' stand should not be over six feet high, 
which is ample for the occupants to have an unob- 
structed view of the track. When it is higher and 
on the inside of the track a horse finishing at the 
pole is frequently overlooked. With a low stand an 
iron rod on each side of the track takes the place of 
a wire. The rod opposite the judges' stand should 
be placed in front of a wide board painted white with 
a black stripe down the center. This makes it an 
easy matter for the judges to place the horses in a 
close finish. By having the judges' stand on the 
outside of the track the spectators and the judges 
see the finish at the same angle. 

In the matter of track buildings, etc., see what 
other people have. Get a line on the pitch of a 
dozen grandstands before you start to build and at 
the same time pay particular attention to the towns 
where the spectators are not compelled to jump up 
to see the horses after they turn into the stretch. 
Each race track and its equipment has some one 
point or two better than the others. 

Get out among your neighbors between meetings. 
See what they are doing on their tracks and at their 
meetings to entertain the public. It is the dollar 
at the gate that makes the sulky wheels turn. Do 
not complain if a few get in over the fence. There 
is no better advertisement for a race meeting than 
that some one, even if it is only a small boy, tries 
to break in to see it. The fence jumpers as a rule 
are short of cash. When they get some they will 
line up at the ticket window. 


A Word About Tracks 

Race tracks are either sand, gravel, clay, loam, 
clay loam, or cinders. The sand and cinder courses 
can be used in almost any kind of weather. Rain 
improves them although when they are dry they are 
apt to be dusty. A gravel track is the pebble pick- 
er's paradise. In and out of season he can always 
find a few small rocks coming to the surface for 
horse owners to complain of and use as an alibi 
when a racing sample makes what looks like a sus- 
picious break. It takes a lot of rain to stop the 
racing over one of these tracks while a free applica- 
tion of calcium chloride makes them as firm as a 
belt and also prevents dust. 

A loam or clay loam track is the ideal course for 
training. Both of them have a cushion which takes 
off the jar. They are also firm enough not to cup 
like a sand or gravel course when dry. The princi- 
pal fault that can be found with them is that they 
soak up rain like a sponge and are hard to dry after 
a shower unless they are well drained. It is, how- 
ever, possible to get at them with the harrow earlier 
than a clay track from the fact that the soil is not 
so apt to roll when disturbed. 

For racing purposes a clay track is the fastest and 
the firmest for all kinds of horses when the weather 
is favorable. Its surface will also resist rain if thor- 
oughly floated so that it is smooth enough for the 
water to run to the pole. If on the other hand a 
clay track is thoroughly soaked while the surface is 


rough, especially during cool weather, it is a difficult 
task to fix it so that it can be used for racing. 

A light misty rain is the worst sample of weather 
that can be passed to an association which is giving 
races over a clay track. It then takes up the mois- 
ture gradually and retains it until the wind or sun 
can assist in drying it. 

On the other hand a heavy downpour beats down 
the rough spots on a clay track and allows the rain 
to run off towards the pole if the bed of the course 
has the proper slant. An application of calcium 
chloride also binds the surface of a clay track and 
gives it a firm surface while it keeps down the dust. 
This by product of the salt wells more than pays for 
itself by making it unnecessary to keep the 
sprinkling wagon going. 

The success of a race meeting or a fair depends 
on the condition of the race course while it is in 
progress. Postponements are expensive as fre- 
quently the spectators plan to remain only for a day 
or two. If there are skips during the meeting their 
patronage at the gate and grandstand is lost. 

The New York State Fair at Syracuse has an up- 
to-date clay track. While the soil has a soft putty 
like feeling when wet, under favorable conditions 
the surface is almost perfect. It is also drained so 
thoroughly that after a storm the harrows can start 
at the pole and work out instead of from the outside 
fence as on other courses. It, therefore, can be put 
in racing condition in half the time. 

The winter rains in Florida have always kept the 


half-mile track at Orlando in trim. It is a mixture 
of sea sand and leaf mould. The water goes through 
it like a sieve. At the Longwood mile course, be- 
tween that point and Sanford, the management cov- 
ered the course with marl, which is the name that 
goes with the clay in Florida. It made a fast and 
firm course. 

While the care of tracks differ on account of the 
soil it is a sure formula that water never fails to 
improve a sand or light gravel course. Loam tracks, 
as a rule, can almost take care of themselves if they 
are kept smooth and not permitted to get guttered 
by rain. A clay track must never be neglected. It 
is a constant care for the track manager. If per- 
mitted to get dry several wagon loads of surface 
blow away every windy day and if not given prompt 
attention after rain it will bake and become as hard 
as a board. 


"A bunch of nerves is the only temperament for 
a champion, " remarked Thomas W. Murphy, as he 
sat in the living room of his Poughkeepsie home, 
surrounded by paintings of the horses to which he 
gave world's records. In this room there were eleven 
paintings. They represented Peter Manning, Direc- 
tum I, Margaret Dillon, Miss Harris M., Sanardo, 
Arion Guy, Tilly Brooke, Rose Scott, Merriman 
Highland Scott and Frank Bogash Jr., the horses 
which Murphy placed in the two-minute list. 


"In order to get the last ounce of speed from a 
horse," continued the master reinsman, "it is nec- 
essary to humor him. Let him have his own way 
if he has any peculiarities on the track, providing it 
does not interfere with his speed. At the same time 
a trainer must be sure that the work given him be- 
tween races or time trials does not do him more 
harm than good. I have had a number that re- 
quired drilling and others that had to skip work. 

"When Walter Cox raced Mabel Trask she had a 
habit of stopping after a score and taking a look at 
the surroundings. She could have been broken of 
that habit. Walter did not interfere with her. 
Mabel Trask enjoyed the privilege. After she had 
had her peek she was ready to race all the better 
for it. 

"Anna Bradford, the filly that placed the three- 
year-old pacing record at 2:00%, was very high 
strung. Whenever she was turned in her work or 
to score she dropped her head, giving it a swing to 
one side before getting under way. She would then 
put her head in place and flash off like a bird. On 
account of this habit Anna Bradford wore a very 
loose check rein. It flapped on her neck when she 
was racing. 

"This filly could carry her speed as far as any 
pacer I ever had, but she would not go away smooth- 
gaited unless she had that play with her head. She 
would not stand for rough treatment or harsh bits. 
As soon as Anna was in trim to race she was never 
taken to the track for work. 

T R T A L X G 147 

'The day Anna Bradford made her record I looked 
at my watch when she passed the half. It regis- 
tered 1:01. She buzzed along from that point to the 
three-quarters in 29\* seconds and paced the next 
quarter just as comfortable in 30*4 seconds. The 
week before she won a race in 2:01V2> the middle 
half of the mile being paced in a minute. 

"Anna Bradford could have paced either of these 
heats in two minutes if she had been sent for it. All 
that I had to do was to sit still and let her go. Nature 
had balanced her perfectly. All that she wore was 
a three-ounce shoe on each foot. 

"The summer Anna Bradford was four years old 
I worked her in 2:02. As I also had Frank Bogash 
Jr., I told her owner that he would have to turn her 
over to another trainer. She moved on but was not 
heard from. A few changes closed her career. 

"Frank Bogash Jr. was a wonderful little horse. 
Like Peter Scott and Peter Volo he was a regular 
racer. They were trained just like ordinary horses 
and would go at any time. From the day that Peter 
Volo came to me as a two-year-old he always acted 
like an aged horse. This trio always felt good and 
acted perfectly in or out of their races. 

"With Peter Scott I knew that he would give all 
that he had in every heat he raced. Sometimes he 
would trot in 2:07 and a fraction and I would think 
he was all out, only to have him come back two 
seconds faster. There are few horses of that kind. 

"Native Belle, the first two-year-old to beat 2:10, 
was a nervous, high strung filly. In June she worked 


a mile at Terre Haute in 2 :42. Anvil was the same 
age. That week Mr. Geers worked him in 2:16 1 / 4. 
Mr. Thompson, the owner of Native Belle, came to 
me and said that we might as well turn Native Belle 
out. I told him that she was not expected to race 
until October. At Syracuse in September I worked 
Native Belle in 2 :14. She could have trotted in 2 : 10 
that day. At Lexington she won in 2:07%. 

"Native Belle made her record in 1909. In 1907 
I won the same event, the two-year-old division of 
the Kentucky Futurity, in 2:1214 with Trampfast. 
The Kentuckians crowded around the colt and said 
that none of them would live to see it beaten. When 
Native Belle trotted in 2:07% they considered it a 
calamity. They said that there was no use trying 
to get a two-year-old to reduce it. 

"Seven years later The Real Lady won the same 
event in 2:07. The Real Lady was always a cham- 
pion. She was good headed arid pleasant to drive. 
She never made a break and had perfect manners. 
In her three-year-old form this filly was sick for a 
greater portion of the summer. Notwithstanding 
that handicap she won the Kentucky Futurity in 

"Susie N., my first Futurity trotter, was a good 
headed filly. She raced from behind like Tramp- 
fast. The morning after I won with her at Colum- 
bus, Henry Schmulbach offered $50,000 for her. It 
was declined. Miss Adbell defeated her in the Ken- 
tucky Futurity after Susie N. won a heat. I drove 
that race with one arm in a sling on account of a 


broken shoulder. I am satisfied that if I could have 
given her a little help at the finish of the heats the 
result would have been different. 

"Arion Guy was a horse that had to be worked 
and handled with a great deal of care. A driver 
could not be sure of him like Peter Manning. The 
latter was always ready. He never missed a feed, 
was absolutely sound and good tempered. Another 
peculiarity about him was that he only required 
moderate work to go fast. 

"Sanardo, on the other hand, had to be tightened 
up with plenty of work to race good. He was al- 
ways anxious to go and wanted to make his own 
pace. If his manners had been a little different in 
company Sanardo would have been a faster horse. 

"I found Margaret Dillon an easy mare to train. 
As soon as she was filled up and strong she could 
fly. When she made her first start at Toledo a few 
said she was too fat. I thought differently. She 
won in two minutes. Between races Margaret Dil- 
lon was never worked faster than 2:20. Still she 
kept making speed all season. In her last race at 
Lexington she won in 1:5914 and 1:59. The follow- 
ing week she reduced her record to l:5Sy^. 

"Miss Harris M. was a horse of a different type. 
If she was not worked in 2:07 or 2:08 between races 
she would cord up. Directum J. was one of the same 
kind. Both of them required a lot of drilling. 

"Directum I. was a nervous little horse. He was 
an exception to all rules of training. After I got 
him ready to race I worked him like any other horse, 


giving him a few fast miles between races. With 
this I found he could go in two minutes but that he 
had none of the brush that wins races or makes fast 
records. For a couple of weeks he did not have any 
engagements and I let up on him. Then I worked 
him and he could literally fly. The next week he 
raced William at Cleveland and was beaten in 1:58V& 
and 2:00. He could pace in about two minutes that 
day but acted dull. 

"Dr. McCoy told me that if I wanted to do any 
good with Directum I., I would have to stop work- 
ing him. I hesitated as I knew that a fast horse 
raced under such conditions was sure to cord up and 
get into all kinds of nervous trouble. 

"Finally I decided to try it. The result was that 
he paced in .1:58^ at Hartford and in 1:56% at 
Syracuse the following week. In 1916 Directum L 
paced a quarter in 26% seconds and a half in 55% 
seconds. After each of his flights of speed every 
nerve in his body seemed to be shattered. It took 
three or four days to get him back to normal but 
it made him the fastest pacer in the world. 

"With the exception of Directum I., Hetty G. was 
the most peculiar horse I ever trained. She had been 
raced before I got her and cast aside because she 
would not eat for two or three days after a race. 
She got so that she would rush to the half like a. 
flash and stop almost to a walk on the trip to the 

"When I took Hetty G. I knew that if she did not 
eat she would not do me any good. I began experi- 



meriting with her and found that she was fond of 
carrots. A few were put in her oats. Hetty ate 
the carrots and left the oats. I then got a large 
grater and scraped the carrots through it. These 
were mixed with ground oats and brown sugar. She 
ate that and kept rattling the feed box for more. 

"In two seasons I won twenty-six out of twenty- 
nine races with Hetty G. The last year I had her 
she won sixteen races straight. The harness was 
never put on her for five days after a race. On the 
fifth day she was jogged two or three miles. On 
the sixth day if her races came a week apart, she 
was jogged three miles and driven one mile in 2:40. 

"Under this treatment Hetty G. proved a game 
mare. She would follow her field at any pace and 
come out with a rush in the stretch as soon as she 
was called on. In her race at Hartford she broke 
a hopple and Nathan Straus won a heat. Almost 
everyone thought that she was due for a trimming 
but she came back and won looking for horses. 

"R. T. C. was another peculiar horse. He carried 
more weight than any horse that ever raced as fast 
as he did. His shoe, pad, and quarter boot weighed 
thirty-two ounces. Then he had corns. 

"The 'old plow horse/ as Mr. Thompson always 
called him, was much faster than his record of 
2:06*4 indicates. He was also fortunate in not 
meeting any extremely fast horses. His long list 
of winning brackets would have looked different if 
he had bumped into a few that have been raced since 



All of the men who were identified with the 
Standard Oil Company before it became a world 
wide organization owned and drove trotters on the 
road. A few also raced them. 

For a number of years John D. Rockefeller had 
a private stable at the Cleveland Driving Park. He 
also had a stable in New York. It was located a 
few doors from the building in which Robert Bon- 
ner kept Maud S. His brother William had an 
attractive stable on the opposite side of the street 
while during the summer months his horses were 
kept at Greenwich, Conn. 

John D. Rockefeller's most noted road team was 
the cross-matched pair, Midnight and Kate McCall. 
Alex McLean had charge of them as well as the 
other members of the stable, which included Bob 
Frost, a gray gelding by Independence out of Cleora, 
that was bred by his brother William, Bonhomme, 
Dodgeville, Mattie Mentone by Monaco out of Mat- 
tie Hunter, and the Brown Wilkes gelding, Pennock. 
When McLean died, John D. sold his horses and took 
up bicycling. He finally drifted to golf. 

William Rockefeller's most noted pair were the 
cross-matched team, Independence and Cleora. In 
1883 John P. Gilbert drove them in 2:16i/ 2 to a pole 
cart at Hartford. This was a quarter of a second 
below the team record which John Murphy made 
with Frank Work's pair, Edward and Dick Swiveller, 
the preceding year. 


George Saunders succeeded Gilbert in the man- 
agement of William Rockefeller's stable. While he 
was there Wildrake and Virginia Evans were added 
to the list of road horses. 

Frank Rockefeller bred and raced horses. He 
had a stock farm at Wickliffe, Ohio. Haroldmont 
stood at the head of the stud. Lady Clark, 2:27, 
was his best mare. From her he got Hettiemont 
and Pattie Clark, both of which were raced by Geers. 
He also owned Maud C, 2:1.014, and the fast filly, 
Fanny Foley. 

L. V. Harkness was another member of the Stand- 
ard Oil group that developed a fondness for trot- 
ters. His father invested $70,000 in the Rockefeller 
venture. It had grown to millions when passed on 
to L. V. Some of them were invested in Walnut 
Hall Farm, which is America's greatest nursery of 
light harness performers. 

E. T. Bedford of Brooklyn joined the Standard 
Oil ranks after its headquarters were located in New 
York. For years his name has been identified with 
fast road horses and trotters. He made the world's 
team record to wagon over a half-mile track with 
York Boy and Bemay, while he also bred Hamburg 
Belle, 2:01 1 / 4, and marked Diplomat, 2:05 1 /4, on a 
half-mile track. 

George Hopper was a member of the old Standard 
group. In 1864 when John D., William Rockefeller 
and Samuel Andrews opened an office in a little brick 
building on Water Street in Cleveland and painted 
the name "Rockefeller and Company" on the win- 


dow, Hopper had a cooper shop near Cuyahoga 
Creek. Rockefeller & Co. came to him to buy bar- 
rels. For years they complained of leakage and 
evaporation. One day while Hopper and his men 
were debating the subject a tramp stopped at the 
door of the shop. He suggested that they fill the 
barrels with water before they were painted. It was 
tried and proved a success until tank cars and pipe 
lines put the blue oil barrels in the discard. 

Hopper made millions with the others and spent 
some of it for trotters. He established a stock farm 
at Unionville, Ohio, and put Volney French in 
charge. Exarch, a brother to W. B. Fasig's trotter 
Wyandot, was placed at the head of the stud. George 
Hopper in company with Judson H. Clark also paid 
$50,000 for Bell Boy, a few months before he was 
destroyed by fire. 

Samuel Andrews and Flagler, two of the original 
founders of the Standard, owned a number of horses. 
Andrews was fond of the Morgans and at one time 
owned Black Squirrel, sire of the dam of Fred B., 
2:10%. Before Flagler began investing his millions 
in Florida hotels and ' the marine railroad to Key 
West, he was frequently seen on the New York and 
Brooklyn roads behind a team. 

Of the Standard magnates, Frank Rockefeller and 
George Hopper were the most affable. Frank Rocke- 
feller enjoyed the races and was always pleased to 
lay aside his business affairs to talk horse. George 
Hopper was at his best on race day. With a box 
lunch and a bottle of beer, he would sit all afternoon 


in the grandstand and watch his horses go. It did 
not make a particle of difference to him whether 
they were first or last. All he wanted was action. 
John D. Rockefeller was a stockholder in the 
Cleveland Driving Park but no one ever saw him at 
a race meeting. He appeared in the morning to 
drive his horses. A slight bow was the only recog- 
nition that he ever gave any of the rising genera- 
tion although at times he joined in conversation with 
W. J. Gordon, Col. Edwards or H. M. Hanna. Wil- 
liam Rockefeller never returned to Cleveland after 
he located in New York. He was as distant as 
John D. 


St. Lawrence and Tacony were the first Canadian 
trotters that attracted attention on the American 
turf. The former made his record of 2:34 at Chi- 
cago in 1848, while he also won at two and three 
mile heats. His breeding was unknown although 
some claim that he was a Tippoo, to whom nearly all 
of the early Canadian trotters traced. 

Tacony was the first Canadian 2:30 trotter. He 
was foaled in 1844 in Prince Edward or Hastings 
County, Ontario, and made his record of 2:27 in 1853 
when he defeated Flora Temple over the Union 
Course. Tacony was got by Sportsman, a son of 
Tippoo. This tap root sire was by the Narragansett 
pacer Scape Goat, his dam being a chestnut mare 
which a traveling preacher purchased for $93 at an 


auction sale of army horses in Kingston after the 
close of the war of 1812. Tippoo was foaled in 1817 
and died in 1836. Three of his sons found a place 
in the turf records. Sportsman sired Tacony and 
Young Sportsman, who got Clara that made a rec- 
ord of 2:27 at Watertown, N. Y., in 1867. His other 
successful sons were Black Warrior, the sire of 
Royal George, and Seneca Chief, the grandsire of 
Clarion Chief, the sire of Tariff, 2:2014. 

The Royal George family was prominent in the 
light harness racing world for many years. Byron 
and Toronto Chief were its leaders. The latter won 
to saddle and to harness and when retired got 
Thomas Jefferson, 2:23, and Naubuc, sire of Mable, 
the dam of Directly, 2:031,4. Royal Revenge, an- 
other son of Toronto Chief, was represented on the 
Grand Circuit by Fred Hooper, 2:23, Prince, 2:2114, 
and the black mare Lucy, 2:201/4, usually referred 
to as the "Queen's Own" to distinguish her from 
the daughter of George M. Patchen which carried 
the same name. 

Pilot, a Canadian family founder, did not get any 
foals in the Dominion. His reputation as a sire 
rests upon his descendants in Kentucky, where he 
was taken from New Orleans, his trip to that city 
being made in 1831 behind the wagon of the Yankee 
peddler Elias L. Rockwell. Clear Grit, another 
Canadian sire of note, was one of the few horses by 
thoroughbred sires, that became standard. He was 
foaled in 1859, being by imported Lapidist, and made 
a record of 2:4214 at London in 1872. Clear Grit 


got Fuller, 2:13%, Billy M., 2:19%, Florence G., 
2:20 1 /4, and the two miler Amber, 2:25*4, one of the 
first Canadian trotters taken to Europe. 

Rooker, an Ohio product, would also have become 
a family builder in western Ontario if given an 
opportunity. A trip to Kansas in the middle of his 
career and from which he returned blind gave him 
a back set from which he did not recover until it 
was too late for breeders to avail themselves of his 
services. His list of performers include Nellie 
Rooker, 2:10*4, and Maud Pollard, 2:13%, while he 
also appears as the sire of the dam of Frank Rysdyk, 
2:08%, as well as the grandam of Gallagher, 2:03V2- 

The Royal George, Clear Grit, Rooker and Clarion 
Chief families have disappeared in the male line. 
The mares tracing to them, however, became the 
Canadian foundation stock and threw speed when 
mated with the horses taken from the United States. 
These included the three Hambletonian stallions 
General Stanton, Administrator and Rysdyk, Winfield 
Scott, Highland Boy, Superior, Chicago Volunteer, 
Bellwood, Phil Sheridan, Kentucky Prince Jr., Wild- 
brino, Coaster, Frank Bogash, Rampart, All Right, 
Sidney Pointer, Larabie the Great, Almont Wilkes, 
The Eel, Melbourne King, Grattan Royal, Gold Hal, 
Oro Wilkes, Abdell, Will Mayburn, Gilbert Patch, 
Kentucky Todd, Jim Todd, Chilcoot, Star Patchen, 
Merry Direct and Dustless McKinney. 

Before any of their get was seen at a Grand Cir- 
cuit meeting, Canada found a banner bearer in 
Moose. He made a record of 2:19i/ 2 at Rochester in 


1880. In a few years he was followed by the Phil 
Sheridan mare Phyllis, 2:1514. She was one of the 
best trotters of her day. 

General Stanton sired a number of good trotters, 
of which Fides, Fides Stanton and Geraldine were 
seen at Grand Circuit meetings. Ridgewood got Ben 
B., 2:1314, and Wanda, 2:17%, while before being 
taken to Ohio, Rysdyk got Victor, 2:211/2, and Royal 
Rysdyk, the sire of Frank Rysdyk and Gallagher. 
Highland Boy was represented by the pacer Joe L., 
2:15, while Highland Chief, one of his sons, sired 
the dam of Wentworth, 2:0414, and Hamlet, another 
son, got Brownie, the dam of Darky Hal, 2:021/4, 
and Charley B., 2:07%. 

But very little was done in the production of light 
harness performers in the Maritime Provinces until 
All Right and Rampart were taken to Nova Scotia. 
They were followed by Melbourne King, Conn's 
Harry Wilkes, Brazilian, Achille, Winfield Stratton, 
Captain Aubrey and Commodore Ledyard. Their 
get were also carried to Prince Edward Island, where 
light harness racing is the leading source of enter- 

Of late years Canadian breeders have been send- 
ing many fast pacers to the races and that the ma- 
jority of them have the winning habit is evidenced 
by the records of Frank Bogash, Jr., 1:59*4; Louie 
Grattan, 2:00; Kate Hal, 2:011/4; Angus Pointer, 
2:01%; Roy Grattan, 2:0134; Darky Hal, 2:021/4; 
Gallagher, 2:031/4; Norman Grattan, 2:031/4; Tarzan 
Grattan, 2:03i/ 2 ; Harold H., 2:03%; Prue Grattan, 


2:04%; Major Brino, 2:04i/ 2 ; Fern Hal, 2:05%; 
Jean Grattan, 2:05%; Texas Rooker, 2:05%; Dick 
Mayburn, 2:05%; Calgary Earl, 2:07%; Kinney Di- 
rect, 2:023/4, and Battle Axe, 2:01%. Frank Bo- 
gash, Jr., was bred in Quebec. Angus Pointer was 
foaled in Ontario and was one of the best race horses 
in the Hal family. Darky Hal had Major Brino and 
Texas Rooker behind her when she won in 2:02%. 
Harold H. won six out of nine starts the year he 
made his record. Calgary Earl and Kate Hal were 
bred in Alberta. Dick Mayburn was foaled in Man- 
itoba. He won fourteen out of fifteen races in 
1918. The Grattan Royal family of pacers were bred 
in Ontario. Its members proved good race horses. 


While a good race horse is apt to come from any 
family those who purchase racing material in the 
rough must if they expect to make a profit confine 
their selections to the strains which produce a vol- 
ume of speed. A glance over the list of great race 
horses which have from year to year carried almost 
everything before them in the leading circuits 
shows that many of the best were the sole repre- 
sentatives of their sires. All of the other foals were 
either failures as race horses or only made a fair 
showing in moderate company. 

The sires of such horses as Rarus, Walter E., 
Ryland T., Anderson's Nightingale, Sonoma Girl, 
Highball, R. T. C, Johnson, Prince Alert and The 


Eel would have been forgotten if it had not been for 
their showing on the turf. What was true in their 
day is true now and always will be. Nature has 
many secrets when it comes to producing race 
horses. All that a buyer can take for a guide is 
what is on record and what the horse under consid- 
eration can show. 

No one can purchase all of the promising colts by 
a stallion in the hope of getting a star even if it 
should prove a champion. There must be a number 
that can pay their way or the flame is not worth 
the candle. 

Back in the eighties the management of the 
Jewett Farm, near East Aurora, N. Y., decided to 
keep all of the foals by Jerome Eddy and develop 
them. A number of tempting offers for what 
looked like racing material were turned down. 
When the trial day came the bulk of the farm 
products were shy of speed while Jerome Eddy's 
best performer was bred by a manufacturer in Con- 
necticut. At the same time, a neighbor, C. J. 
Hamlin at the Village Farm, developed and raced 
his products and sold his colts whenever he could 
find a buyer. The Hamlin place was a success and 
the Jewett system a failure. 

Those who are now looking for racing material 
follow in the wake of the race winning families and 
especially those which have been getting the money 
in the futurities. The blazed trails are marked by 
the winners of races. It shows where the threads 
of gold are in each family. As it fades another is 


taken up. What is considered the golden cross in 
one decade is discarded in the next. 

When Hambletonian was in the ascendant in 
Orange County any of his sons out of well-bred 
mares were considered fashionable. At one time 
Administrator was given the right of way because 
his dam was by Mambrino Chief. Later on, when 
the grain and chaff were separated, it was found 
that Catchfly and McMahon were his only perform- 
ers worth favorable comment. Finally all of the 
sons of Hambletonian fell by the wayside except 
George Wilkes, Electioneer and Happy Medium. 

The trails of these horses were blazed with win- 
ners. At the start there were many forks in the 
road, but as the years rolled by only four remained. 
Two run to George Wilkes, one through Axworthy 
and Axtell to William L., and the other through 
Belwin, San Francisco, Zombro and McKinney to 
Alcyone. The one to Electioneer runs through 
Etawah, Al Stanley, Todd and Bingen to May King, 
and the one to Happy Medium through Azoff, Peter 
Volo and Peter the Great to Pilot Medium. 

The records which were made at each remove in 
these lines also showed that they contained cham- 
pions and race winners of merit. Those who are 
familiar with the William L. line will recall Axtell, 
Hamburg Belle, Lee Axworthy, Lee Worthy, Guy 
McKinney, Mr. McElwyn and Spencer, while the 
Alcyone branch contributed Martha Wilkes, Sweet 
Marie, San Francisco, Lu Princeton, Sumatra and 
Fireglow. The Electioneer line presents the names 


of Palo Alto, Bingen, Uhlan, Etawah and Etta 
Druien. Happy Medium follows with Nancy 
Hanks, Peter the Great, Mabel Trask, Peter Man- 
ning, Peter Maltby, Rose Scott and Scotland. 

From fifty to seventy-five years are required to 
build the maternal line of a great race horse. The 
known strains in the dam of Peter the Great date 
from the war between the states. While it was in 
progress a trooper in a Louisiana regiment of cavalry 
traded a Lexington mare, which was heavy in foal, 
to a blacksmith who had a shop on one of the roads 
leading out of Clarksville, Tenn. This mare's foal 
proved to be a colt which was named Creole. He 
got Dixie, the dam of Shadow, a mare which to the 
cover of Grand Sentinel, produced Santos, the dam 
of Peter the Great. 

Favonian is another example of pedigree building. 
He was foaled at Memphis, Tennessee and strange 
to relate the first known crosses in his pedigree came 
from the same state. 

In 1852, Mrs. Rains, who lived near Nashville, 
owned a mare by Freeman's Tobe out of a daughter 
of imported Leviathan. She bred her to Fanning's 
Canada Chief and got a black filly which was subse- 
quently sold to John Kirkham of Nashville. He 
named the filly Kitty Kirkham and sold her to D. 
Swigert, who had a stock farm near Spring Station, 
Ky. Later on Swigert sold Kitty Kirkham to Mor- 
gan Vance. In 1886 he bred her to Edwin For- 
rest, one of the stallions at Woodburn Farm. From 
this mating Vance got a chestnut filly named Jessie. 


He sold her to D. Swigert. In 1870 she passed from 
him to F. M. Wetherbee, Alstead, New Hampshire. 
Nothing more was heard of Jessie until 1885 when 
she produced the chestnut filly Jessie B. by Bayard, 
a son of Pilot Jr. Bayard had a record of 2:31%, 
and was considered a very fair stock horse in his day. 

In due time Jessie B. became the property of 
James F. Scott, Donerail, Ky. In 1897 he booked 
her to Ashland Wilkes. While she was carrying this 
foal Jessie B. was consigned to a Lexington sale. 
She was purchased for $15 by J. F. Barbee, and pro- 
duced Ruby Ashland. 

So far none of the mares in Favonian's pedigree 
showed that they had racing speed. They were in 
all probability never trained. 

In 1902 when Allerton was standing in Kentucky, 
Ruby Ashland was mated with him and produced a 
chestnut filly that was named Allie Allerton. She 
paced and showed a mile in 2:14!/£. 

Allie Allerton was retired to the brood mare ranks. 
She was booked in 1911 to General Watts, and pro- 
duced Allie Watts, a successful trotter. 

Allie Watts was retired with a four year old record 
of 2:07%. In 1917 she was bred to J. Malcolm 
Forbes, and in 1918 produced Favonian. He started 
racing in 1920 as a two-year old and finally trotted in 

Almost a century elapsed between the birth of 
imported Leviathan and Favonian. The former was 
foaled in 1823 and imported to Alabama in 1830. The 
trail is a long one, but the result was worth effort. 



Budd Doble was born in Berks County, Penn., Oc- 
tober 10, 1841. He died at Puenta, Calif., at the 
home of his daughter, March 31, 1926. To the pres- 
ent generation of race-goers the name of this man is 
comparatively unknown, as he did not race on the 
eastern tracks after 1903, when he came over the 
mountains with Kinney Lou. 

There was a time when his name was on every lip. 
Also during his career, which covered over half a 
century, Doble established a record, that has never 
been, and no doubt never will be equaled, by reduc- 
ing the world's record for trotters three times with 
Dexter in 1867, Goldsmith Maid in 1874, and Nancy 
Hanks in 1892. Dexter cut the 2:19% of Flora 
Temple two and one-half seconds when he trotted in 
2:1714. Goldsmith Maid reduced his mark three 
and one-quarter seconds when she reached 2:14, 
while Nancy Hanks made the greatest cut of all 
when, thanks to the bike sulky, she moved the 
2:083^ of Maud S. to 2:04. 

It is also a pleasure to look down the long, long 
trail to the old Centerville Course on Long Island in 
1861 when Budd Doble first attracted national at- 
tention by defeating Lancet to saddle with Rocking- 
ham in 2:241/2- At that time he was but twenty 
years old. Doble's skill in the saddle and sulky in 
this and subsequent events prompted Hiram Wood- 
ruff to recommend him as trainer and driver of Dex- 
ter when that brilliant advance agent of the Ham- 

Budd Doble # 
first to drive arnile in 2:14. 

showing how the Veteran reinsman ah beared 
after his retirement 



ir c W.H.Dohle. , 

(father of Budd) 

first to drive a mile in TJ6$£ 



bletonian family of trotters passed out of his stable. 

With him Doble also earned the honors to which 
the New England poet Oliver Wendell Holmes re- 
ferred in 1876 in his poem, "How the old horse won 
the bet," when after mentioning old Hiram and Dan 
Pf eiffer, he said : 

"With them a third — and who is he 
That stands beside the fast b. g., 
Budd Doble whose catarrhal name 
So fills the nasal trump of fame," 
and it certainly did fill it at that time, as when Dex- 
ter was retired in 1887, he began with Goldsmith 
Maid. She was raced for ten years during which 
the little mare performed before more people than 
any horse that ever lived. She was the whale of the 
light horse racing world, and while Maud S., Nancy 
Hanks, Alix, Uhlan, and hundreds of others trotted 
faster, none of them took her place in turf history. 

During his long career Budd Doble trained and 
raced many trotters and pacers, such horses as Mon- 
roe Chief, Sam Purdy, Bonnie McGregor, Monbars, 
McDoel, Jack, Arrow and Ed Annan being in the 
number. There is also another sprig linked with 
the name of this man. No one ever had a doubt but 
what the horse he was driving was out to win. 

Doble made his last trip to New York when he sold 
Kinney Lou, 2:07%. At that time a representative 
of the Herald asked him when he drove his first race. 

"I rode my first race," he answered. "It was in 
1858 at the old Point Breeze track in Philadelphia 
and I remember that I had to carry nineteen pounds 


of lead to make the weight, 145 pounds. It was a 
match for $50 between John Cudney's gray mare 
Jenny Lind, to go in harness, and George Nugent's 
gray trotter Frost, under saddle. I won the first 
heat in 2 :45, but the mare was too fast for us, and 
took the stakes in 2 :43 and 2 :40. 

"My father, William Doble, then lived and trained 
at Bristol, Pa. One of the horses in his stable was 
the gray trotter Rockingham. Matt Miller of Phil- 
adelphia owned him and matched him for $1,000 
against Lancet to trot mile heats over the Centre- 
ville track on Long Island a year or two after the 
race at Point Breeze. I came over to New York to 
ride him. The Lancet people had sent to Boston for 
Dan Mace to ride their horse. Mace and I met for 
the first time in this race. Hiram Woodruff, who 
was a great friend of my father's and often visited 
him, had taken quite a liking to me, and I remember 
that when Rockingham won the match that day 
Hiram called out from the quater stretch, 'We don't 
have to send to Boston for a rider. We've got one 
right here who can best him.' 

General Grant in Judges' Stand 

"It was Hiram who recommended me to train Dex- 
ter when George B. Alley sold him to George Trus- 
sell and he passed out of Woodruff's hands. Dexter 
was my first great horse. He had an engagement 
to race against George M. Patchen, Jr., for a purse of 
$2,000, just one week after he came into my hands. 
I was still a youngster and the newspapers warned 


the public not to bet on Dexter in the hands of a new 
and inexperienced trainer. He won easily and in 
his next race broke the record under saddle, trotting 
in 2:19. This was in July, 1866. In September 
Molly Trussell killed George Trussell, who was a Chi- 
cago sporting man, and Dexter was purchased by A. 
F. Fawcett, of Baltimore, who had been a silent part- 
ner with Trussell all the time. 

"When Dexter trotted against time at Baltimore 
that fall General Grant was one of the judges, and 
he was in the stand again at Washington when Dex- 
ter beat Silas Rich in 2:21i/2> in harness. Grant 
liked a trotter as well as any man I ever knew, and 
he could drive one better than some professional 
trainers I have seen. He used to come out to the 
Fashion track on Long Island when I had Dexter in 
training there for Robert Bonner and he would sit in 
the box stall and talk horse with real enthusiasm. 
He sent me two fillies to train for him several years 
afterward, but they were burned to death before I 
had a chance to develop them." 

In talking of old times Mr. Doble related a bit of in- 
side history concerning the sale of Dexter to Robert 
Bonner, which will be read with interest. Popular 
belief has always dated Mr. Bonner's ownership from 
August 14, 1867, the day when Dexter capped the 
climax of his fame by trotting a mile to sulky in 
2:17 1 / 4, but Mr. Doble says the horse was really sold 
on July 26, when he trotted in 2:19 on the half-mile 
track at Riverside Park, in Boston. The publisher 
of the Ledger, who rivalled P. T. Barnum as an ad- 


vertiser, kept the purchase to himself until the psy- 
chological moment, when the eyes of the whole coun- 
try were on the trotter, and then had it announced 
from the judges' stand at Buffalo along with the an- 
nouncement of the breaking of the world's record. 

Dexter vs. Ethan Allen 

Another bit of inside history concerning Dexter 
was related by Mr. Doble when he was asked why 
John Morrissey and Eph Simmons paid forfeit for 
Ethan Allen and his running mate, Charlotte F., in 
the match against Dexter in single harness at the 
Fashion track in June, 1867. The hoar of ages has 
gathered round the story that Morrissey and Sim- 
mons, knowing that the stallion, with a runner to 
pull him along, could beat any trotter in the world, 
paid forfeit in the original match and gave out the 
report that Charlotte F. was lame in order to draw 
on the backers of Dexter when it came to betting on 
the little match for $500 a side, which was arranged 
"just to keep from disappointing the crowd." 

"Morrissey and Simmons paid forfeit in the origi- 
nal match," he said, "to save their bets on Ethan 
Allen. Take my word for it, they were panic strick- 
en after Dexter defeated Lady Thorn at two-mile 
heats in 4:51, and they wanted to get out the best 
way they could. Nobody was more surprised than 
they were when the team won. The betting shows 
it. It was two to one on Dexter before the start and 
even money after he had lost a heat." 

"Would Dexter, Lady Thorn or Goldsmith Maid 


have a chance with the greatest trotters of to-day if 
you could bring them back to their best form and 
give them the same advantages as to sulkies, boots, 
shoeing, balancing, training, tracks and the like?" 

"I think they would, but I would rather put it an- 
other way. If the trotters of to-day had to go back 
to the conditions existing when Dexter, Lady Thorn 
and Goldsmith Maid were on the turf I don't believe 
any of them could beat the records of the old time 
horses very much." 

"Was Dexter a greater trotter than Lady Thorn 
or Goldsmith Maid?" 

"Thorn was a much better mare than the public 
thought she was. She was just coming on when she 
met Dexter, and was beaten by him. Her winning 
races with the Maid were trotted when she was at 
her best and the other mare was still improving, so 
that it is hard to say which was best, but I think 
Thorn might, when she was just to an edge, beat 
both Dexter and the Maid. She was not so reliable 
as the Maid, however, and in a series of races I 
should expect the Maid to win. She was the great- 
est campaigner of them all. Just think of it ! When 
she was nineteen years old she equalled her record 
of 2:14 and won the fastest six heat race that had 
ever been trotted. And when she was twenty she 
defeated Rarus in 2:14!/>. She never had on a hind 
shoe lighter than ten ounces, when it should have 
been three or four ounces, and she wore a common 
road shoe forward. Dexter had one great quality 
that no other trotter ever had. He could go any 


race at one, two or three mile heats, and he could go 
any way rigged, under saddle, to sulky or to wagon, 
and beat the best horses of his day. He was the 
greatest all round trotter we have ever seen." 

"Dave" Muckle told a little different story from 
Mr. Doble. Muckle was the man who brought up 
George Wilkes on the bottle and who afterward 
worked for "Eph" Simmons, going from New York 
to Lexington with George Wilkes and remaining 
there a number of years. Muckle said that Char- 
lotte F. did not go lame, but they were afraid she 
could not go fast enough and pull Ethan Allen along 
with her, and as they knew a big brown horse that 
could run as fast as she could and who was a good 
deal stronger, he went up to Newburg and got him, 
bringing him down on the boat the night before the 
race. They had doubts as to whether Charlotte F. 
and Ethan Allen could beat Dexter, but they did not 
have any doubts with the other horse. 

In regard to the sale of Dexter, David Bonner said 
that one morning in 1867 a man named Cavanaugh 
from Cincinnati, Ohio, called at the Ledger 
office and asked for Robert Bonner. When he saw 
him he stated that he had come to New York to 
offer him what he considered the fastest trotter in 
the world. After he told what he had Mr. Bonner 
said, "There is only one trotter at the present time 
that I would buy." When asked what one it was he 
said it was Dexter. He was asked how much he 
would give for him and said $35,000. 

Cavanaugh then asked Mr. Bonner if he would pay 


that amount provided the horse could be purchased 
for less, and at the same time told him that Mr. 
Fawcett, the owner of Dexter, was at the Fifth 
Avenue Hotel. Mr. Bonner told him to go and buy 
the horse if he could. If he could buy him for less 
he could have the difference. In a few hours the 
man returned and told Mr. Bonner that he could have 
the horse after he had fulfilled certain engagements, 
for $33,000. Robert Bonner paid $35,000 for Dex- 
ter as agreed, and Fawcett gave Cavanaugh $2,000 
for making the sale. 


Owners are an important item in a racing stable 
and as Splan remarked it frequently requires more 
skill to train them than their horses. As a rule, 
beginners have ideas which are at variance with the 
trade and, if tried, invite disaster. It is on record 
that one owner ordered his horses trained and jogged 
in the afternoon as that was when they were raced. 
On workout days his grooms ate their suppers out of 
their hands when cooling out the horses. Another 
owner had his horses worked once a week as they 
only raced once. When the bell rang he had a lot 
of fat horses. Senator Stanford barred toe weights 
and overdraw checks while John Sheppard wanted 
his horses to go without boots. 

In the days when over half of the horses were 
purchased for the road a little slip did not amount 
to much but now when their only mission is to race 


a skip is followed by the loss of a few engagements* 

In the seventies the most of the trainers were 
striving to develop horses which at maturity would 
be clever enough to sell to the members of the seal- 
skin brigade, providing their pupil did not suit Rob- 
ert Bonner or W. H. Vanderbilt. Robert Bonner 
purchased the champions Dexter, Rarus, Maud S. 
and Sunol. Dexter and Maud S. proved road models. 

Commodore Vanderbilt had a number of road 
horses, Mountain Boy being the fastest. His son 
W. H. Vanderbilt was fond of teams. His most 
noted horses were Early Rose, Aldine and Maud S. 

Joseph Harker, an old time New York road driver, 
raced his horses. He had Lula and May Queen, 
whose son May King sired Bingen. Charles Kerner 
also drove Fleetwing. She afterwards produced 

Major Dickinson and David Hammond were the 
last double team enthusiasts in New York. The lat- 
ter had Frederica and Nellie S. and the perfectly 
matched team Corona and Roberta. Major Dickin- 
son owned a number of pairs, the fastest being 
Aubine and Lady Wellington and Rose Leaf and 
Sally Simmons, the last of which produced Hamburg 
Belle for E. T. Bedford. Major Dickinson also raced 
the pacer Ed Annan and Sir Walter Jr. 

J. B. Houston was a prominent New York owner. 
General Beal made him a present of Spofford with 
which he won the Charter Oak Purse in 1888. He 
also purchased Clara, Compeer and Hades at Stony 
Ford Farm. While John H. Shults owned hundreds. 


of horses he only raced a few. Of these Edith R., 
Town Lady and Arrow were the most conspicuous 
until the Axworthys appeared. From that lot he 
started Tom Axworthy, Jack Axworthy and Guy 

C. K. G. Billings leads all owners of fast horses. 
He flashed on the speedway with Lucille. She was 
followed by Lou Dillon, Major Delmar, Uhlan, The 
Harvester, William and Morning Star. Irving 
Gleason had his share but he never drove them. His 
speed holdings started with Hal Pointer after he 
had passed the peak. He was followed by George 
Gano, Pearl Benboe and Peter Manning. 

W. B. Dickerman bred his racing material. Bel- 
lini was the first. Later on Hillandale Farm sent 
out Masette, Leonardo, Atlantic Express and Nedda. 
Henry Oliver adopted the same plan. After Peter 
Scott completed his $50,535 campaign he retired 
him. From his get he developed Rose Scott, High- 
land Scott and Scotland. 

Pennsylvania has had many prominent owners 
since General Cadwalder raced Dutchman. Of the 
lot none had as much racing material as Barton 
Pardee. His list included Mabel Trask, Lu Prince- 
ton, Busy's Lassie, E. Colorado, Judge Ormonde, 
Thompson Dillon and Hazelton which he bred. 

Henry Bowles made a splendid selection when he 
paid for Czarworthy. H. W. Hannan had a clever 
pair in Etta Druien and Full Worthy. George 
Ketcham bred and developed Cresceus after making 
a start with Charley Friel, Miss Lida and Nyanza. 


Henry N. Smith owned a racing stable before he 
started Fashion Farm. When there were but five 
2:20 trotters he owned three of them. They were 
Goldsmith Maid, Lady Thorn and Lucy. At that 
time he also had Rosalind, Tattler, Jay Gould and 
General Knox. Jack Haverly the minstrel took a 
flyer on the turf with Darby. Dustin raced him and 
was presented with his winnings. 

John Farnum is a leading New England owner. 
His best selections were Argot Boy, Frank Dewey 
and Lady Wanetka. John L. Dodge purchased Lady 
Wanetka but lost her in a fire. It was a jolt but 
Dodge has had his share of which Periscope, Holly- 
rood Kate, Hollyrood Bob, Great Britton and Holly- 
rood Susan were the best. There is also a shoal of 
winners bearing the Hollyrood prefix which he bred. 

In addition to leading all American breeders in 
producing winners on the running turf, John E. Mad- 
den owned a number of trotters. Of these the most 
successful were Soprano, Hamburg Belle, Tenara 
and Siliko. Madden also brecf Diplomat which E. T. 
Bedford drove to a half-mile track record of 2:05^4, 
and Guesswork. 

After Geers located at Memphis, Frank Jones be- 
came an owner. His best were Dudie Archdale, 
Anvil, Etawah, Highball and Baron Grattan. W. H. 
Cane started with Sunflash. He was followed by 
Ethelinda, Jackson Grattan, Emma Harvester which 
he drove to a record of 2:0414, John Henry, Brusil- 
off and Sam Williams. Sanford Small's horses are 
raced in the same stable. His best items since he 


sold Peter Scott for $30,000 were Grayworthy, The 
Great Volo and McGregor the Great. 

Of the ladies Lotta Crabtree was the most suc- 
cessful. She won with Nutboy, Sonoma Girl, My 
Star and Lotta. Mrs. Davidson owned St. Frisco, 
whose contests with Mabel Trask were the best ever 
seen in any circuit. Sadie Mac proved the best trot- 
ter owned by Miss Wilkes, She also raced Kentucky 
Todd and Princess Todd and bred Lambert Todd. 

W. N. Reynolds has been a liberal buyer. Mrs. 
Yerkes and Mariondale both won for him. In 1927 
he was represented by Aileen Guy. Penny Bros., who 
live near him in North Carolina, made apt selections 
when they purchased Grace Direct and Crawford. 
Crawford won sixteen races for them in 1925. 

During 1925 and 1926 E. Roland Harriman 
moved into the front row with Pluto Watts, Guy 
Trogan, Peter Maltby, Guy Ozark, Cinema and Anna 
Bradford's Girl. 

A. B. Coxe made a specialty of colt races. He won 
with his selections Peter Thompson and Dillon Ax- 
worthy. They were followed by the products of his 
farm. It contributed Bertha Dillon, Nella Dillon, 
Sister Dillon, Nelson Dillon and Thompson Dillon. 
Oettinger Bros, after purchasing Ante Guy decided 
that her sire Guy Axworthy was worth while. They 
started him up the ladder. While he was climbing 
they bred David Guy and Guy Richard which they 
sold for $30,000. 

W. Kelly purchased Hollyrood Leonard after he 
won the Matron Stake. A. H. Cosden made a fortu- 


nate selection when he picked The Real Lady. 

Billy Burke was the best trotter owned by J. How- 
ard Ford. He sold him for export. Pilot Boy was 
John C. Welty's first clever performer and Jane the 
Great the last. She won at Columbus the day he 
died. Captain David Shaw owned his quota of win- 
ners. Of the flood which rolled his way Prince 
Loree, Joan, Grace, Mack Forbes and Peter Mac 
were the best. 

C. J. Hamlin bred and raced a splendid lot. The 
most of it was foaled at the Village Farm. Starting 
with Belle Hamlin he came back year after year 
with Globe, Prince Regent, Nightingale, Heir-at- 
Law, Fantasy, The Abbott, The Monk and Lord 
Derby. He purchased Robert J. and Direct Hal. 

Few of the old guard antedated Frank Ellis. He 
started with Nettie and closed with Lee Worthy and 
Aileen Guy. W. J. Gordon who raced Clingstone, 
Guy, Clemmie G. and Mambrino Sparkle paralleled 
a few of his years, one of their rivals being Edwin 
Thorne who bred the gelding Edwin Thorne, Daisy- 
dale and Misty Morning. 

W. Ward started as an owner with Clyde the Great 
and followed with Trumpet. George Graves after 
racing Bronson bred Commodore Wilson. Tom Tag- 
gert retired as an owner after selling Colonel Bos- 
worth and The Senator. 

W. M. Wright dropped in among the leaders with 
Peter Manning. He also established Calumet Farm. 

Slipping back thirty-five years Morris Jones was 
the owner of Pactolus and Alix, the first trotter to 


beat 2:04. A little later Dr. McCoy appeared on the 
scene with Pan Michael and Lord Dewey. During 
the same period J. Malcolm Forbes raced Nancy 
Hanks, Peter the Great, Arion, Bingen and bred 
Nico, Sadie Mac and Todd. 

Few owners ever had a better pair of trotters 
than Louis Neidhart when he raced Charley Mitchell 
and Baden. The last year that C. C. Lloyd was on 
the turf he paid the bills on Doctor Nick and Arion 
Guy. It was decided to not race the Guy Axworthy 
colt in his three-year-old form. A change was made 
at Hartford when Daystar was drawn. Arion Guy 
was started to fill the race. He won and later landed 
the futurities. 

Walter Candler made his debut on the mile tracks 
with Abbedale. He was followed by Bogalusa, Pete 
Green and Tarzan Grattan. W. B. Eckert has owned 
and raced a number of fast horses. His leaders in 
the record list include Peter Stevens, Bon Zolock, 
Minia Dillon, Gordon Dillon and Prince Charming. 

Rod McKenzie owned a splendid stable. His most 
successful were Hal Boy, Joe Patchen II., Vernon 
McKinney, and Penisa Maid. When he was a leader 
Joe Patchen had a number of owners, the best known 
being Taylor, Marsh and Senator McCarthy. Earl 
Jr. also passed through many hands. At one time 
he was the property of Ralph Lasbury w r ho also 
raced the white eyed Ethel Chimes. 

Lizzie March made her owner John Lawrence 
happy when she won in fast company. Mascot did 
the same thing for W. Perry Taylor when he defeat- 


ed Hal Pointer and placed the world's record at 2:04. 

Few owners had better luck with pacers than John 
McGregor. He raced Baronatta, Iskander and Dan 
Hedgewood over the half-mile tracks. C. C. Pender- 
gast also added to the sunny side of life with Colonel 
Bidwell, Robert Commodore and Guesswork before 
he turned the daughter of Peter the Great over to 
W. H. Mahoney. 

Commodore Kitson had a large stable. None of 
its members pleased him as much as Johnston when 
he paced in 2:06 1 4. H. V. Bemis had a stout pair 
in Belle F. and Bonesetter but Little Brown Jug 
touched the high spot for him. T. C. Parsons was 
another owner who put his faith in a pacer. He came 
through with Hal Dillard while George Starr bred 
and raced Planet. 

Prior to the war between the states Henry Beck- 
with of Hartford owned a stable of trotters. At one 
time he offered to race five of them against five 
owned by any other man for $1,000 a race. No one 
accepted. Prince was his best horse. At that time 
the clip was not very fast but the interest as great 
as when Ed Stout won with Peter the Brewer or 
Aaron Williams raced his dam Zombrewer. 

John A. McKerron was H. K. Devereux's best item. 
He was started in amateur events. E. E. Smathers 
also did a little of that kind of racing w r ith Sadie 
Mac but he took a greater interest in the profes- 
sional end with Major Delmar, Dr. Strong and a 
number of others. 

At one time Chauncey Sears showed how easy it 


is to pick a winner. He purchased Mary Putney for 
$5,000 and won the futurities. Later the pay streak 
was rather thin when he tried to land Charley Rex. 
George Estabrooke also caught the roses and thorns 
with Colorado E. and Spanish Queen. 

In his day Nick Hubinger owned a number of 
horses. For several years he campaigned Grace 
Hastings, Frank Agan, Axeyell and Metallis. R. Nash 
raced Hawthorne. She won. He also bred Guy Mc- 
Kinney with which H. B. Rea landed the first Ham- 
bletonian Stake and other worth-while fixtures. This 
colt's showing added to the score which the same 
owner made with Rose Turner, Junior Watts and 
General Todd. 

John Green owned Directum when he was one of 
the best trotters in training. David Cahill also 
made the grade with Charley Herr. 

Edward Thompson owned a number of winners 
when Murphy was on the threshold of his career. 
Starting with Susie N. he followed with Rudy Kipp, 
Native Belle, R. T. C. and Frank Bogash, Jr. Claude 
Luddington received his share of the purse money 
with Count Bugle, Baron Worthy, Merriman and 
Theodore Guy. Franklin Downs struck a snag when 
Alta Donovan severed a tendon at Columbus but did 
well with Sanardo and Peter Etawah. W. H. Mc- 
Courtrie limited his stable to the produce of one 
mare. So far he won with Mr. McElwyn, Herbel- 
wyn and Miss McElwyn. 

When he was starting Walnut Hall Farm, L. V. 
Harkness raced Fereno, Ozanum and Walnut Hall. 


C. F. Emery, another breeder, went to the races with 
Patron, Caspian, Delia Fox and Mattie Hunter. 
Patron had many a bout with George Singerley's 
splendid trotter Prince Wilkes. 

The Wisconsin owner J. I. Case had almost a joy 
ride when he raced Phallas and Jay Eye See. Both 
of them were champions but his stallion was de- 
feated by Trinket and Majolica owned by Nathan 

Those who can look back to the beginning of the 
century may recall "Knap" McCarthy racing Palm 
Leaf for Inspector Burns as well as Dan Cupid and 
Norman B. for W. H. Kelly. Later on Joe Hubinger 
came through in the stakes with John Nolan and 
David Snell marked Jupe 2:07*4. 

John E. Thayer started with Dusty Miller and took 
a skip after owning Ralph Wilkes and Baron Wilkes. 
Thomas W. Lawson owned over a hundred head but 
Boralma was his only winner. James Farley, the 
strike breaker, held his own with Locust Jack, Prince 
C. and Judex. They raced as consistently as Nahma 
did for Squire Bulkeley. 

C. W. Leonard enjoyed his outings when he owned 
Chestnut Peter, Ruby Hall and Bob Armstrong in 
which Albert Hall was a partner. C. W. Williams 
bred and developed the champion stallions Axtell and 
Allerton and the beautiful trotter Eloree. Col. H. S. 
Russell also owned two champion stallions. His 
selections were Fearnaught and Smuggler. William 
Russell Allen had a champion in Kremlin and bred 


Charles Traiser owned Margaret Dillon during her 
career on the turf. She was one of the best. E. D. 
Wiggins, another Bostonian, had a leader in Martha 

From the day that three minutes was beaten the 
Boston stables were loaded with trotters. George 
Hall owned enough to equip a regiment. John Shep- 
pard also had a select group. His list included Young 
Rolfe, Mill Boy, Blondine, Butterfly, Aldine which he 
sold to W. H. Vanderbilt, Dick Swiveller which he 
sold to Frank Work to go with Edward, Arab, Reina, 
Ethel's Pride with which he won the Transylvania, 
Senator L. and Altro L. 

Of the California owners J. Morrow had St. Julien 
when he held the world's record. Adolph Spreckles 
paid the bills on Hulda and Dione while John C. Kirk- 
patrick enjoyed racing with John Caldwell. The 
fleet footed pacers Flying Jib and White Cap were 
Captain Griff eth's road team before they were raced. 
W. Bradbury also had many a ride behind Little 
Albert before Salisbury shipped him over the 

Biflora was Splan's only 2:10 trotter. She was 
owned by Abe Deysher. William Simpson bred 
Bouncer and owned John R. Gentry when he came 
within the fraction of a second of starting the two 
minute list. Star Pointer and Guinette were owned 
and raced by James Murphy. James Hanley also 
had a noble pair in Prince Alert and Audubon Boy, 
both of which beat two minutes. 

At one time M. W. Savage had a handful of cham- 


pions. He owned Dan Patch, George Gano, Direc- 
tum, Minor Heir, Arion and Roy Wilkes. 

When the high wheel sulky was discarded Pat 
Stewart and his sons raced Walter E., Ryland T. and 
Grant's Abdallah. They were stout battlers. S. A. 
Browne had many trotters but Belle Vara, his fast- 
est, was purchased from John E. Madden. James 
Butler also had a rugged group in Direct, Directum 
Kelly and Directum I. 

W. Barefoot bred and raced Single G. He was on 
the go for thirteen years, the longest racing span 
credited to a light harness performer. James Bout- 
well raced Peter Johnston in his three-year-old form 
and kept him until he passed out. Oscar Wolfenden 
owned an interesting group. He started winning 
with Forest B. and Peter Hopeful and continued in 
that groove with Iva Lou, Margaret Spangler and 
Bee Worthy. J. D. Callery's hobby runs to teams. 
Of all his pairs Brighton B. and Lettie Lee were the 
fastest. He drove them in 2:0714. 

The above are only a few of the hundreds of own- 
ers that have passed off and on the racing stage in 
the past fifty years. All of them had horses which 
by their performances blazed the trail for the 
breeders. Each addition to the two minute list 
makes another step on the path of progress. At one 
time it looked as if Uhlan touched the limit but 
Peter Manning passed it. The question now is when 
will the next champion appear and who will own him. 


T R T A L N G 183 


One morning in 1926 when Crozier was training 
Harris Axtien at Charter Oak Park, Charlie Sun- 
rise stood under a tree on the back stretch. As he 
watched the western gelding trot in company with 
Hollyrood Frisco he made a few remarks about the 
men for whom he worked since he landed in Amer- 
ica over fifty years ago. 

For a number of years Charlie received his mail 
at the old Glenville track, Cleveland, Ohio. While 
there he was employed by John D. Rockfeller, H. M. 
Hanna, and the trainers who were located at the 
course over which Maud S. trotted in 2:08% to high 
wheels in 1885. 

Sandy McLean had charge of John D. Rockefeller's 
trotters. When Charley Sunrise hooked on to the 
outfit its first fast team Midnight and Kate Mc- 
Call was passing out. They were followed by 
Dodgeville, Bonhomme, and the Brown Wilkes geld- 
ing Pennock. Mattie Mentone by Monaco out of the 
pacing queen Mattie Hunter and a few others com- 
pleted the oil king's stable of road horses. 

The horses w T ere kept at Glenville during the sum- 
mer. The balance of the year they were in New 
York where the Rockefeller stable was next door to 
the one in which Robert Bonner kept Dexter, Rarus, 
Pickard, Maud S., Alfred S., Sunol and other turf 

Of the days in New York, Charley Sunrise said: 
"Mr. Rockefeller enjoyed sleighing. Every after- 


noon when there was enough snow to make good 
going, McLean sent three or four trotters up the 
road for John D. to drive. He had the most pleasure 
with Dodgeville and Pennock. Both of them had 
perfect manners. They were always on a trot. Bon- 
homme was high keyed and had to have the edge 
taken off her speed before she was clever in com- 
pany. She was also big gaited like most of the 
Wilkes trotters and would hit the sleigh unless 
hitched properly. 

"The first day I took Bonhomme up I put leaders 
on the traces. Some one said she was too far from 
the sleigh. They were removed. When Mr. Rocke- 
feller took her he jogged off and started her up. 
Bonhomme was rank. She hit the sleigh and al- 
most ran away before an officer grabbed her. 

"There was a long session at the stable that even- 
ing. It was continued until Mr. Rockefeller was late 
for dinner. Later Mr. Rockefeller called me on the 
telephone and asked if Bonhomme would be in shape 
to drive the following day. I told him she would. 

"At the time Bonhomme had a little fever in her 
front legs. I removed it by standing her in a tub of 
Pond's Extract as hot as she could bear it. This ex- 
tract was then a Standard Oil product and there was 
always a barrel or two in the stable. 

"The next morning I had another call and reported 
Bonhomme in perfect condition. That afternoon 
she was hitched so that she could not hit the sleigh. 
I gave her a couple of sharp brushes before turning 
her over to Mr. Rockefeller. None of the trotters 


passed her that day. 

"John D. was delighted. He thanked me. This 
occurred before he began giving away dimes. 

"Mr. Rockefeller never took any pride in showing 
his acquaintances, he never had any friends, his 
horses. One day when he saw Mr. Hanna and a 
couple of other gentlemen coming towards his stable 
at the Cleveland Driving Park he said, 'Hurry up and 
hitch that horse. I must get on the track/ With a 
curt 'good morning' he drove off as the party stopped 
in front of the building. 

"John D. Rockefeller sold his horses after the 
death of McLean. Sandy had a tumor on the brain. He 
w T as in a bad way for some time before he passed out. 
I was the only one he knew. One day John D. went 
with me to the hospital. When we entered Sandy's 
room his bed was equipped with a lot of cords. He 
thought he was driving the horses. Mr. Rockefeller 
spoke to him. When he saw that Sandy did not 
know him tears came to his eyes and he left the 

As the horses went out for another trip, Charley 
snapped his watch and said: "When I was with H. 
M. Hanna we wintered at Thomasville, Ga. One day 
word was passed along that John D. Rockefeller was 
going to stop over for a couple of days and was com- 
ing out to the Hanna plantation. At that time Mr. 
Hanna had a number of fast trotters. The lot in- 
cluded Mattie Patterson, 2:09 1 / 4, which won a heat 
from John Nolan when he landed the Charter Oak 
Purse, and Leola H., 2:1014, the dam of Periscope, 

186 T R T A L O N G 

2 :0314, which was raced by John L. Dodge. 

"John D. arrived according to schedule. He was 
brought to the stable to see the horses. Instead of 
looking at them he sat down on a trunk and devoted 
all of his time talking to me about the horses which 
he owned and drove on the road when I was in his 
employ. He walked away with the remark, It will 
never do to forget old times/ " 

When the horses jogged off for the third heat 
Charley Sunrise said, "I was with George Castle for 
a number of years. He made his money in the 
theatrical business in Chicago. Castle raced every- 
where. One day at Grand Rapids, after he won a 
race with Tommy Finch, Splan came over to the 
stable with an Austrian Count. Castle was in the 
middle of an argument with 'Red' Garrity. He only 
nodded when Splan introduced the Count. 

"Splan said that the Count wanted to see Tommy 
Finch. Castle replied, 'Make your deal with Char- 
ley/ meaning me. I showed them the horse. The 
Count was pleased and told Splan to buy him. 

"Splan went over to Castle and offered $7,500 for 
the trotter and said he wanted him for the Count. 
Castle without moving in his chair said, 'Why, Splan, 
you could not buy Tommy Finch today for $75,000. 
Don't you know I just won a race with him?' " 



It is stated in Webster's Dictionary, that a sulky 
was "so called from the owner's desire of riding 
alone." There is also a legend that a woman named 
the vehicle with the comment "that only a sulky 
man would use it." 

A sulky is defined as "a light two wheeled carriage 
for a single person." When this definition was writ- 
ten the vehicle had heavy wooden wheels with broad 
tires strong enough to be used over any kind of 
roads and a straight iron axle to which two elliptical 
springs were attached. The frame was bolted to 
the tops of the springs and the seat had four sup- 
ports which were attached to the frame. The driver 
kept his place by bracing his feet against a stout 
cross bar. When it began to appear on the race 
tracks stirrups were added. Strength and not 
weight was the most important item. 

The sulky was in common use in North America 
before the Revolution. They were used by doctors 
and those who travelled light and did not feel dis- 
posed to ride a horse. 

It is a matter of record that in 1790 President 
Washington sent Colonel Marinus Willett from New 
York to Georgia as a secret agent to invite Alexander 
McGillivray, the chief of the Creek Indians, to visit 
him in the hope of making a treaty. Willett made 
the trip in a sulky. The Indian chief returned with 
him, McGillivray and his attendants riding in a 


When the trotters and pacers began to appear in 
races between 1820 and 1830, the contests were to 
saddle. In the next decade sulkies and wagons were 
also used. By 1860 races to saddle were rare. Since 
1870 there has been very few. 

An old print shows the black gelding Edwin For- 
rest hitched to a high wheel sulky with the driver on 
a seat which must have been between five and six 
feet from the ground. To that hitch this trotter 
won at two miles in 1838 at Philadelphia in 5:13. 
Confidence and Aaron Burr also won races to harness 
during that period. Burr won at three miles in 
8:021/2, and Confidence made a mile record in 2:37^. 

Lady Suffolk began racing to harness in 1839. Her 
first win to one of the cumbersome sulkies was at 
Philadelphia where she defeated Lady Victory in 
2:38. She also won the same year over the Beacon 
Course at Hoboken, N. J., at two miles in 5:26. 

The first change made in the sulky after it began 
to be used in races was the removal of the springs. 
This reduced the vibration and lowered the seat of 
the driver. The straight axle remained for many 
years and on account of it a close hitch was im- 
possible. It also increased the draught and had a 
tendency to make the horses go rough gaited when 
they became leg weary in long races. In those days 
it was also an ordinary occurrence for a driver to let 
his mount take a run in the hope that the change of 
gait would rest him by bringing another set of 
muscles into play. 

A few manufacturers made an effort to improve 


the sulky by increasing the height of the wheels. 
Some of them were six or seven feet high. They did 
considerable wobbling when being w T hisked around 
the flat turns of the old time tracks at a thirty gait. 

A little later a carriage builder in Boston named 
Pray made a sulky with a steel arched axle. He 
also removed the supports from the seat and at- 
tached it to the frame almost as it is at present. This 
permitted a closer hitch but increased the weight. 

This was the style of sulky used in races by George 
Wilkes, Lady Thorn, American Girl, Lucy and Gold- 
smith Maid. They were as well known in their day 
as Mr. McElwyn, Peter Manning and Peter Maltby 
are now\ 

From 1850 to 1870 sulkies were made by carriage 
builders as a side line. In Hartford, Mansuy and 
Smith made a number, one of them being pulled by 
Thomas Jefferson in almost all of his races. In 1910 
it was taken out of a loft and used in a horse parade, 
the Kentucky Prince gelding Guy, 2:09%, being 
hitched to it. 

Charles Caff rey, a carriage builder located at Cam- 
den, N. J., was one of the first to introduce changes 
which had considerable to do with lowering records. 
He made the first sulky with a wooden arch axle. 
This reduced the weight and also improved the rac- 
ing qualities. Caffrey w r as one of the first to advance 
the idea that a vehicle that was free from vibration 
and horse motion would keep a horse from going 
rough gaited and at the same time increase the rate 
of speed. 


The Caffrey sulky retained its popularity until the 
bike sulky appeared. For a number of years it had 
a formidable rival in the truss axle sulky manufac- 
tured by Oliver Toomey at Canal Dover, Ohio. 

Rarus, St. Julien, Jay Eye See, Phallas, Maud S., 
Johnston, and Little Brown Jug made their records 
to this style of sulky. In many races there were 
showers of second growth hickory spokes when the 
hubs rubbed, but as a rule all of the starters fin- 
ished unless a wheel was dished. 

At the close of 1891 Sunol held the trotting record 
2:08% and Direct the pacing record of 2:06. Both 
of them were bred in California. Those figures rep- 
resented the limit of speed. 

In 1892 a pair of bicycle wheels were attached to 
an ordinary sulky frame and brought out for a race 
at Worcester, Mass. Charles Clark made the entry 
for a pacer named Alfred D. He was hitched to the 
bike sulky on June 8, 1892, and won in 2 :29%. The 
showing did not create very much enthusiasm. The 
date, however, should be remembered, as this change 
in the style of sulky increased the rate of speed of 
the light harness horses from five to seven seconds. 
This was more than breeding had done in a dozen 

The first bike sulkies were heavy, jerky affairs, 
but even with that handicap the horses which were 
hitched to them reduced their records. Nancy Hanks 
cut her mark from 2 :09 to 2 :04, and Mascot paced in 
2 :04. For weeks the followers of light harness rac- 
ing revelled in a Saturnalia of record breaking. Aged 


horses and colts were whisked into the 2:10 list. 

With this rush there was a revival of the dream of 
a two minute performer. Such veterans as C. J. 
Hamlin shook their heads when asked for a state- 
ment on the subject. While he did not live to see 
that limit reached by Star Pointer and Lou Dillon, 
Mr. Hamlin bred The Abbott, 2:03*4, and owned 
Robert J., 2:01i/ 2 . 

It was an easy matter to improve on the first bike 
sulky. The Frazier factory at Aurora, 111., rushed 
into the field with a tubular sulky and soon had hun- 
dreds of them in use. The test of time showed that 
they were not durable. Toomey built up his truss 
axle and sent out a sulky that was light, rigid and 
permitted a close hitch. Other builders introduced 
new features, the arch in some of the axles being so 
high that the driver's seat was almost on a line with 
the horse's back. This resulted in many distressing 
accidents, as when a horse reared he was very apt 
to go over backwards and crush the driver. 

With the bike as in the early days of the old style 
sulky there was considerable experimenting in the 
height of wheels. Finally Payne of Troy, N. Y., 
sent out a long shaft sulky with twenty-four inch 
wheels. It dropped the driver down behind the 
horse and reduced the wind resistance. Other build- 
ers increased the size of the wheel. Finally Faber 
made a twenty-eight pound sulky. One of the first 
was built for Joe Patchen. 

At present the most of the sulkies are made at 
Marion, Ohio. The weight is between thirty-three 


and forty pounds. A twenty-eight inch wheel is the 
standard. Almost all of them have wire spokes. Of 
late a few have been equipped with discs to prevent 
a horse from putting a foot through a wheel when 
racing at close quarters. 

Almost a century has elapsed since the sulky was 
first used in races. During that period it has been 
changed from a cumbersome vehicle to a spider web 
on wheels. As the years rolled by over one minute 
has been cut from the rate of speed of the light har- 
ness horse at a mile. The sulky is responsible for 
part of it. 

At the start but very little attention was given to 
the shoes worn by the trotters and pacers. At one 
time when near the end of his career Budd Doble was 
asked how he shod Goldsmith Maid. He said that 
whenever she required a new set she was led to the 
shop nearest the race track at which they were and 
the smith used his own judgment. The Maid wore 
a plain shoe, weighing about a pound forward and a 
three calk shoe behind. 

Doble also said that towards the end of her career 
when Goldsmith Maid was at her best he noticed that 
for some time after she was shod that she was sore 
across the back the morning after a race. He also 
found that when the calks wore down she was not 
bothered while the Maid was not so apt to break. 

Doble never thought that the calks on the hind 
shoes had anything to do with the showing of his 
mount, but he added that if he had known as much 
about shoeing a trotter when he had Goldsmith Maid 


as when he had Nancy Hanks, she would have re- 
duced the world's record to 2:10. All Goldsmith 
Maid wanted after her gait was established was a 
plain set of light shoes. 

Dan Mace was the first driver who experimented 
with shoes and bits. He had a shop in New York 
and employed the best men. While training Lady 
Thorn he shod her behind with a long heeled shoe 
and found that it improved her gait. Others adopted 
this style and continued until it was found that the 
angle and length of the hoof had more to do with 
balancing a horse than the shape of the shoe. A 
grab, a small calk or a roll to make a horse break 
over is now about all that is looked for from foot- 
wear after the weight is determined. 

Golden always said that a pound shoe was light 
enough for any horse. Many agreed with him. Then 
one morning a French-Canadian dropped off at Buf- 
falo with a horse and took him to the race track. 
When he started training he fastened leather bags 
filled with shot to his horse's front feet to keep him 
on a trot. As it made an improvement, someone, 
name unknown, improved the Canadian's idea by 
welding a spur on the shoe and fastening a brass 
weight to it with a screw. Later on the spur was 
abandoned and the weight fastened to the hoof. This 
system is still in vogue, although the tendency is to 
do away with toe weights. 

In the seventies Charles Marvin showed what 
could be done with heavy shoes and toe weights by 
converting Smuggler from a pacer and making him 


the champion trotting stallion. It was an extreme 

When Smuggler broke down Marvin was employed 
by Governor Stanford at Palo Alto. When he took 
up the work he found that toe weighs and overdraw 
checks were barred. This made Marvin sit down 
and do a little thinking. To meet the orders he be- 
gan putting the weight at different parts of the shoe 
and cutting down the horse's foot. Also when he 
found a colt that did not respond to this treatment 
Marvin had boots made in which he could slip enough 
lead to take the place of the toe weights. 

Robert Bonner took up the horse's foot as a fad. 
He did considerable with his own horses but the pub- 
lic did not have access to it until the Roberge book 
was published. For a time Bonner and those who 
agreed with him were rated as cranks on shoeing, 
but in the end their system prevailed. 

The most of the old time drivers held out for the 
long toes and toe weights. The most marked exam- 
ple was the Dauntless gelding Gean Smith which was 
raced by James Goldsmith. A change came, how- 
ever, when trainers found that they had less tendon 
trouble with short toees and at the same time better 
gaited horses. 

The check was the first important change made in 
the harness. All of the early trotters wore side 
checks until Kemble Jackson appeared. He had a 
habit of making a break and dropping his head to 
his knees. A driver could not control a horse in 
that position. 


Hiram Woodruff or one of his friends planned an 
overdraw check for Kemble Jackson, and it was soon 
adopted for almost all horses. Skeeter W. is one of 
the very few pacers now seen with a side check. 
Splan was the last trainer that used them on almost 
all of his trotters. He raced Newcastle in that rig. 

What is known as the Hutton check is a favorite 
with many drivers. It was named after Frank 
Hutton. Later on when the people who manufac- 
tured it tried to stop a competitor they found when 
the case came to trial that Alta McDonald's father 
had made and used one like it before Frank Hutton 
was born. 

The same kind of a jolt was passed to the firm 
which secured an injunction to stop others from 
making the two minute harness, which was all the 
go about thirty-five years ago. A search showed 
that practically the same thing was used in the coal 
mines on mules to prevent sore backs and was cov- 
ered by an earlier patent. Today it is a rare thing 
to see a two minute harness on a horse. All of the 
trainers have gone back to the old style. 

No one seems to know who first used holders on 
the reins. Woodruff and his contemporaries did not 
have them. In Woodruff's day many drivers 
wrapped the reins around their hands and braced 
themselves for a stiff pull. Woodruff and Sim Hoag- 
land passed the reins between the third and fourth 
fingers and up over the thumb. This gave them a 
firm grip with the back of the hand up and made it 
an easy matter to take up the slack of the reins 


when necessary without letting go of a horse's head. 

Boots came in gradually. W. H. Van Cott fre- 
quently stated that Flora Temple, which he trained 
at one time, would have trotted faster than 2:19% 
if she had had quarter and elbow boots. She touched 
these points frequently. It made her timid and she 
shortened her stride. 

The first boots were heavy and cumbersome and 
while they protected the horses they chafed their 
legs. Now they are very light, many of them being 
made of felt. 

There is an endless variety of bits. The most of 
them were made originally to correct faults and to 
give the driver better control of his mount. As a 
rule the best horses go with a snaffle or leather bit. 
They will not, however, suit horses which side rein, 
pull, get their tongue over the bit, or commit other 
faults which must be corrected or at least made so 
that they can be used on race day. 

The hopples go with the pacers, although there 
were a few trotters that wore them. For many 
years a resident of Indiana was given the credit for 
introducing the straps, but James Boutwell says that 
a man in Vermont made the first pair. This may 
be true so far as racing is concerned, but English 
horse history shows that hopples were used to make 
horses amble under the saddle over two hundred 
years ago. 

For a time there was a stout battle to bar hopples 
in races. It was finally abandoned, as it became 
apparent that the average pacer could not be made 


sure as a racing item without them. 

Until the colt races became important fixtures 
many close observers were of the opinion that the 
improvement in sulkies, shoeing and tracks had 
added as much to the light harness performer's speed 
as breeding in approved lines. Each of these items 
counted, but none of them have come to the aid of 
the later day champions since the two minute list 
was started. The average rate of speed dropped 
gradually from 2:20 to 2:15 until it became an ordi- 
nary matter to average under 2:10 on the half-mile 
tracks and 2:05 on the larger ovals for a meeting. 
Yearlings are broken in October and a year later 
have marks from 2:04 to 2:10. This must be cred- 
ited to the improvement in the breed and passed on 
to what the pioneers called the trotting instinct. 


One afternoon in January, 1915, the Broadway 
Limited was boring its way through one of the worst 
storms that ever swept over the Pennsylvania moun- 
tains. It was cold and everyone was out of humor. 
All of the newspapers had been read, and current 
topics discussed, until they were worn to a frazzle. 
The time had come for a little personal talk, some- 
thing that all would be pleased to hear, and which 
the narrator could tell without an effort. Turning 
to a tall, slim individual who was half dozing on the 
couch of the drawing room of the car, I said: "Tom- 
my, how did you ever get into the racing business ?" 


Removing his hat from his face, the party ad- 
dressed replied with a smile : "I scarcely know," and 
when urged to move along a little he continued: 
"From boyhood I always wanted to be driving some- 
thing with my hands, but the opportunity never 
came until one summer down on the Long Island 
farm, I had an attack of typhoid fever. It was fol- 
lowed by a relapse, and pneumonia. What life I had 
left did not appear to be worth saving, so I refused 
to take any more medicine or nourishment. The 
doctor had decided to give me up, and let exhausted 
nature do the balance, when a neighbor called and 
said that he would give me a goat to drive if I would 
obey the doctor's orders. That was certainly some- 
thing to live for and in a few hours the goat was 
hitched to a stout post outside of my window. His 
cart was run under a tree and the harness brought 
into my room and hung on a nail. 

"While the doctor did not know it, I was from that 
moment determined to get well and there was noth- 
ing in his medicine chest I would not have swallowed 
in order to be able to drive that goat. In a few days 
I was propped up in bed so I could see Billy prancing 
around the post while the reins on the harness were 
adjusted so that I could hold them and make myself 
believe that I was stepping the goat down the road 
while I kept one eye on him through the window. 

"The remedy worked like a charm and it was not 
long before I was out driving the goat. It also re- 
ceived better care and more training than any goat 
that ever lived. 



*'My next move in the driving line was on the 
front of the milk wagon. When I was placed in 
charge of the outfit the old farm horse did not suit 
and for $75 I succeeded in getting a pacer that had 
been raced but was discarded on account of a spavin 
and a few other trimmings which are not valued very 
highly as horse furniture. He had the whiz, how- 
ever, and on the trip home from the depot with the 
empty cans if anyone passed the outfit he had more 
speed and racing manners than was ever seen in that 
section of Long Islad. 

"Farm boys work long hours and mine were no ex- 
ception, but I managed to save a few dollars and then 
decided to buy a real horse. My selection was a 
mare that was owned by a saloon keeper. She could 
pace in about 3:10 and cost $125. I was permitted 
to use the track on a neighbor's farm and soon had 
her under way. The Guy Wilkes horse Rupee was 
being trained over the same track but I did not see 
him very often as he was aired in the morning while 
my pupil usually put in her appearance at sundown 
after the day's work was done. From a mile in 
three minutes she soon dropped to one in 2:2414. 
This pleased me so much that I called her Blue Bird 
and sold her for $1,500. 

"With that money in the bank I began to feel as if 
there were something in driving, so I began to look 
around for another horse. At that time Mr. Willis 
had Island Wilkes near by and Howard Hayden was 
training for him. He had a racing stable and when 
it returned home I heard that he had a horse called 


Dr. Dewey which was fast, but could not be raced 
on account of cross firing. Something told me to 
take a chance with him, so I drove over and bought 
Dr. Dewey for $225. After a few experiments I 
managed to shoe him so that he went clear, and while 
the shoes were rather crude, alongside of what are 
now used, they did the work. The next step was to 
get him ready for the races, and while it was all new 
to me, I guessed off hand what was required, and 
what I did not know, the horse and his condition 
showed me. 

"Finally I entered him at a race at Huntington, 
N. Y., and went there to start him. The day I ar- 
rived I also saw a horse called Connor, which was 
owned by the New York speed merchant John Mc- 
Guire. As soon as I put my eyes on him I was con- 
vinced that Connor would make a great race horse, 
and that there was nothing for me to do but to buy 
him. McGuire priced him at $1,500, so my next step 
was to sell Dr. Dewey. While I was running this 
matter over in my mind W. F. Steel, who afterwards 
hung the Harry Thaw jury, and Mart Demerest, 
both of whom had been watching me work Dr. 
Dewey, came to the stable and said they wanted to 
buy him. In a flash I saw that I had a chance to get 
Connor and asked them $3,500. Steel nearly fell 
dead when he saw that I would not take less, but did 
offer me $1,000. I laughed at him, but before leav- 
ing he moved up to $1,500. That did not tempt me, 
as I was satisfied that I could win that much with 
Dewey, so they went away. Before going, however, 


Steel took me aside and told me three or four times 
that I was a poor boy and could not afford to own 
such a horse. 

"Dr. Dewey was to start the next day, and when I 
was getting him ready Steel came around again and 
said : 'I am going to make you one more offer and you 
can take it or leave it. I will give you $2,500 for 
Dr. Dewey just as he stands/ 

"At that time Connor looked very close, and I said : 
lister, you have bought a horse/ He shipped 
Dewey to Boston to make a killing, but before start- 
ing he removed my cross firing shoes, putting on 
what was considered proper, and was distanced. He 
also wired me to come on and help him out, but I de- 
cided to remain on Long Island. 

"By the time the sale was made Connor had been 
shipped to New York so I started off to buy him. 
When I arrived at McGuire's little stable on Broad- 
way I learned that John was out of town and instead 
of remaining over night at an expense of about a 
dollar and a half I returned home. The next day 
something came up so that I could not go to the city, 
and on the following one McGuire, with tears in his 
eyes, told me that Connor had been sold to a man in 
Rochester. That jarred me more than anything 
that ever happened during my career, for while I 
was only a boy, I was satisfied that Connor would 
make a great horse and possibly a two minute pacer. 
The records also show that he came very near it. 

"My next selection was the Pamlico mare Nellie 
Gay. She was my first trotter. I do not know how 


many races I won with her, but there were a lot of 
them and I sold her for $10,000. This satisfied me 
that if I did not prove a trainer I would at least make 
a good salesman, so I decided to remain in the 
business. " 

A call for lunch interrupted the conversation, 
which was not renewed, but the records show the 
balance of the career of Thomas W. Murphy, who 
has proved one of the most successful men that ever 
sat in a sulky. Each year he brought out a 
formidable list of champions and big money winners ; 
Hetty G. leading off for two seasons, the first cam- 
paign being over the half-mile tracks and the second 
over both, the trip closing with a series of victories 
from Poughkeepsie to Hartford by way of New 
York, Brooklyn and Providence. She brought the 
modern wizard of the sulky into the big line, to 
which his skill as a reinsman added lustre each 
season with such a splendid group of horses as Rudy 
Kipp, Susie N., R. T. C., Charley Mitchell, Native 
Belle, Peter Scott, Frank Bogash, Jr., Peter Volo, 
Directum I, Anna Bradford, Butt Hale, The Real 
Lady, Peter Manning, Rose Scott and scores of 

As a boy and man Thomas W. Murphy never worked 
an hour for anyone until he made a contract in 1927 
to train the Green Tree stable. Depending upon his 
own resources even when they were very limited, he 
paddled his own canoe through surging rapids of the 
racing world until he landed with a bang in the big 
pool of success. During all of the years that he 


was before the public he never failed to win a 
race or even a heat if his mount had the semblance 
of a chance to come through. He started out with 
the idea that there was nothing gained by waiting 
for what looked like a better opportunity only to find 
that three or four others were sitting on the same 
limb. His motto was to get what a horse had 
to give and when he is done get another, and keep 

Murphy's seat in the sulky was erect and graceful. 
With a hand as light as a feather, he always had 
sufficient control of his mount, to take advantage of 
every opportunity presented by the shifting posi- 
tions in a heat, as well as a brush to nip the leader 
at the wire if he could get within a length of him. 
No one ever found him asleep at the switch, after the 
starter gave the word, or trying to win at the half- 
mile pole when the purse was paid at the wire. 


The first 2:30 Oregon bred trotter was foaled in 
1869, ten years after the state was admitted to the 
Union. When the New England pioneers appeared 
in the territory, after Marcus Whitman made his 
winter ride across the continent to convince Presi- 
dent Tyler that the northern boundary of the terri- 
tory from which Washington and Idaho were subse- 
quently set off should be the forty-ninth parrallel in- 
stead of the north bank of the Columbia River, they 
brought a few Morgan stallions with them. Of 


these the names of Vermont and Oregan Pathfinder 
have found a place in turf history. They were mat- 
ed with the native stock, of which there was an am- 
ple supply even in 1805, when Lewis and Clark after 
locating the head waters of the Missouri followed the 
course of the Columbia to the Pacific. 

Vermont got several trotters in Oregon, Ella 
Lewis, 2:27, being the first. She was foaled in 1869 
and did the most of her racing in California, where 
she afterwards produced the pacer Saladin, 2:05%. 

Mike, a son of Vermont, was the first sire of a 2 :30 
performer foaled in the state. He got the trotter 
Barney that made a wagon record of 2 :25*4 a t Oak- 
land, Cal., in 1878, while he also sired the Gridley 
Mare, which then mated with Ophir, a son of Sken- 
andoah, produced Bob, the dam of Klamath, 2:07V2- 
Klamath was got by Morookus, a son of Altamont. 
Raymond raced him on the eastern tracks in 1895, 
when out of sixteen races he won eight firsts, six 
second, and two thirds from such horses as Ham- 
lin's Nightingale, Kentucky Union, Jack, Lesa 
Wilkes, and William Penn. Klamath also appeared 
again in 1896, but after winning at Cleveland and 
making his record at Columbus, he trained off. 

Vermont was bred in the state after which he was 
named, and arrived in Oregon by way of San Fran- 
cisco. Oregon Pathfinder was a New Hamp- 
shire product and got a few trotters before Pat 
Smith took him across the continent. He was by 
Morrill, the grandsire of Fearnaught, and left consid- 
erable good stock in the territory, where for a time 


he divided the honors with Milliman's Bellfounder. 
The latter was foaled in Washington County, New 
York, in 1850, and was well along in years when he 
was taken to Walla Walla, where he died in 1877. He 
was got by American Bellfounder, a son of the 
Morse Horse. Maine also contributed Champion 
Knox by Bismarck, a son of General Knox. He was 
foaled in 1873 and died at Baker City in 1879, a short 
time after he made a record of 2:31 at Boise. This 
horse sired Mount Vernon, 2:26, and Blacksmith, 
2:30, both of which were foaled in 1878. 

In 1876 trotting meetings were held at Portland 
and Salem. They were followed by Baker and Union 
City. At the same time the Menelaus colt Hamble- 
tonian Mambrino, which was purchased in Chicago 
in 1874 as a weanling, was located at Portland. John 
Redmond made a trip to Orange County, New York, 
where he purchased Kisbar, the only son of Hamble- 
tonian taken to Oregon, and Prince Duroc from 
Charles Backman at Stony Ford, and Rockwood from 
E. S. Edsall of Goshen. Kisbar died in 1891, the 
year after he made his record of 2:27% at Portland. 
He left a few foals and while his traveling compan- 
ions did not get very much racing material, they 
sired a number of mares that produced useful horses 
when mated with Hambletonian Mambrino, Alta- 
mont, and Hal B. 

Hambletonian Mambrino, when his surroundings 
are considered, proved a fair sire of speed, Carlyle 
Carne, 2:liy 2 , being his fastest performer. Alta- 
mont, however, was a leader and while he stood at 


Vancouver in Washington, only the Columbia River 
separated him from Oregon, where the best of his 
get were either bred or owned. Like all of Almont's 
sons, he sired a number of pacers of which Chehalis, 
2:041/4; Del Norte, 2:08; Ella T., 2:081/4, and Doc 
Sperry, 2:09, were the fastest, while of his trotters, 
Altao, 2:09%, and Alameda, 2:09%, took the word 
at Grand Circuit meetings. 

Altamont prepared the way for Hal B., who was 
owned in Oregon for twelve years, during which he 
got Hal Boy, 2:01; Lady Hal, 2:04%; Oregon Hal, 
2:0434; Haltamont, 2:05%; Hal Edo, 2:06%; Hal 
Paxton, 2 :07% ; Gray Ghost, 2 :07 V 2 5 Hal Gray, 2 :08, 
and a host of others. 

While Altamont and Hal B. in their day dominated 
the horse world in Oregon, there were several others 
that were represented at the races, the list including 
Prince Lovelace, Laddis Boy, Bonaday, Holmdel and 
several sons of Altamont, as well as Zombro, who got 
The Zoo, 2:09; Miss Jerusha, 2:08%; Zombronut, 
2:0814; Bellemont, 2:09%, as well as the dams of 
Bertie Seattle, 2:08 1 / / 2> and Captain Apperson, 
2:08Vk, and The Bondsman, who got Captain Mack, 
2:03%, while located in the state. 


In 1919 when the light harness horses were 
shipped to Lexington for the meeting of the Ken- 
tucky Trotting Horse Breeders' Association, W. M. 
Wright appeared with a tall three-year-old gelding 



which was eligible to the Kentucky Futurity. This 
gelding had broken into the racing news at Milwau- 
kee when he trotted a trial in 2:10 the first time 
that he was turned loose on a mile track. He looked 
to have a chance in any company but it was finally 
decided not to start him in the futurity as he had 
not had sufficient preliminary work to stay him up 
for a race of heats. 

Mr. Wright's gelding was assigned a stall in the 
same building as the horses raced by T. W. Murphy. 
He saw him frequently and finally took him out for 
a trip over the course. The trial resulted in a mile 
in 2:06!/4, last half in l:02 1 / 4. It was so satisfac- 
tory that Irving Gleason gave Mr. Wright $21,000 
for his three-year-old and when Murphy shipped 
north the gelding accompanied his horses to Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y. 

This gelding was Peter Manning. Murphy raced 
him in 1920 and in 1922 made him the champion 
light harness trotter of the world by driving him a 
mile in 1:56%. This record was made at Lexington 
and the sign on the timers' stand was changed from 
Uhlan 1:58 to Peter Manning 1:56%. 

W. M. Wright bred Peter Manning. His showing 
gave him the thrill which comes to those who put 
one over the top. It also prompted him in 1924 to 
lay the foundation for Calumet Farm by purchasing 
the establishment formerly known as Fairland and 
some adjoining land and stocking it with Belwin, 
Peter the Brewer and the best band of brood mares 
that were ever selected in so brief a period. 


Later on he purchased Truax and Justice Brooke 
for the stud while builders and painters were kept 
busy making Calumet Farm one of the show places 
in Kentucky. Its white fence and red gates make 
a marvelous setting for the rolling pastures in which 
there are a number of new buildings to shelter the 
stock during the winter months. 

There is also an item in connection with Calumet 
Farm that should not be overlooked. That was the 
purchase of Glendora G., the dam of Peter Manning. 
When the farm was started she was owned in 
Michigan and known to be barren. Notwithstanding 
that fact Mr. Wright repurchased her and brought 
her to Calumet Farm where she will remain for the 
balance of her days surrounded with all of the com- 
forts that a horse can enjoy in the blue grass pas- 
tures of Kentucky. 


The first rules for light harness racing were made 
by the New York Trotting Club in 1825. Philadel- 
phia followed with the Hunting Park Association, 
Baltimore with Kendall Park, and Trenton, N. J.,. 
with the Eagle Course. In a short time all of them 
were racing under the Rules and Regulations of the 
Centerville Course, or what were commonly known 
as the Long Island Rules. 

The managers of trotting meetings soon found 
that something more than rules were required to 
keep up the standard of harness racing. This 


crystallized in 1869, when the Narragansett Park of 
Providence, R. L, issued a call for representatives of 
the leading tracks to meet in New York, February 2, 
1870. Representatives from forty-eight associations 
responded. On February 4, these men adopted a set 
of by-laws and rules for what was called the National 
Association for the Promotion of the Interests of 
the American Trotting Turf. This name was changed 
to the National Trotting Association. 

The first President was Amasa Sprague of Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island. In 1876 he was succeeded by 
C. W. Woolley, of Cincinnati, Ohio. He remained 
in office to 1880 when James Grant, of Davenport, 
Iowa, was elected. He held the office until February 
8, 1888, when P. P. Johnston, of Lexington, Ky., was 
elected. At the Congress on February 9, 1916, John 

C. Welty, of Canton, Ohio, was chosen. He remained 
in office until his death September 23, 1922. At the 
December meeting of the Board of Review, Reese 
Blizzard of Parkersburg, W. Va., was elected to fill 
the vacancy. 

George H. Smith of Providence, R. I., was the first 
Secretary. In August, 1872, he was succeeded by 

D. F. Longstreet, also of Providence. He resigned 
in July, 1874, when Thomas J. Vail of Hartford, 
Conn., was chosen. He held the office until May, 
1887, when M. M. Morse, of Paw Paw, 111., was 
appointed. He resigned in December, 1895, when 
W. H. Gocher, of Cleveland, Ohio, was elected. 

The rules have been revised and amended during 
the hundred years which have elapsed since they 


were originally adopted. They now cover every 
angle of light harness racing. 


No record was kept of the early trotters exported 
to Europe although English horsemen began buying 
them as soon as they attracted attention. In 1823, 
American Roan trotted a mile in 3:04 in England. 
He was followed by Boston Blue, the horse that trot- 
ted the first recorded mile in three minutes in 1818. 
The Englishmen called him the Slate Colored Amer- 
ican. Tom Thumb, one of the starters in the 
New York Trotting Club Plate at two miles in 1826, 
was also taken abroad. In 1842 Peter Wheelan land- 
ed in England with Rattler and after winning all of 
his races with ease challenged the world. A differ- 
ence of $300 in the purchase price of Dutchman was 
all that kept Hiram Woodruff from crossing the At- 
lantic and making an effort to duplicate on English 
soil the defeat that he gave Rattler at three mile 
heats over the Beacon Course in New Jersey in 1838, 

The Superb mare Miss Pierce was the first Amer- 
ican trotter that found a place in a recorded pedi- 
gree on the European trotting turf. She was shipped 
to France in the seventies and in 1883 produced 
Fuscia, the sire of thirteen French Derby winners 
between 1893 and 1905. France's Alexander, 2:19, 
was also taken to Germany a short time after he won 
the $10,000 stallion race at Rochester, N. Y. in 1881. 
He was a failure in the stud. The Italians also pur- 


chased Elwood Medium, Grandmont, Zoe B., 2:17%, 
and Amelia C., 2:19 1 / 4, before Georgi Bros, took At- 
lantic, 2:21, to Bologna in 1888 while Macey's Ham- 
bletonian was taken to Germany where he sired a 
number of splendid trotters that appeared on all of 
the leading European tracks. 

Prince Warwick was one of the first American 
trotting stallions taken to Austria, the Clear Grit 
horse Amber being the only one to precede him. 
Dan McPhee purchased him out of Orrin Hickok's 
stable at Cleveland, Ohio, in 1892. The get of Prince 
Warwick made such a favorable impression that in 
1896 the Austrian breeders came to the United 
States and purchased Trevillian, 2:0814; Bravado, 
2:101/2 5 Robby P., 2:10-%; Falkland, 2:13%, and E. 
L. Robinson, 2:17%, whose success as a sire prompt- 
ed the Russians to purchase him. 

From that date to the beginning of the World War 
Austrian buyers came to the United States annually 
and selected over fifteen hundred trotting bred stal- 
lions and mares, the majority of them having rec- 
ords. The list of the stallions with marks below 
2:10 included Bob Douglas, 2:04i/ 2 ; Stroller, 2:051/4; 
Don Chenault, 2:05%; Tommy Britton, 2:06i/ 2 ; 
Dave Halle, 2:06%; Caid, 2:07%; George Todd, 
2:07%; Glenwood M., 2:07%; Gayton, 2:08%, and 
Directum Kelly, 2:08%, while their selections for 
racing or brood mares included Soprano, 2:03%; 
Cheeny, 2:04%; Spanish Queen, 2:04%; Amy 
Brooks, 2:05%; Tenara, 2:053/ 4 ; Teasel, 2:06%; 
Early Alice, 2:06%, and Derby Princess, 2:08i/ 2 . 


Instead of purchasing record horses the Germans 
selected fillies and mares fairly well bred in foal to 
good sires, one firm in Berlin purchasing over a 
thousand between 1898 and 1901, while the other 
importers in addition to buying mares also selected 
Dark Night, the sire of Searchlight, 2 :03i/4 ; Henrico, 
2:15; Favora, 2:12i/ 2 ; Egbertine, 2:18i/ 2 ; Camp- 
bell's Electioneer, 2 :17% ; Idolita, 2 :09i/4, and Ernest 
Axtell, 2:081/4. Wilburn M., the sire of Willy, 2:05, 
the champion trotter of Europe, was exported to 
Germany in 1896 and taken to Austria where he was 
purchased by a Russian breeder. 

The Italians as a rule made splendid selections. 
Atlantic and Elwood Medium were succeeded by An- 
dante, 2:20i/ 2 ; Quarterstretch, 2:15; Ellard, 2:093,4; 
Prince Herschel, 2:13; Royal Baron, 2:101/2; On- 
ward Silver, 2:051/4, who was afterward taken to 
Russia where he died, and Harrison Wilkes, 2:111/4. 
They also purchased Abnet, 2:10%; Belle J., 2:11; 
Dulce Cor, 2:08%; Emma Brook, 2:093/4, and Mar- 
gin, 2:053/4, to race and place among their brood 

The Russians were satisfied with the Orloffs until 
1892 when N. Feodossiff persuaded a breeder in 
Moscow to purchase the Brown Wilkes horse Winter- 
set. 2:24i/ 2 , from C. F. Emery of Cleveland, Ohio. 
Frank Caton went along to drive him and returned 
the following winter with an order for more Amer- 
ican trotters. Alvin, 2:11, was one of his selections. 
In a brief period Alvin's foals from Orloff mares 
swept everything before them in events open to 


metis, that is mixed breeds. 

Baron Rogers, 2:09%, was the next American sire 
to make a reputation in Russia. Iris was his best 
performer, while Passe Rose with a Russian record 
of 2:14i/ 2 and by Patron, 2:141/4, out of Secret, 
2:20 1 / 4, by Strathmore, sired the champion Paluga, 
2:08%. Other importations followed rapidly, the 
list including General Forrest, 2:08; Cresceus, 
2:0214; General H., 2:04%; Golddust Maid, 2:07%,; 
Jay McGregor, 2:071/4 ; Jack McKerron, 2:071/4 ; Gay 
Bingen, 2:12i/ 2 ; Susie J., 2:06%; Brilliant Girl, 
2:0814; Totara, 2:09%; Crescent Route, 2:08'%; 
Surpol, 2:10; Fleming Boy, 2:07%; Aquin, 2:08; 
Grace Kellar, 2:09%; Bellemont, 2:09%; Zomalta, 
2:081/2, and Dainty Dolly, 2:09%. 

In 1914, Billy Burk, 2:03%, and Baden, 2:05%, 
joined the colony of American trotters in Russia. 
They were followed by Willy, 2:05, after he was 
raced on the American tracks. The last consign- 
ment to land in Russia contained Sterling McKinney, 
2:06%; Cascade, 2:06%; Tuna, 2:08%; Del Coro- 
nado, 2:09%; Captain George, 2:09%, as well as the 
pacers Locanda, 2:02; Zoloch, 2:05%; John Ward, 
2:05%, and Miss Abdell, 2:06% ; while in 1915, Red- 
lac, 2:07i/ 2 ; Ormonde, 2:08%; Lord Brussels, 
2:09i/ 2 ; Harry Dillon, 2:10, and the pacer Donald 
McKay, 2:09%, were lost at sea. 

In 1893 and 1894, Dr. Day invaded France with 
two cargoes of trotters, taking with him among- 
others Miss Mambrino, the grandam of Bingen„ 
2:06%; Sunrise Patchen, 2:19%, and Sunset 


Patchen, 2:231/2- As a rule the French importers, 
however, purchased mares, their selections includ- 
ing Misty Morning, 2:21; Mattie H., 2:111/4; Helen 
Leyburn, 2:14, who produced the European trotter 
Fred Leyburn, 2:13; Autrain, 2:16%; Grace Sim- 
mons, 2:191/4; Susie S., 2:15%; Honeywood, 2:141/4; 
Lady Clare, 2:18%; Catherine Leyburn, 2:14, and 
Killona, 2:14. 

The majority of the light harness performers 
taken to England were purchased by Walter and 
Louis Winans. Between 1895 and 1902 the former 
selected the following road teams: Don Lowell, 
2:14i/ 2 , and Eggnog, 2:25; Lake Erie, 2:131/4, and 
Moxie, 2:1214 ; Roy M., 2:14i/ 2 , and Eddy L., 2:161/4 ; 
and the pacers Passing Belle, 2:081/4, and Merry 
Chimes, 2:081/2. Walter Winans purchased 
Alta Axworthy, 2:10i/ 2 ; Fanny Dillard, 2:03%, 
and The Hangman, 2:28%, brother of Cres- 
ceus, 2:02%, while in 1895 he imported the Kilbuck 
Tom pacer Jack Bowers, 2:091/2. He was the first 
2:10 pacer to cross the Atlantic. Louis Winans 
appeared in the market in 1905 when he purchased 
Prince Alert, l:59i/ 2 ; Belle Starr, 2:07%, and Gal- 
lagher, 2:03i/ 2 , who was afterward returned to 
America. His next selections were the pacers Don 
Carr, 2:06, and Robert Lee, 2:06%, and the trotters 
Alton, 2:09%, and Thos. W. Murphy's first stake 
winner, Susie N., 2 :09%. In 1907 he also purchased 
the Kentucky Futurity winner, Siliko, 2:11%, and 
Icon, 2:10, and employed A. C. Pennock to drive 
them. He made Siliko the champion of Europe, and 


after racing Willy on European tracks brought him 
to America and marked him in 2:05. Allan Winter, 
2:06V2. the winner of the $50,000 Handicap at 
Readville, Mass., was also added to the Winans' 
stable, while Greylight, 2:16i/ 2 ; Geneva, 2:lli/ 2 ; 
Fides Stanton, 2:15, and Gold Ring, 2:18, were pur- 
chased by other English admirers of the trotter. 

A number of American trotters have been taken 
to Denmark, Lamp Girl, 2:09, and Dreamer, 2:1414, 
being the fastest. A few have also been shipped to 
Sweden and Norway, as well as Holland, where Fleet- 
wood, 2:13V2, by Elyria, was taken in 1906. Jupe, 
2:071/9, is the only American trotter that was ever 
shipped direct to Asia, his destination being Tomsk, 

In 1909, C. K. G. Billings, made a trip to Europe, 
going as far as Moscow with Lou Dillon, 1 : 581/2 ; W. 
J. Lewis, 2:0614; Tempus Fugit, 2:0714; Fleming 
Boy, 2:071/2, who was left there; Turley, 2:07%; 
Berta Mac, 2:08, and the beautiful Allerton mare 
Delight. He also made another trip in 1912, taking 
the two champions Uhlan, 1 :58 8 4, which mark he re- 
duced to 1:58 shortly after his return, and The Har- 
vester, 2:01, as well as the geldings Charley Mitchell, 
2:0414, and Lewis Forrest, 2:0614. 

From the close of 1890 to the beginning of the war 
over four thousand American trotters were shipped 
to Europe. Seventy-five per cent, of them were sent 
to either Austria or Germany, and were distributed 
from those points to other countries. 



After Oakley Park at Cincinnati, Ohio, was opened 
a group of horsemen in Columbus decided that the 
capital of the Buckeye State was a splendid site for 
a mile track and a race meeting. They organized 
the Columbus, Ohio, Driving Association, built and 
equipped the driving park, and held the inaugural 
meeting the last week in August, 1892. Cotton Allen 
was the first President and H. P. Matlock the first 

As the date selected clashed with the Grand Cir- 
cuit meeting at Hartford, the purses offered were 
not very large. There was, however, on the pro- 
gram a special between Hal Pointer and Direct 
which developed into one of the most heart-breaking 
races ever contested by two horses. As Geers was 
at Hartford with the Village Farm horses, Splan had 
the mount behind Hal Pointer. George Starr drove 
Direct. The first two heats in the event were won 
by Hal Pointer and the next two by Direct in slow 
time, Hal Pointer making breaks in both of .them. 
The race then went over to the following day when 
the fifth heat was declared dead on account of the 
horses being unsteady. Hal Pointer won the final 
in 2:113/4. 

During the next three years the Columbus asso- 
ciation gave two independent meetings each year, 
such horses as Alix, Mascot, Lord Clinton, Lottie 
Lorraine, Rubenstein and Phoebe Wilkes winning 
their engagements there. In 1894 there was a reg- 


ular carnival of speed when Alix trotted in 2:04*4 
and Flying Jib paced in 2:0614. Directly then a 
colt paced in 2:09V£ and Sally Simmons and Rose- 
leaf made a team race record of 2:15*4 defeating the 
Palo Alto bred geldings Azote and Answer. C. E. 
Conrad acted as Secretary at these meetings and all 
subsequent ones up to the close of 1902 except in 
1898 when S. L. Hoover was at the helm. Cotton 
Allen served as President up to the day of his death 
in 1896 when W. R. Gault was elected. 

Columbus joined the Grand Circuit in 1896 and 
was assigned the week following Cleveland. It re- 
tained that date until 1903 when it consented to 
accept a week in September following Syracuse and 
prior to Cincinnati. When Oakley Park dropped out 
of line in 1907 Columbus took the extra week. This 
change also made Columbus the point at which all 
of the eastern and western stables met. 

In 1902 the Columbus association began giving 
early closing purses. The first was the Board of 
Trade $2,000 purse for pacers and which was subse- 
quently increased to $3,000 and the Chamber of 
Commerce $2,000 purse for trotters which was also 
increased to $3,000. In 1903 H. D. Shepard became 
Secretary. Under his management and with the 
active co-operation of President E. W. Swisher, the 
association began giving purses that were commen- 
surate with the character of the meeting. In addi- 
tion to booking several independent colt stakes to be 
trotted at Columbus each year they came "over the 
top" in 1905 with a $10,000 purse race for 2:14 trot- 


ters and added the Buckeye Purse for trotters as 
well as the King, Hartman and Arch City Purses 
for pacers. 

The contests for the "Columbus ten thousand" 
proved splendid races. Lon McDonald won the first 
one with Glenwood M. whose sire Bobby Burns won 
a race at the inaugural meeting in 1892. He was 
forced to trot in 2:08% by Jack Wilkes, another 
Buckeye product, he having been sired by Guy 
Wilkes after that horse was taken to Cleveland by 
W. J. White. 

In 1906 Jack Curry came through with Brilliant 
Girl defeating a field of sixteen in 2:0814. She was 
the first of three California bred mares to win this 
race, her successors being Sonoma Girl in 1907 and 
Ruth Dillon. Myron McHenry had the mount behind 
the "girl from the golden west" and defeated High- 
ball and Margaret 0., the latter winning a heat 
in 2:09% while Sonoma Girl tripped off a mile in 
2:0514. Millard Sanders won with Ruth Dillon in 
2:06%, Raffles getting the place and Spanish Queen 
third money while San Francisco was unplaced. 

Penisa Maid included the "Columbus ten thou- 
sand" in her sweep down the line in 1909, her fast- 
est heat at the Buckeye capital being in 2:06%. 
Joan was required to trot half a second faster when 
she defeated Dudie Archdale in this event the fol- 
lowing year. Captain George, a Delaware bred trot- 
ter by Admiral Dewey, finished third. In 1911 the 
Blue Hen State scored when Murphy stepped home 
three times in front of Lewis Forrest with R. T. C. 

T R T A L ON G 219 

and it also showed again in 1913 when Ray Snedeker 
was awarded the honors with Lord Dewey in 2:06%. 

For a brief period in 1912 it looked as though 
Geers had a chance at the "ten thousand" when he 
won a heat with Dorsh Medium but after the flash 
Murphy showed in front for the necessary three 
trips with Dave Halle. The favorite Baden, the 
largest money winner of the year, failed to save 
his entrance. Dave Halle was the first member of 
the Peter the Great family to be awarded first money 
in this race. He was followed by Margaret Druien 
and Mabel Trask, both of which were driven by Cox, 
and Murphy's champion Peter Scott. 

It is a strange coincidence that in 1916 when 
Mabel Trask won in 2:05 1 4, all of the money was 
awarded mares. Donna Clay, Azora Axworthy and 
Alma Forbes securing the place honors while in 1917 
the male sex carried off all of the premiums, McDon- 
ald wining with Early Dreams in 2:04 1 / 4, while 
Royal Mac, Lu Princeton and Peter Vaughn finished 
in the order named. 

Prince Loree won the $10,000 in 1918 from Ante 
Guy and Lotto Watts. The following year the value 
of this event was dropped to $5,000. It was won by 
McGregor the Great. Peter Manning also won this 
same amount in 1920. He trotted in 2:0514. 
Jeanette Rankin was the winner in 1921 when the 
purse was again fixed at $10,000. She trotted in 
2:031/2 and went to the front after Princess Etawah 
won a heat in 2:0314. The next three renewals of 
this fixture were won by Peter the Brewer, Mrs. 


Yerkes and Etta Druien. Each of them raced for 
$5,000, This event did not appear in the Columbus 
program in 1925 after which the track was closed, 
sold and dismantled. 


Very few people refer to New Jersey as a state 
that has produced many light harness performers 
notwithstanding the fact that the two champion 
stallions, George M. Patchen and Lee Axworthy, 
were bred within its boundaries, while Goldsmith 
Maid also stands to its credit. 

The pages of colonial history shows that running, 
pacing and trotting races were common in New Jer- 
sey as well as all of the other colonies along the 
Atlantic seaboard prior to 1740, so much so in fact 
that in 1748 the legislature passed an act restricting 
them to certain days in the year. This act, together 
with a similar one that was enacted in Maryland the 
preceding year, was the first legislation against rac- 
ing in North America. They were also the forerun- 
ners of the stringent measures enacted in New Jer- 
sey about one hundred and fifty years later in order 
to stop the merry go rounds for gallopers at Gutten- 
berg, Gloucester and Dundee, and which in time 
closed Monmouth Park where Salvator in 1890 placed 
the mile record at 1 :35^ and which remained un- 
beaten until Roamer ran in 1 :34 4/5 at Saratoga. 

Nearly all of the colonial restrictions became dead 
letter or disappeared after the Revolution and when 


the descendants of imported Messenger began to 
perform at the trotting gait, they found as many 
admirers in New Jersey as in any state in the Union. 
The best of them appeared at the Beacon Course in 
Hoboken and at Trenton, where the Eagle Course 
was opened prior to 1830. Edwin Forrest, the first 
trotter to get a mark of 2:31)4, won a race there 
in 1833 while Dutchman won his first and last race 
over the Beacon Course. This track was also the 
scene of his three mile record of 7:321/2 to saddle on 
August 1, 1839, and which has never been beaten. 
In Dutchman's day, it was a marvelous performance 
as up to that time 2:30 had never been beaten to 
harness, that honor going to Lady Suffolk over the 
same track in 1845, w T hile in his record-breaking per- 
formance Dutchman trotted the second mile in 2:28 
and the third in 2:30. 

Among the breeders of trotters who maintained 
stock farms in New Jersey, A. B. Darling is, on ac- 
count of Axworthy and his descendants, entitled to 
first place. His farm was located at Ramsey. 

Kentucky Prince stood at the head of the stud 
until he was sold on March 27, 1878, at Peter C. 
Kellogg's first combination sale in New York to 
Charles Backman for $10,700. This w T as the larg- 
est amount paid for a trotter under the hammer up 
to that date. It was also from this farm that A. B. 
Darling sent the Kentucky Prince mare, Marguerite, 
to the court of Axtell at Terre Haute, Ind. This 
mating resulted in Axworthy, the leader of the 
Wilkes family, in the matter of extreme speed at 


the time of his death, his descendants including 
Hamburg Belle, 2:0114, as well as the phenomenal 
sires, Guy Axworthy, General Watts, and Dillon 
Axworthy, all three of which are breeding on faster 
than they showed on the turf. 

Before leaving New Jersey, Kentucky Prince got 
that splendid trotter, Bayonne Prince, for R. Cadu- 
gan. He also sired Jersey Prince, whose early 
death alone prevented him from becoming the lead- 
ing member of the Emeline family of trotters, which 
was bred and developed by E. W. Conover of Mid- 
dletown, N. J. 

In the early seventies, when Henry N. Smith de- 
cided to assemble his trotters, he established the 
Fashion Stud Farm at Trenton. For over twenty 
years it was one of the leading establishments in 
the country with Jay Gould, General Knox, Tattler, 
Socrates, General Washington, and Stranger in the 
stud, while the descendants of Lady Thorn, Gold- 
smith Maid, Lucy, Rosalind, Le Blonde, and Music's 
dam appeared in the list of brood mares. Many of 
their names are still found in the pedigrees of per- 
formers, while in the matter of extreme speed as 
measured by the 2:20 list, Fashion Stud Farm led 
all others until the Electioneers began their record- 
breaking career at Palo Alto. 

Isaiah Rynders bred Aberdeen at Passaic, and 
Chimes, the leading member of the Beautiful Bells 
family, passed his declining years at Salem. The 
former, however, made his reputation at Fairlawn 
Farm in Kentucky, while the latter never added 


anything to his showing at the Village Farm under 
the management of C. J. Hamlin. Al Mack, 2:051^, 
was a Jersey trotter. He was bred by W. F. Red- 
mond of Madison. 

In 1907, when William Bradley began purchas- 
ing trotting stock for Ardmaer Farm at Raritan, 
it looked as though New Jersey was destined to 
again take its place among the leading homes of the 
trotter and in a measure supplant the reputation of 
the thoroughbreds, which were bred at Rancocas 
and Brookdale. Todd and Guy Axworthy were 
placed at the head of the stud. When Todd died 
on May 17, 1908, his sire, Bingen, was selected to 
fill the vacant stall, but after a few months he was 
sold and transferred to Kentucky, where he died. 
Guy Axworthy also followed the sire of Uhlan to 
the same state after a brief sojourn at Poughkeep- 
sie, while the brood mares were scattered to other 


During the New England Horsemen's dinner at 
Boston in 1924, a group of old-timers secured a table 
and entertained each other by racing over a few of 
the events which were decided in the days that are 
gone forever. After each of them had contributed 
his mite to the winter circuit, an old gentleman 
with a white beard and gold rimmed spectacles, 
who was sitting near them, knocked the ashes out 
of his pipe and said: 


"Gentlemen, I am a stranger. This is the first 
time I have been in Boston since 1882 — over forty 
years. That year I shipped in with a horse that 
won all of his engagements in the Grand Circuit 
after doing the spring ploughing on a farm in west- 
ern New York. He never was hitched to a sulky 
or cart until two months before he started at 

The presiding member of the group turned 
toward the speaker and said: "Stranger, you are 
welcome. You can have a date in this circuit. Close 
up the ranks and let the visitor get his elbow on the 
table. Some of the members of this party have 
been telling tall tales this evening, but if what you 
say is true, they are rather mild alongside of what 
you have to offer." 

The stranger moved his chair up to the table. 
As he laid his pipe against a plate, he said: 

"Brothers, I am a trifle old-fashioned and may 
not qualify in fast company. As stated, the last 
time I was in Boston I had a plow horse. He never 
lost but two heats in all of his races. I made a 
winning on him at Mystic Park and purchased a 
farm. A city grew out to it. The change in land 
values put me on easy street. 

"Perhaps none of you ever heard of the horse I 
am going to tell you about. He raced in the days of 
Black Cloud, Santa Claus, Overman, Wilson, Fanny 
Witherspoon, Driver, Clingstone, Edwin Thorne, 
Aldine, and Onawa. As he had speed enough to 
win from any of them, you will admit that he was 


a good kind of a horse to start out from a farm. 

"Captain Lewis was raised by Stewart Purdy. He 
was a farmer and stockman who lived near Geneva, 
N. Y., where Delevan purchased Dolly Spanker, the 
dam of George Wilkes. I came from that section. 

"I moved from Geneva to Rochester, where I 
worked for Colonel Parsons. He was a grain buyer 
with an eye for a good horse. In the winter of 
1882 I went with Colonel Parsons to Geneva to buy 
barley. One day in March, Purdy came in with a 
load of grain. He was driving a big black horse 
and a toppy chestnut gelding with a little white in 
his face. When the grain was unloaded and paid 
for, Purdy offered to sell the chestnut gelding to 
Colonel Parsons for a trotter. The Colonel looked 
him over, but shook his head when he saw that he 
had an enlarged ankle with a scar on it. 

"Purdy said it was caused by the horse getting 
his leg in the guards on the cutting bar of a mowing 
machine, but added that he went sound on it. As 
there is some difference between racing and farm 
work when it comes to a bad ankle the Colonel would 
not even nibble at $175. 

"The following June I went to Lyons, N. Y., to 
attend a race meeting. On going to Towers' livery 
stable to get a team to take me to the track I found 
the proprietor sitting in a wagon to which a chestnut 
gelding was hitched. As the horse looked rather 
familiar I asked him where he got him. He said 
that he had purchased him for $300 the week before 
from Stewart Purdy of Geneva after seeing the 


gelding trot a mile in 2:39 the second time he was 
hitched to a sulky. 

"Towers named the horse Captain Lewis. He 
won two races at the Lyons meeting and made a 
record of 2:33. A few days later Captain Lewis 
was sent to Rochester and placed in Horace Brown's 
stable. Within a month Brown worked him a mile 
in 2:20. That was in the high wheel sulky days 
when a 2:14 trotter was a champion race horse. 
Colonel Parsons saw Captain Lewis in the workout. 
He and Burt Sheldon gave Towers $5,250 for him. 

'The new ow r ners decided to make a killing with 
Captain Lewis at Buffalo. I was sent along with 
the horse as an understudy for Brown and look out 
for the man who was taking care of the Captain. 
The Colonel also told me if he won there would be 
a couple of tickets in the box for me. 

"No one in Buffalo ever heard of Captain Lewis. 
Alleghany Boy and Gladiator were rated as the best 
in his race, while Alden Goldsmith started Barrett. 
When it came time to settle Captain Lewis had won 
in 2:22i/ 2 . 

"Alden Goldsmith, who as you will remember had 
Goldsmith Maid, Gloster, Driver and many other 
good trotters, claimed Captain Lewis was a ringer. 
It took some time for Colonel Parsons to convince 
the judges that his horse had helped to put in a 
forty-acre patch of corn that spring and had never 
been seen on a race track until June of that year. 
Fortunately there were a number of people at the 
meeting from Geneva. All of them knew Stewart 


Purdy and some of them saw Captain Lewis race 
at Lyons. 

"My winnings on the Buffalo race were a little 
over $400. It was a good nest egg. I added to it 
when Captain Lewis won at Utica, Hartford and 
Springfield, where he made his record of 2:20!/2- 
Hickok, Turner, Golden and half a dozen other train- 
ers had buyers for Captain Lewis that day. He 
was not for sale. 

"Captain Lewis was shipped from Springfield to 
Boston, where he trotted two races. The first was 
over Mystic Park. I was in the city on an errand 
that day and did not get back until after the first 
heat. It was won by a horse named R. P. in 2:22%. 

"Everybody seemed to think that Captain Lewis 
was booked for trimming. The betting ring was in 
an uproar when I caught the pool seller's eye and 
said '$500 for Captain Lewis' although he was sell- 
ing in the field. I got $1,500 against it. I made 
that bet six times and stood to win over $10,000 
when the horses were called for the second heat. 

"There was nothing to it from that time on. Cap- 
tain Lewis marched off in front and remained there 
for the next three trips. He also won at Beacon 
Park and Island Park in Albany, N. Y., before he 
was shipped home to Rochester." 

"What became of the horse after that move?" 
asked a man on the other side of the table. 

"The following winter," replied the stranger, "a 
veterinary with a dozen diplomas convinced Colonel 
Parsons that he could reduce the enlargement on 


Captain Lewis' leg without injuring him. He did 
it but when the support which nature added to that 
joint was removed the Captain would not stand 
training. I took him and used him for a road horse 
until old age rang the bell. He now sleeps in a little 
plot back of my home." 


During the career of each driver there is some- 
thing which they did in a race that made an im- 
pression by which the average spectator remembers 
them. Among the leaders which have turned out 
a number of top liners there are, as a rule, many 
incidents but usually there is one that stands out 
above the others. 

A striking example of this appears in the career 
of Andy McDowell. In his day he raced many great 
horses and gave Alix the world's record. That was 
a splendid performance but rather tame when com- 
pared with the day at Cleveland when he defeated 
Hulda with Azote. Hickok developed the Whips 
gelding but could not get him up to a point where 
he could win. Azote passed from his stable to 
Monroe Salisbury. He and McDowell made him a 
splendid racing machine. Hickok did not believe 
this until the tall gelding raced Hulda to a standstill 
and won pulled up after showing the spectators what 
a two-minute trotter would look like. 

The two bright spots in the career of Walter Cox 
are marked with the samples of patience which he 


displayed when racing Mabel Trask and Ethelinda. 
Frequently at the end of a score Mabel Trask would 
stop and take a view of the scenery. Cox never 
asked her to move until she was willing to go back 
and make another trip with the field. By humor- 
ing this marvelous daughter of Peter the Great he 
converted her from a wilful hussy to a perfect per- 
former which would give all she had in the form of 
racing if she could have her way when she had a 

The day that Murphy reduced the two-year-old 
record to 2:07% with Native Belle at Lexington the 
spectators were so surprised that they forgot to 
cheer. The southern yell, however, rang through 
the stand the day he slipped through at the pole 
and won by a head in 2:02 with Locanda. No one 
ever saw a driver lake a more desperate chance 
while the dash and thrill brought the spectators 
to their feet with a bound. 

Andrews did the same thing at Lexington when 
he won the Transylvania with Bouncer, although it 
looked at the time as though McDowell let him 
through so that he could pull down Lynn Bel. 

Dan Mace had a different kind of an experience 
at Charter Oak Park one day when he had Hopeful 
in a race. After winning two heats and while out 
in front in the third he shifted the reins to one 
hand and lifted his cap to a lady. While his eye was 
off his horse Doble whisked by with Lady Maud and 
won the heat. The General Knox mare also won 
the fourth heat, but Mace after a desperate encoun- 


ter landed the fifth. The backers of the gray horse 
had a scare that afternoon. 

In 1912 there was a splendid master and man 
encounter in the Charter Oak Purse between Cox 
and his former pupil, Rodney. The latter had Baden 
while Cox was driving Esther W., a mare that could 
do more mean things during a heat than any other 
horse that ever took the word. The heats were split 
and Baden won. It proved the high spot of his 
career. Those who know Cox can guess what he 
said to Esther W. when she exploded near the half- 
mile pole. 

No one ever saw a finer exhibition of a driver 
sitting still in a close finish than was shown by Nat 
Ray in the deciding heat of the Hambletonian Stake 
at Syracuse. In the first heat Guy McKinney raced 
head and head with Guy Dean up the back stretch 
in a gale of wind and won. On the next trip he let 
Ella Trabue go by and picked her up on the back 
stretch. Then Charm took the lead. Guy McKin- 
ney raced her down. From that point Ray was in 

In the stretch Cox pulled out of the bunch and 
started after the leader. Gaining with each stride 
he gradually cut down Guy McKinney's lead until it 
looked as if he would catch him. From his wheel 
he moved up to his girth and when the wire was 
passed only a head separated the pair. So far as 
appearances showed Ray acted as if he did not know 
that Guy Dean was on the race track. All of his 
attention was given to his mount. He did not rustle 


or beat him as so many do in a close finish, and won. 

Years ago John Goldsmith thrilled the spectators 
at Cleveland by winning with Muta Wilkes. The 
week before Roseleaf won in such impressive style 
at Detroit that she was barred in the betting. When 
the dust blew away Muta Wilkes had bowled her 
over in straight heats while those who admire clever 
driving went home with a vision of a natty looking 
reinsman in a light blue jacket with arms elevated 
higher than his head flashing by the stand in front 
of the favorite. At one time Murphy adopted this 
style. Frequently in a close finish the remark would 
flash through the stand 'Tommy's wings are going 
up. He is goirfg to make a bid for the heat." 

James Goldsmith, the brother of John, was a 
skillful reinsman, and a remarkable trainer. When 
his horses started they were ready and won. He 
never made much fuss in a close finish and never 
used the whip except when he had a loafer that 
hung at the end of a mile. One of his most re- 
markable victories was scored at Rochester when he 
won the $10,000 purse for Andy Welch with Star 

Of all the men w r ho ever sat in the sulky there 
never was a busier one in a close finish than Myron 
McHenry. For several years he had a bunch of stal- 
lions that were stout, steady and fast- and whenever 
one of them required a stiff application of the whip 
to rouse him McHenry was a past master at doing 
the job. The year that he drove for Tom Keating 
was frequently referred to as a bright chapter by 


the followers of the light harness horse. The lead- 
ers in that lot were Searchlight, Anaconda and 

James Dougrey specialized in game chickens, 
politics and trotters. In 1874 he marked. American 
Girl in 2:16% over Island Park at Albany, N. Y. 
This was a splendid performance over that sandy 
course. Later on during a political shift that 
dropped him off the payroll James came down the 
line with the big trotter, T. T. S. Two races a week 
were passed along to this horse whenever there was 
a chance while Dougrey always managed to get a 
bit of the money even if he did not win. 

Scott Quinton made a fine appearance in the sulky. 
He touched his high spot while racing Favonia for 
John S. Clark. Harvey Ernest came through as a 
young man with Beauregarde. He did his bit but 
never touched the peak reached by Ima Jay. Har- 
vey and the big brown mare had a busy day when 
they won the Transylvania at Lexington. That day 
the Buffalo boy bowled over Early Dreams, Royal 
Mac, Busy's Lassie, Spriggan and a few others at a 
clip which showed the world what well-bred trotters 
can do. 

For a few years Gil and Jack Curry cut a swath 
on the turf. The most spectacular horse that ever 
entered Gil's stable was" the gray pacer, Guy. He 
was a racker or single footer. Still it was accepted 
as a pace and he did well. Joe Patchen put Jack in 
the king row. The brightest day on his calendar 
was when he won with him at Cleveland from Rob- 


ert J. A few might turn to the $15,000 free-for-all 
at Chicago. It was spun out over three days and 
Jack won with Alix. It took so long, however, to 
find the winner that the public lost interest in the 

Of the hundreds of races won by Geers none 
seemed to give the public a greater thrill than when 
he landed the Charter Oak Purse with Billy Buch. 
Each of the three heats were won by a head. Many 
of the spectators claimed that Walnut Hall should 
have been given the first. In each heat Geers and 
his mount were hemmed in by the flying field. 
Through it all the old master kept his mount in the 
front rank and won by a margin so narrow that the 
least false move would have given it to the other 

James Golden lived at a time when many races 
were driven to order. A sample of this kind mixed 
him with a tragedy at Mystic Park. John Shep- 
pard, one of his patrons, purchased Young Rolfe 
under an agreement that he was to pay $1,000 addi- 
tional if he beat 2:20 that year. Golden started off 
to race him under orders. Young Rolfe won a few 
times without touching 2:20. Finally at Mystic 
Park, his home training ground, Young Rolfe made 
a flash. Golden took him back. The horse choked 
and dropped dead. 

The different members of the Fleming family 
have from time to time sat in the sunlight on race 
day. Long John exhibited his peculiarities for a 
few seasons behind Cheeny, while William made the 


sparks fly with Joe Patchen II at all places except 
Fort Erie, where Nat Ray shot by with Knight On- 
wardo. Vic thrilled the crowd at Lexington when 
he won two heats in two minutes with Louie Grattan 
and another William of the family made good with 

Budd Doble's last stand in the public eye was at 
the Empire Track at New York in 1903, when he 
marked Kinney Lou 2:07%. The Field Marshal of 
the trotting turf, who took the mantle of Woodruff 
with Dexter in 1867 and made world's records with 
Goldsmith Maid and Nancy Hanks, came back to the 
scene of his earliest triumphs with a horse that could 
win from a new generation of drivers. 

Orrin Hickok's proudest day was at Oakland, Cal., 
when General Grant came to his stall and compli- 
mented him on making a new world's record with 
St. Julien. The commander of the northern armies 
in the war between the states was fond of a trotter. 
In St. Julien he saw one of the highest type and 
one of the fastest. One morning at Rochester St. 
Julien pulled a high wheel sulky a half in 1:03. Few 
of the present day stars could do that. 

As a race driver Splan was a marvel. He was 
one of the first to make a Grand Circuit sweep with 
Wedgewood, while he touched the top of the wall by 
making new records with Rarus and Johnston. His 
work with the pair was his best sample and while 
it was not Johnston's limit it looked for a long time 
as if no other horse would ever reach it. Finally 
George Starr clipped off a quarter of a second with 


Direct before the bike sulky came along and made 
a new series. 

As a trainer and race driver Alta McDonald made 
a place for himself in the front rank. From start 
to finish he kept up with the procession. His last 
piece of work was on Major Delmar. He put him 
in the two-minute list and prepared him for the race 
in which he defeated Lou Dillon. 

The pacer, John R. Braden, with which John 
Willard won so many honors in Maine and New 
Brunswick, was at one time used on a farm in Ten- 
nessee and did his bit in front of the plough and 
harrow. Forty-five years ago Horace Brown also 
had one of that kind. In the spring of 1882 an un- 
named chestnut gelding helped to put in a crop on 
a farm near Geneva, N. Y. In August he was rac- 
ing in the Grand Circuit and won all of his engage- 
ments. This horse passed into turf history as 
Captain Lewis. Murphy had the next famous 
plough horse when he made a sweep with R. T. C. 

Few men have ever displayed more skill in get- 
ting a horse ready to race than Fred Hyde. When 
he was racing in the Hubinger colors he had AxcyelL 
He did not attract much attention until one after- 
noon at Columbus, when the coup which Fred and 
Nick Hubinger put over jarred the shingles qh the 

Like the most of the successful reinsmen Fred 
Hyde started at the bottom of the ladder. He took 
care of Harry Wilkes for Frank Van Ness and 
Kremlin for Ed Bither. The latter in time became 


the champion stallion, while Harry Wilkes was the 
best race horse in the George Wilkes tribe. Frank 
Van Ness drove him. He is one of the old-timers 
as in 1873 he raced St. James and sold him to 
"Lucky" Baldwin. Van Ness was not a very at- 
tractive figure in the sulky, but that did not keep 
him from being a clever trainer and a good reins- 

As a young man Ed Bither started in at the top 
with Phallas and Jay Eye See. Later on he raced 
and marked Kremlin. After that showing he 
seemed to lose his grip or the good ones failed to 
come his way. 

Few of the half-milers have anything on Earl 
Pitman. On race day he is as busy as a bee in blos- 
som time. He has had his share of clever racing 
material and never fails to get a bit of the money. 
Of all his races he never won a better one than when 
he defeated Ensign Tige and Great Bells at Avon 
with Peter Buskirk in 1925. The one with Ben Ali 
at Detroit may look bigger, but it was tame as the 
betting ring was silent that day. 

While Marvin made a new set of world's records 
at Palo Alto, the great day in his life was at Cleve- 
land when he defeated Goldsmith Maid with 
Smuggler. The field was out to beat him. In the 
last heat they had the white-faced stallion in a 
pocket. Marvin could not get through so he took 
Smuggler back, swung around the field and came 
on and won. 

The imperturbable Harry Brusie is one of the 


bright spots on the eastern tracks. His pert com- 
ments and tumbles have made him famous. More 
no account horses have won for him than any other 
man in the business, the best sample being Minor 
Hal. While Harry's hair is getting gray and his 
grandchildren tag him around nights he is a quick 
thinker and phrase maker of parts. 

Herman Tyson from down in Delaware is one of 
the drivers that is rather shy in a bunch of pacers. 
He tried it in 1926 with the front runner, Golden 
Direct, and made good. Walter Garrison from the 
same section is always willing to dive in and make 
a bid. He won his share with Peter Stevens, while 
in 1926 his stable led the winners. Speed is his 
middle name. 

Will Crozier is one of the few drivers which had 
two horses in his stable which peeked into the two- 
minute list in their work but did not get a chance 
to step over the divide. Miss Czar Moko showed 
that she could do the trick but passed out on account 
of an accident. The weather and sickness stopped 
Guy Richard for two years. His tutor, Dave Mc- 
Clary, started the fast list with Star Pointer on 
the course over which Millard Sanders also drove 
Lou Dillon in even time. 

"Knap" McCarthy made his first world's record 
with Little Brown Jug at Hartford. From that 
time he kept tapping at the winning door with all 
kinds until he was cut down in Illinois. As a type 
"Knap" was rather rough but he was all right at 
heart. There was a marked difference between him 


and John Murphy, whom everybody admired for his 
skill as a catch reinsman. George Saunders was still 
another type. Clingstone in his battles with Edwin 
Thorne gave him a place on the turf and gave John 
Turner an opportunity to make plans to defeat him. 

Of all the men who have been seen in the sulky 
since David Bryan started the 2:30 list with Lady 
Suffolk in 1845 there has been none like Turner. 
Weeks ahead he would make plans to win at some 
particular point and usually made good. When he de- 
feated Piedmont and Clingstone with Edwin Thorne 
he jarred the ring, but his greatest triumph was at 
Chicago the day that Hannis lowered the colors of 
Charley Ford. The pocketbooks on the levee were 
thin that night. 

There never was a more skillful trainer than 
George Fuller. He was one of the first to get back 
to nature. Bair, who marked Maud S., was just the 
reverse. He was a one-horse man like Charley 
Wagner, who raced Phyllis. 

Jock Bowen and his good-natured growl was a 
marked contrast to Billy Weeks, who rode Tanner 
Boy so gracefully. Jack Feek and little Charley 
Green presented a difference in appearance. Feek 
believed that the public should not be considered as 
they did not buy the oats, while Green tried to please 
everybody. Both of them w r ere among the drivers 
of yesterday. Neither of them would fit in today. 

Some water has run under the bridge since John 
Dickerson drove for Budd Doble. Now his brother 
Will is out in front of the parade and has one two- 


minute performer to his credit. 

In 1926 George Loomis took on the winning habit 
and made good. In the $10,000 trot at Windsor he 
put over a great piece of work when he won with 
Minia Dillon. At Kalamazoo he also showed that 
he was not taking a nap in the sulky when he took 
advantage of Hollyrood Volo's mistake and won the 
$25,000 pace with Hollyrood Walter. 

Will Leese touched the button of success at 
Goshen, N. Y., when he guided Thompson Dillon 
home in front of Guy Ozark. It was a tight fit, but 
he won. That is all that is required as Hodson 
showed when after doing the leading act with Rubi- 
con for a few weeks he delivered the goods at 

Fred Egan took a chance with Braden Direct after 
the talent had passed him by. He made him a 
champion. When Billy Andrews was prostrated 
with a sun stroke at Syracuse, Ben White stepped 
in behind Lee Axworthy and Volga. They popped 
him out in front. Later on when Frank Ellis cut out 
of the Pastime Stable, White went with him to Flor- 
ida and took up winter training. He made a go 
of it. 

Lon McDonald has been on the go for forty years. 
He has had many triumphs, but none made a greater 
thrill than Miss Jennings when he put her over at 
Cleveland years ago. 

Tink Hill is remembered as the winner of the first 
$10,000 M. & M. Stake with Hendryx and George 
Robens for what he and Alcryon did with Nelson. 


Independence Boy put Valentine in the band wagon, 
while Scott Hudson by making every post a winning 
post gathered the coin with Audubon Boy and Haw- 
thorne. He was Kentucky's most successful reins- 
man. He got the money and kept it. Crit Davis 
also came from the blue grass country with Prince 
Wilkes. His great day was at Fleetwood Park, New 
York, where he won the transferred Charter Oak 
Purse with Harietta. 

The Mosher family have always had a repre- 
sentative in the east. One of them years ago cruised 
over all kinds of tracks with Onawa. Some time 
has elapsed since A. H. Dore made the New England 
bred filly, Galatea, a champion. Lester followed in 
his footsteps. And so the list could be continued 
with Berry, Fox, Frost, Proctor, Hayden, Thomas, 
Caton, Stokes, Beasley, Owens, Kingsley, Todd, 
Gray, Utton, Pickle, Morrison, Wolverton, Russell, 
Nevers and a host of others. Drivers come and 
drivers go, but the trotters and pacers go on forever. 


While Pennsylvania has been one of the leading 
centers of light harness racing since the Hunting 
Park Course was opened at Philadelphia in 1828, 
Robert J., Maxie Cobb, Miss Bertha Dillon, Mar- 
garet Dillon, Rose Scott and Highland Scott are the 
only champions that were bred in the state. This 
has not come about on account of a limited supply 
of horses, as even in 1682 when William Penn ar- 


rived, he found plenty of them and reported "horses 
not very handsome but good." These horses were 
owned by the Swedes, Dutch and English located 
on the Delaware River. 

Forty years later the sons and grandsons of these 
people were buying Narragansett pacers to race on 
the circular track laid out on a Philadelphia common 
near the Race Street of today. These races were 
continued until 1750, when they were prohibited by 
the Colonial legislature. 

When this little ray of joy was snuffed out, the 
Quakers crossed the Flemish cart and English dray 
horses and produced the Conestoga horses, that 
hauled the freight wagons over the mountains to 
the point where the waters of the Allegheny and 
Monongahela united to form the Ohio River at Fort 
Pitt, the Pittsburgh of today. Also in the inter- 
val, Philadelphia became the port of entry in 1797 of 
the English horse, Messenger, and in 1820 of the 
African barb horse, Grand Bashaw, from Tripoli. 
The former became the tap root of the Hambleton- 
ian, Mambrino and Champion families, while the 
latter bore the same relation to the Clays. 

Grand Bashaw got Young Bashaw, the source of 
two speed lines. One ran through Doble's Black 
Bashaw and Tippoo Bashaw to Duquesne, 2:17%, 
owned and raced by Paul Hacke of Pittsburgh. The 
other line ran through Andrew Jackson, the best 
trotter of his day, to Kemble Jackson, a good race 
horse that died before he got many foals, as well as 
Long Island Black Hawk and Henry Clay, both of 


which made their reputations in New York State. 

No organized effort was made to breed trotters in 
Pennsylvania until the sixties, when C. P. Relf pur- 
chased Mambrino Pilot and Lady Thorn in Kentucky 
and Aristides Welch added a few to the Erdenheim 
stud. Welch began with the runners. In 1869 he 
purchased Leamington, and bred Iroquois, the only 
American bred horse that won the English Derby. 
Prior to that date, he purchased Flora Temple, the 
first 2:20 trotter, and bred two foals from her, one 
being Prince Imperial, by William Welch, and the 
other, Queen's Daughter, by Leamington. Welch 
also bred the Hambletonian stallions, Rysdyk, sire 
of Clingstone, and Strathmore, to whom Lou Dillon, 
the first two-minute trotter, traces in the male line 
through Sidney Dillon, Sidney and Santa Claus. 
Hannis was the best trotter got by Mambrino Pilot 
in Pennsylvania, while he also sired the champion 
stallion, Mambrino Gift, before he was shipped from 

Powell Bros, added a trotting department to their 
farm at Shadeland in the sixties. Satellite was one 
of their first stallions, and St. Vincent the best. Also 
at a later date their neighbor, C. G. Dempsey, began 
mingling trotting and running strains when he was 
not following the races. 

In 1871 Robert Steel established Cedar Park 
Farm, near Philadelphia, and placed Happy Medium 
at the head of it. While there he got Pilot Medium, 
the sire of Peter the Great; the champion trotting 
stallion, Maxie Cobb, 2:13 1 / 4, and his mate, Neta 


Medium, with which he reduced the team record to 
2:15%. When Happy Medium was transferred to 
Kentucky, where he sired Nancy Hanks, 2:04, he 
was succeeded by Epaulet and Woodnut. During 
their day R. J. C. Walker had Hartford at Williams- 
port, where he got the pacer, Robert J., who after 
defeating all of the best horses of his day, reduced 
the world's record to 2:01 1 / / 9. 

Among the other stock farms which occupied a 
place in the public eye in Pennsylvania, the leaders 
were Prospect Hill farm at Franklin, owned by 
Miller and Sibley, and at one time referred to as the 
Palo Alto of the east on account of the number of 
Electioneers owned there; the Penn Valley Farm 
at Morrisville, where H. S. Henry had Young Wilkes 
and Anteeo; A. H. Moore's establishment near 
Philadelphia, where he took Director, Red Wilkes, 
and a splendid band of race mares, which included 
Evangeline, Margaret S., and Position; the Wilson 
farm at Ephrata, where Esther W., 2:06 1 / 4, was 
foaled ; as well as the farms where Heptagon, Hull, 
Crawford, Moquette, Hal Braden, Star Pointer, Ess 
H. Kay, Alliewood, Silent Brigade, Joe Pointer and 
a number of other horses stood. 

Up to 1926, Nawbeek Farm, the home of Dillon 
Axworthy, at Paoli, was the leader, its reputation 
having been established by Miss Bertha Dillon, who 
after equaling the three-year-old record in 1917, 
cut the four-year-old record for fillies to 2:021/2 in 
a race ; the Kentucky Futurity winner, Nella Dillon ; 
The Divorcee; The Cossack, and the two-year-old 


champion gelding, Norman Dillon, 2:05 1 /4. After 
A. B. Coxe died his horse holdings at Nawbeek Farm 
were purchased by Sheppard & Myers, who con- 
tinued his breeding operations at Hanover. Bingen 
also had a worthy representative in Pennsylvania in 
Senator Hale. He was located at Gettysburg, where 
he has got a number of successful performers, the 
fastest being the pacer, Butt Hale, 2:02%. 

In 1914 Henry Oliver and Robert McAfee of Pitts- 
burgh purchased Peter Scott for $30,000. They 
raced him in 1915. He was then retired to the 
stud in Kentucky, where he got Rose Scott, 1:59%, 
and Highland Scott, 1:5914. 

While since the earliest days, there has always 
been considerable breeding done in Pennsylvania, 
the majority of owners have purchased their racing 
material in other states. This is shown by the 
names of the horses that were raced by the Dobles, 
Turner, Phillips, Scattergood, Grady, Patterson, 
Jamison, Middagh, Cummings and other Pennsyl- 
vania reinsmen since Sammy Keyes campaigned 
Magoozler and Lucy, and Turner started out with 
May Queen and Nettie. A list of the most promi- 
nent performers owned in Pennsylvania of late years 
includes Prince Wilkes, Katherine S., Sweet Marie, 
Saladin, R. H. Brett, Peter Scott, Mignola, the splen- 
did pair, Brighton B. and Lettie Lee ; Ross B., Roan 
Hal, Peter Stevens, Redwood, Terrace Queen, 
Zephyr, Susie S., Jack Leyburn, The Native, Light- 
some, Olive Fant, Lee Worthy, Aileen Guy, Guy 
McKinney, Peter Manning, and Princess Etawah. 



In the fifties, when the New England fairs began 
to add trotting races to their programmes, a few 
objected until they saw the increased attendance and 
the enthusiasm of the spectators when they had an 
opportunity to see the contests between Flora Tem- 
ple, Lancet, Tacony, Highland Maid, Rhode Island, 
Ethan Allen and the other performers of that period. 
They then took their places in the grandstand and 
joined in the applause showered on the flying footed 
trotters hitched to high-wheeled sulkies, which re- 
mained in vogue until 1892. Springfield, Massachu- 
setts, was the first town to introduce this feature at 
a fair. It was followed by Hartford, where Flora 
Temple trotted the first mile to harness in a race 
over a half-mile track below 2:30. The New York 
State Fair, during its annual wandering from Buf- 
falo to New York, Elmira, Watertown and other 
cities between 1842 and 1890, when it was perma- 
nently located at Syracuse, also gave races when- 
ever a track was available, the light harness horse 
dividing the honors with the gallopers. Other 
cities began to add trotting races to their pro- 
grammes, but few of them had very much harness 
racing until after the Civil War. 

As the years rolled by the trotters began to take 
the lead at all of the state and county fairs, pacing 
races being rare until the middle of the eighties and 
early nineties, when trainers began to add hopples 
to their equipment. After that date the pacers be- 


came numerous until of late years they have been 
awarded almost half of the premiums. For a time 
the gallopers held their own in the south and at fairs 
located near the leading racing centers, but they 
were dropped when the fair managers found that 
they had to depend on bush horses and selling plat- 
ers for their contests. 

As long as there was unrestricted betting, the 
leading owners and trainers paid but very little at- 
tention to the "pumpkin shows" and in time the 
patrons of the latter became a class by themselves. 
The courses over which they raced were the pre- 
paratory school for many horses which were 
destined to attract world-wide attention on the mile 

In the early days the Hambletonians, Clays and 
Champions came from New York state, the Mam- 
brinos and Pilots from Kentucky, the Morgans from 
Vermont and New Hampshire, the Morrills and 
Knoxes from Maine, the Bashaws from Iowa, and 
the Hiatogas and Cadmus from Ohio. Their 
descendants were carried to every state in the union 
by those who shipped racing stables from town to 
town and their successes prompted breeders to pur- 
chase the best of each breed for reproduction in 
their respective communities. In a few years, their 
descendants began to appear in the show rings at 
the fairs, while many a farmer's son was seen in 
the sulky at fairs behind colts which they bred and 
developed. This personal element made light har- 
ness racing popular with the masses, as everyone 


in the community was anxious to see the local horses 
perform. Also if one of them proved a winner, it 
usually resulted in a profitable sale or a trip to other 
towns where race meetings were being held. 

There is also another feature in connection with 
light harness racing which makes it more popular 
with the masses than running. That is the system 
of heats. In them the spectators become familiar 
with the horses and their behavior when scoring 
and racing, as well as the drivers, while with the 
gallopers they canter to the starting point, fre- 
quently not in front of the stand, rush off at the 
drop of the flag and are gone before the average 
spectator has an opportunity to see if the winner 
is bay or black. 

The spectator gets a dozen thrills in a trotting 
race but only one in a running event, its principal 
object being quick action for the money. Also the 
average man does not feel anything like comrade- 
ship for a slip of a lad perched like a monkey on the 
back of a galloping horse when compared with ex- 
perience of drivers who have followed racing for 

Light harness racing has a punch that no other 
form of outdoor entertainment can deliver. For a 
time the purses were small but they were increased 
as soon as the fair managers recognized this fact. 
Also when the crusade against betting was started 
and Governor Hughes repealed the law under which 
the New York tracks were operating, the light har- 
ness horses, instead of being stranded like the gal- 


lopers until oral betting was devised, continued on 
their way, racing for more money and before more 
people, the number of spectators running from one 
hundred and twenty-five thousand at the Minnesota 
State Fair to the twenty or twenty-five thousand at 
almost any county fair on Thursday. 

Racing at fairs is the sheet anchor of the trotting 
horse breeder. The returns from the show ring and 
the race track fixes the value of his product. Over 
seventy per cent of the meetings each year are given 
by fair associations and the vast amounts which 
they have invested in grounds and equipment are 
a guarantee of their permanent existence, aside 
from the support which they are receiving from 
the states in which they are located. 


For seventy years Michigan has been one of the 
leading northern states in the matter of breeding 
and racing the light harness horse. The first flight 
was seen at the old National Park in Kalamazoo in 
1859 during the meeting at which Flora Temple re- 
duced the world's record to 2:193/4. It was made 
by Magna Charta when he won in 2:33 and reduced 
the four-year-old record, which had been placed at 
2:36 by Ethan Allen in 1853. This horse was bred 
at Utica, Mich., and in time became one of the foun- 
dation sires of the Wolverine State. The good race 
mare, Hannah D., 2:2214, was his fastest perform- 
er, while he also got the dams of Belle F., 2:15%, 


and Jack, 2:12, the winner of the first $10,000 
Flower City Purse at Rochester and the first Tran- 
sylvania at Lexington. 

Michigan was the only northern state to which 
two sons of Mambrino Chief were shipped from 
Kentucky. They were Ericsson, who in 1860 re- 
duced Magna Charta's four-year-old record to 
2:301/2, and Fisk's Mambrino Chief. The latter 
trotted in 2:29i/ 2 to saddle at Bronson, Mich., in 
1869. He also got the splendid trotter, Mambrino 
Sparkle, 2:17, as well as Silver Cloud, 2:221,4. Be- 
fore being shipped from Kentucky, Ericsson sired 
Eric, who in 1876 reduced the four-year-old record 
to 2:281/4, and the mare, Betsey and I, dam of Mo- 
quette, the first four-year-old to trot in 2:10. 

A. C. Fisk began his breeding venture at Cold- 
water with Fisk's Mambrino Chief. In time he was 
succeeded by the Hambletonian stallion, Masterlode, 
the first great Michigan sire, his list of performers 
including Belle F., Edward, George V., and Plush, 
all with records below 2:20 when that was consid- 
ered fast. As the years rolled by, Hambletonian 
Wilkes, the sire of Phoebe Wilkes, was added to the 
Coldwater stud. When he was sold to James A. 
Murphy of Chicago, Great Heart took his place. His 
splendid array of performers, which include Le 
Grande, 2:03^4; Auto, 2:041/4; Canute, 2:051/4; 
South Bend Girl, 2:021/4; Wilkes Heart, 2:061/4; 
Greatest Line, 2:061/4, and Octoo, 2:071/2, shows 
what progress was made in the Fisk establishment 
in four decades. 


Royal Fearnaught was also added to the list of 
sires at Coldwater. He was owned by James 
Walker and in due time was credited with a long 
list of performers, the group including the big 
trotter, St. Elmo, 2:1614, and the pacer, Silver- 
thread, 2: I51/2. 

In the early seventies Ira Nye of Flint made his 
presence felt on the leading tracks with Mambrino 
Gift. He also had the pleasure of reducing the 
stallion record to 2:20 with him when he won at 
Rochester in 1874. This horse died in 1877 and was 
replaced by Ira Wilkes, a double-gaited son of 
George Wilkes, that proved a fair performer and 
an average sire. He got Berkshire Courier, 2:10, 
and Hermatic, 2:111/2. 

In the seventies, S. A. Browne began operating 
with trotters at Pentwater, but soon removed to 
Kalamazoo, where in partnership with Senator 
Stockbridge he established the Kalamazoo Stock 
Farm with Grand Sentinel, Empire, and Indicator in 
the stud. One of the products of this establish- 
ment was the celebrated brood mare, Santos, which 
when mated with Pilot Medium, a stallion that made 
a reputation on the farm of Walter Clark, near Bat- 
tle Creek, produced for D. D. Streeter of Kalamazoo 
Peter the Great, the leading sire of trotters in the 
world. During its career, the Kalamazoo Stock 
Farm owned a number of noted stallions and fast 
trotters, the list including Anteeo; Bell Boy, which 
was developed and sold for $50,000 ; Warlock, which 
John E. Madden brought back from Europe; Dan- 


court, winner of the first Horseman stake at De- 
troit in 1893; Vassar; Lowland Girl, and Bella Vara. 

In the early eighties Dewey and Stewart of 
Owosso appeared on the turf with Jerome Eddy, by 
Louis Napoleon. He was developed by Charles 
Abbott and proved a splendid race horse. His rec- 
ord of 2:16*4 was made in a special with Black 
Cloud at Buffalo in 1882 after the Jewetts paid 
$25,000 for him. George Voorhees won the event 
with Black Cloud, who was also a Michigan stallion. 
He was purchased in Kentucky and taken to De- 
troit by General Custer. After his death at the 
Little Big Horn massacre, Black Cloud passed into 
other hands and for a time stood at the head of M. 
V. Wagner's stud at Marshall, his associate being 
Tremont, the sire of Junemont, 2:14, one of the 
handsomest trotting stallions that ever took the 
word in public. 

When the Electioneers were making world's rec- 
ords, Sutherland and Benjamin purchased Sphinx, 
and placed him at the head of a farm near Sagi- 
naw. He was a success from the day that Gift 
O'Neer, his first trotter, appeared on the turf. He 
also sired Sphinx S., 2:05*4 ; Captain Sphinx, 2:0614, 
and many others with records. 

Of the other establishments, Claire View Farm, 
the home of Antevolo and Siva, the winner of the 
fifth M. & M., and the Simmocolon Farm, which 
George Hammond established at Ypsilanti, were 
well known. The latter was for several years the 
home of Sidney and Simmocolon, whose fastest per- 


former was the little pacer, Don Q., 2:07Vk- Sidney 
also had a national reputation as a sire of early and 
extreme speed, when he was taken there, while in 
time his son, Sidney Dillon, was credited with Lou 
Dillon, the first two-minute trotter. 

Dromore Farm at Port Huron was for a time the 
home of Justice Brooke. While located there he got 
Tilly Brooke, 1 :59. Deep Run Farm at Birmingham 
and later at Ypsilanti has sent out a number of 
clever performers by Czar Peter. Of these Czar Wor- 
thy, 2:0114, and Miss Czar Moko proved the fastest. 


When the Erie trains pull out of Goshen for New 
York they pass the Good Time Park mile track on 
the right. It is located in a valley which runs up to 
the edge of the village. After the trains pass the 
three-quarter pole a barn on the summit of a hill 
comes into view. It is the largest building on the 
Arden Homestead Farm, where Pluto Watts and 
Guy Trogan are located with the brood mares and 
colts owned by E. Roland Harriman. This stock 
farm is the outgrowth of the matinee stable which 
Averill and Roland Harriman raced with the mem- 
bers of the Goshen Driving Club and at inter-city 
meets of the League of Amateur Driving Clubs. 

A few of the horses in this stable also appeared 
each year at the Orange County Circuit meetings 
and closed the season with a trip over the mile 
tracks to Lexington. It was managed by W. K. Dick- 


erson, who drove the horses in their races. 

In 1923, when Averill took up polo and later on 
purchased the racing stable of the late August Bel- 
mont, he retired from light harness racing, while 
Roland remained with the trotters. From time to 
time he purchased colts or aged horses and built up 
a formidable organization. 

In 1924 his leaders were Pluto Watts and June 
Marie. Pluto Watts won everywhere until he met 
Tilly Brooke in the $10,000 purse at Syracuse. He 
made her trot the cinder track in 2:04Vi to win. 

In this campaign Pluto Watts reduced his record 
to 2:02 1 / 4. He was then retired to the stud at Lex- 
ington. His first crop of colts appeared on the turf 
in 1928. 

Aside from being a splendid race horse Pluto 
Watts is an intensely bred trotter. His sire, Gen- 
eral Watts, reduced the three-year-old record to 
2:06%. He was got by Axworthy from the Prodi- 
gal mare, Carpet, whose dam, Annie Wilton, was 
by Wilton out of Annie B., the dam of Lady Gilbert, 
2:25*4. The most remarkable inheritance of this 
horse is on the side of his dam, Grace Bingen. She 
was got by Bingen and runs back through six gen- 
erations of standard mares by such sires as Mam- 
brino King, to whom she traces twice ; Chimes ; Ken- 
tucky Prince, and Hambletonian to Lady Overton by 
Abdallah. Pluto Watts looks like the legitimate 
outcross for the Peter the Great family with which 
the trotting turf is now flooded. 

Dickerson had a wonder stable in 1925. At the 


Grand Circuit meetings he won six races with Anna 
Bradford's Girl, five two-year-old events with Peter 
Maltby, three with Guy Trogan, and two with Guy 
Ozark. On a side trip to Springfield, 111., he won 
with Anna Bradford's Girl and Guy Trogan, while in 
the Orange County Circuit he won four races with 
Guy Ozark, three with Anna Bradford's Girl, three 
with Peter Maltby and two with Guy Trogan. The 
winnings of the Arden Homestead stable during the 
season amounted to over $55,000. 

Another banner year was added to the score in 
1926, when Guy Trogan and Guy Ozark proved the 
two best aged horses on the turf. Guy Ozark won 
seven events and Anna Bradford's Girl five. The 
latter also reduced her record to l^ 1 /^. The other 
winners in the stable were Peter Maltby, Cinema, 
and Lady Astyra. 


The midnight bell tolled for W. J. Andrews at 
Hamburg, N. Y., on August 17, 1926. For nine 
years he had struggled to recover from the sun- 
stroke which prostrated him at Syracuse in 1915. 
At one time it looked as if he would win. In 1919 
he came north from Thomasville, Ga., with the 
Pastime Stable and drove in a number of races, one 
of his starts being with Mary Coburn in the Char- 
ter Oak Purse at Hartford. While in the sulky he 
exhibited all of his old-time skill. The excitement 
that went with it, however, sapped his nervous sys- 


tern at the end of the season. From that time until 
the end there was a gradual breaking down. 

Andrews remained at Thomasville, Ga., until 
1923. He then removed to northern New York, 
where he was born, where he started his turf career 
and where he died. 

Few trainers of light harness horses topped the 
summaries of as many fast races in proportion to 
the number driven as Billy Andrews. After driv- 
ing in a few races on the half-mile tracks Andrews, 
on the suggestion of Howard Conkling, joined the 
training staff at the Village Farm. C. J. Hamlin 
offered him $30 a month and his board. Andrews 
shook his head, but Conkling induced him to accept 
with the remark that if he made good he would 
soon get more. 

At the time Horace Brown was the head trainer. 
He was racing the get of Hamlin's Almont Jr., while 
the Mambrino Kings w T ere beginning to be heard 
from. It was not long before there was a difference 
between C. J. Hamlin and Brown over a race in 
which he drove Globe. Gradually the breach 
widened. Brown moved out. Andrews took his 
place and made his employer happy by beating Gold- 
smith Maid's record with Belle Hamlin. 

In 1890 Andrews came down the line of the Grand 
Circuit with Prince Regent, Mocking Bird, and 
Nightingale. He won the Charter Oak Purse at 
Hartford with Prince Regent. 

Andrews cut loose from the Village Farm on ac- 
count of differences with Harry Hamlin and took 


the pacer, Mascot, in tow. In 1892 he drove him 
to the world's record of 2:04 at Terre Haute the day- 
after Budd Doble had placed the trotting record in 
the same notch with Nancy Hanks. 

Geers succeeded Andrews at the Village Farm. 
He moved in with Hal Pointer. When Andrews was 
taunted with racing a soft horse like Mascot he 
matched him to beat Hal Pointer. Almost every- 
body smiled. On race day Andrews won, just as he 
did every other match race he drove during his 

In 1893 Andrews trained for the Empire Farm, 
owned by William Simpson of New York. Among 
the young stock he found a four-year-old filly by 
Hummer. Her name was Bouncer. That year be- 
tween the last week in June and the close of the 
Lexington meeting Andrews started Bouncer in 
eleven races, of which she won eight. One of them 
was the Transylvania, in which she defeated Lynne 

In 1896 Andrews appeared with another cham- 
pion. William Simpson purchased John R. Gentry 
for $7,600 at auction and Andrews took him. A 
few thought that Gentry's racing days were over. 
Billy did not agree with them. That year at Fleet- 
wood Park, New York, he won with Gentry from 
Frank Agan, Robert J., and Star Pointer in 2:03%, 
2:03 1 / 4, 2:03 1 /4, the fastest three heats on record up 
to that date. The following week at Glens Falls he 
also won again, defeating Star Pointer in 2:03%, 
2:01i/ 2 . 


After this race Andrews shipped John R. Gentry 
to Rigby Park, Portland, Maine. He reduced his 
mark to 2:00V£, another world's record. Two 
months later John R. Gentry again appeared in the 
auction ring. He was sold for $19,900. 

About this time E. H. Harriman became inter- 
ested in a few match races at Goshen, N. Y. In 
1897 he matched the two-year-old filly, Elsie S., by 
Stamboul, to race with Marcus Daley's colt, Limer- 
ick, and J. Malcolm Forbes' filly, Nowaday. Lim- 
erick won. Elsie S. finished last. After the race 
the driver of Elsie S. claimed his filly was poisoned, 
when the facts were that she was foundered. 

Notwithstanding this trouble another match was 
made to be trotted as three-year-olds. Harriman 
was determined to win. He conferred with Rens- 
selaer Weston. Weston told the owner of Elsie S. 
that as he had the worst horse it was up to him to 
get the best driver. W. J. Andrews was sent for. 
He took charge of Elsie S. and won from Limerick 
after a six-heat battle. The following is a summary 
of the contest : 

Elsie S., b.g., by Stamboul. ..102211 
Limerick, b.c, by Prodigal. ..201122 

Time, 2:27, 2:20*4, 2:22i/ 2 , 2:22i/ 2 , 2:23, 2:30. 

Andrews remained in the employ of E. H. Harri- 
man for four years. He then returned to the mile 
tracks with Tiverton. At Hartford he won the 
$10,000 Charter Oak Purse from Sweet Marie. This 
pair had several stiff battles, the last being in the 
Transylvania at Lexington, where Sweet Marie 


caught the Iowa bred gelding in the third heat and 
won in 2:05. That week Andrews also won the 
Kentucky Futurity with Grace Bond after a five- 
heat struggle with Alta Axworthy. 

In 1905 he appeared again at Lexington and made 
another start in the Transylvania. His mount was 
Ethel's Pride. She won in 2:06% by a breath from 
Turley. It was the kind of a battle that everyone 
enjoys except the owner. 

The next group of winners raced by Andrews 
were owned by John E. Madden. They were Ham- 
burg Belle, Soprano and Tenara. In 1908 Andrews 
came down the line with Hamburg Belle, winning 
at almost every point. At Hartford he again won 
the Charter Oak Purse after trotting the three fast- 
est heats on record. Hamburg Belle's match with 
Uhlan was trotted at Cleveland in 1909. She won 
in 2:01 1 / i, 2:01%, the two fastest heats on record. 

Soprano made her trip in 1911. After finishing 
second to Dudie Archdale at Grand Rapids she won 
all of her engagements from that point to Lexing- 
ton and pulled up with a mark of 2:03%. Tenara 
followed in 1913. She won all of her starts but one. 
Her last race was in the $10,000 Charter Oak Purse. 
She won. Andrews gave her a mark of 2:05%. 

Lee Axworthy was Andrews' last star. He took 
him when he was considered a trading proposition 
and had him in line for championship honors when 
his career was practically closed at Syracuse in 
1915. That year Andrews won the $10,000 M. & M. 
Purse with Lee Axworthy at Detroit in, 2:0614, 


2:043/4, 2:0434, defeating Peter Scott in the only 
race he lost that season. Two weeks later Lee Ax- 
worthy made his next start against the undefeated 
champion, Peter Volo. He won in 2:03%, 2:04%, 
after Peter Volo landed the first heat in 2:02. On 
the day Andrews was prostrated at Syracuse, he 
also won with Lee Axworthy in 2:05 1 /2> 2:05%, 

On race days in an important event Andrews 
always knew within a fraction of a second how 
much speed he could expect from his mount. He 
also had a fair line as to what the others could do. 
As a rule that did not make much difference as when 
Andrews won he usually made a new record for the 
event, if not a world's record. 

At the Hartford meeting in 1904 I had an apt 
example of this. Andrews had Tiverton in the 
Charter Oak Purse, with Sweet Marie the favorite; 
Dr. Strong; Consuela S., with which De Ryder won 
the Massachusetts at Readville; The Roman, and a 
few others. In the first heat Sweet Marie got away 
in a bunch and never could get clear of the field. 
Dr. Strong won the heat in 2:07%. Tiverton was 
well up until near the three-quarters, when he fell 
back and finished seventh. 

I was sitting in a road wagon in the infield. After 
the heat Andrews came through the gate near the 
timers' stand. As he passed me he stopped and in 
his jerky race day way said "I would have won that 
heat if my horse had not got his tongue over the bit 
and almost choked down. I'll fix him before the 


next trip and win." With a nod he was on his way 
to the stables on the back stretch. When Tiverton 
came out for the second heat I could see that his 
tongue was tied down. He went on and won in 
2:073/ 4 , 2:073/ 4 . 

As a race driver Andrews never had a superior, 
possibly never an equal. When in a race he was 
nervous and irritable, his whole mind being occupied 
by the event. If there were any chances to be taken 
during a heat he took them. No one could drive 
closer in a tight place than Billy Andrews. If he 
could not get away in front he never failed to carry 
the battle to the leaders and wore them down by a 
sharp brush and a stiff drive at the end of it. 

Andrews' skill as a race driver can be seen by 
what he did with the representatives of the differ- 
ent families that he trained. He made Hamburg 
Belle the world's greatest race mare. He marked 
Tiverton the fastest trotter by Galileo Rex and made 
Ethel's Pride the fastest trotter by Directum. So- 
prano, one of his pupils, was the best of the Bellini 
group. He also took John R. Gentry after almost 
everybody had a whirl with him and made him a 
world's champion. Bouncer proved the fastest per- 
former by Hummer and Grace Bond the best by The 
Bondsman that appeared up to her day. The Real 
Lady and Fereno are the only Moko trotters with 
faster marks than Tenara. The positions might 
have been changed if she had not pulled up lame at 
Syracuse. Andrews also started Volga on her un- 
beaten career and prepared Lee Axworthy for the 


miles which later on placed him in the two-minute 

Billy Andrews was buried at Batavia, N. Y. Few 
of those who knew him will ever see his resting- 
place. His fame, however, does not rest upon what 
someone cuts in a stone. It is carried in the mem- 
ories of the thousands who saw him win races at 
Detroit, Cleveland, Hartford, Lexington and other 
cities. They will always remember him and his 
brown jacket in the thick of the battle when speed, 
strength and stamina were stretched to the break- 
ing point. It was there he won the laurels which 
all racegoers cheerfully accorded him and which re- 
calls Gray's immortal line 

'The paths of glory lead but to the grave." 


The list of champion stallions was started by 
Ethan Allen at the Union Course on Long Island on 
October 28, 1858, when he defeated George M. 
Patchen, who was handicapped to a wagon, in 2:28. 
All of the early champions made their records in 
races. Maxie Cobb was the first to secure the 
honors in a trip against the watch. He trotted in 
2:1314 at Providence in 1884 and clipped half a sec- 
ond off the record of 2:13% which Phallas made 
in the fourth heat of a race at Chicago earlier in 
the season. After that date Directum and The 
Harvester were the only champions to earn their 
honors in races. 


Fifteen years elapsed between the date on which 
Ethan Allen won his first race at Plattsburgh, N. Y., 
in his three-year-old form, until he was finally re- 
tired from the turf at the close of 1867, when in 
his eighteenth year with running mate, he defeated 
Dexter in 2:15. This was 10*4 seconds faster than 
he was ever able to trot to harness. 

George M. Patchen, who was foaled in 1849, the 
same year as Ethan Allen and Hambletonian, was 
the next champion. He reached his limit on August 
2, 1860, when he won a heat from Flora Temple 
in 2:23V2- George M. Patchen was the best race 
horse of the Clay family. He won to harness, to 
saddle and to wagon, at one and two-mile heats. Of 
his descendants, Lucy, 2:18 1 / 4, and in the next gen- 
eration Hopeful, 2:14%, who was before the public 
from 1873 to 1881, were the best, while the Village 
Farm trotters, Belle Hamlin, Justina, Globe and 
Nettie King, the dam of The Abbott, 2:03*4, each 
carried a cross of his blood. 

Fearnaught, the third champion, was foaled in 
New Hampshire and made his record of 2:23*4 at 
Buffalo in 1868 when he defeated a field of seven, 
including American Girl and Myron Perry. Like 
Ethan Allen he was a member of the Morgan family 
and while a handsome horse, his racing qualities 
were not of a very high order. 

George Wilkes and Jay Gould, the next two cham- 
pions, were sons of Hambletonian. The first named 
was raced from 1865 to 1872, making his record of 
2:22 at Providence in a race in which he defeated 


Rhode Island and Draco Prince on October 13, 1868, 
when he was 12 years old. In 1873 he was taken 
to Kentucky, where between that date and his death 
in 1882 he founded a family of trotters. The male 
lines tracing to him have also produced champions 
at an increased rate of speed at each remove. The 
honor roll shows that his sons, William L. and Jay 
Bird, sired Axtell and Allerton, the former reaching 
his limit as a three-year-old. Axtell also continued 
the line through Axworthy and his son, Guy Ax- 
worthy, to Lee Axworthy, the first stallion to enter 
the two-minute list. 

In Guy Axworthy, the blood of the brothers, Wil- 
liam L. and Guy Wilkes, are blended. They in- 
herited the golden Wilkes-Mambrino cross on a 
foundation of Seely's American Star, whose daugh- 
ters were in the early days represented on the turf 
by Dexter, Nettie and Jay Gould. Jay Gould also 
succeeded George Wilkes in the list of champions, 
his record of 2 :21*^ being made at Buffalo in a third 
heat with William H., Allen and Huntress in the 
field. Jay Gould's memory was also kept green by 
the brilliant performances of Pixley, 2:08 1 / 4, and 
Robert J., 2:0iy 2 . 

Smuggler, the sixth champion, was a converted 
pacer. He owed his place in turf history to Charles 
Marvin. During his career Smuggler cut the stal- 
lion record from 2:20%, where he placed it at Buf- 
falo on August 5, 1874 in the $10,000 stallion race 
that was won by Thomas Jefferson, to 2:15*4 at 
Hartford in 1876. Mambrino Gift was the only 


rival for the honors in the interval. On August 
13, 1874, the son of Waterwitch won a race at 
Rochester, N. Y., in 2:20. He only retained the 
honors for a month as Smuggler equalled it in the 
stallion race in which he defeated him at Boston. 

Eight years elapsed before another change was. 
made, Phallas earning the honors in a race in 1884,. 
only to lose it a few weeks later to Maxie Cobb. 
He had his revenge, however, the following year 
when he defeated the showy son of Happy Medium 
in a match race at Cleveland. 

Axtell, the next leader, was the wonder horse of 
his day. Bred and developed by C. W. Williams, 
this horse in one brief season made him the most 
talked of man in America. As a two-year-old, Ax- 
tell trotted in 2 :23. Few paid any attention to him 
as his performance was overshadowed by the record 
of Wildflower and its reduction that season by SunoL 
The clouds were lifted, however, in 1889, when as a 
three-year-old he followed his mile in 2:15Vk at 
Minneapolis in July with one in 2:14% at Cleveland, 
another in 2:14 in a race at Chicago, and finally 
reached 2:12 at Terre Haute, where he was pur- 
chased by W. P. Ijams, John W. Conley and F. T. 
Moran for $105,000 and earned $70,000 in stud fees 
the following year. 

No one ever dreamed of anything like this or sup- 
posed that the next champion would come from 
Maine, the birthplace of Nelson. In some respects 
he was the most remarkable performer ever foaled. 
From birth Nelson was a trotter and notwithstand- 


ing the handicap imposed on him by the manner in 
which he was trained and raced, he reduced the 
stallion record from 2:12 to 2:10%, while he after- 
wards equalled the 2:10 of Allerton, when the reso- 
lute son of Jay Bird entered the list as a champion 
and continued until he reduced his mark to 2:09. 
The match between this pair at Grand Rapids on 
October 8, 1891, brought out more people than were 
ever seen at a horse race in Michigan. 

Nelson was called the Northern King. In form, 
gait and poise, either when in motion or standing, 
he was a superhorse. Still he failed to reproduce 
himself in the stud while Allerton became a splendid 

When Allerton reached the limit of his speed, he 
had another rival in the half-bred trotter, Palo Alto, 
whose mile in 2:08% over the kite track at Stock- 
ton, Cal., on November 17, 1891, made him tfie 
champion. Death closed his career the following 
year, while Kremlin and Stamboul were preparing 
for the lead. Kremlin trotted in 2:07% at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., while Stamboul's mark of 2:071/2 at 
Stockton was rejected, although it did not keep 
E. H. Harriman from paying $41,000 for him when 
he passed under the hammer in New York. 

Another California leader also appeared upon the 
scene in 1893 in Directum. No one could question 
his title as after reducing the stallion record twice 
in trips against time, this gallant four-year-old won 
the third heat of a race at Nashville in 2:0514. He 
was the best trotter of his year and remained the 


champion until 1900, when Cresceus trotted Char- 
ter Oak Park in 2:04%. The following year the 
son of Robert McGregor moved the limit to 2:02 1 / 4, 
where it remained until The Harvester won a heat 
at Fort Erie on August 17, 1910, in 2:02. This 
also proved his greatest effort in a contest, although 
later in the year he made a time record of 2:01 at 
Columbus. This restored the leadership to the Elec- 
tioneer family and it remained there untli 1916, 
when Lee Axworthy, an inbred Wilkes, was started 
on his record-breaking series, which culminated in 
a mile in 1:58*4. 


When gold was discovered in the Sacramento val- 
ley the men who were afterwards known as "forty- 
niners" started for the Pacific coast by way of Cape 
Horn, the isthmus, or over the plains. Of the thou- 
sands who made the dusty march, either in the wake 
of a prairie schooner or on horseback, many of them 
owned horses, that were either thoroughbred or 
had one or two crosses of that blood, while a few 
were descendants of Justin Morgan. The horses that 
survived the trip became in time the foundation 
stock on the Pacific coast, while at a later date their 
descendants were mated with the trotters which 
were brought to California after the railroad was 

Princess, to whom Peter the Great and all of his 
descendants trace, made two trips across the plains 


and while in California raced with what was con- 
sidered the best trotters of her day, a few of them 
having been bred there, while others like herself 
were foaled east of the Mississippi river. In time 
Occident, a product of the golden state, equalled the 
world's record of Goldsmith Maid when it stood at 
2:16%, but he was only a flash and had very little 
racing merit. His showing, however, prompted 
Leland Stanford to found Palo Alto, the world's 
greatest nursery of trotters and whose representa- 
tives at different times reduced all of the world's 
records at the trotting gait. 

Electioneer brought the speed spark to Palo Alto, 
and while he was there Santa Claus, Steinway, Guy 
Wilkes, Director, and The Moor laid the foundation 
of light harness racing speed in California. Both 
Santa Claus and Steinway were sons of Strathmore, 
and while the former was returned to the east and 
died in Philadelphia, he left a colt named Sidney 
that in time got a record-breaking batch of pacers 
as well as the sire of the first two-minute trotter. 
Steinway put a number in the king row, and Guy 
Wilkes for a time led his family in the matter of 
record and racing speed of Grand Circuit caliber. 
Director was the best race horse of the group, and 
while he sired but few foals, he left two sons that 
became champions and made reputations in the 
stud. The Moor was located near Los Angeles and 
died young, his name being perpetuated by Sultan 
and Beautiful Bells. From the latter Palo Alto se- 
cured Hinda Rose, a yearling and three-year-old 


champion; Bell Bird, another yearling champion; 
St. Bel; Bell Boy; Belleflower, and Chimes, sire of 
The Abbott, a champion. Sultan sired a few 
record-breaking youngsters as well as the magnifi- 
cent trotter, Stamboul. 

In the matter of extreme speed, California sent 
out a full quota. Lou Dillon, the first trotter to 
cross the divide, was foaled there, while every other 
trotter from The Harvester, who retired with a rec- 
ord of 2:01, to Uhlan, had California strains in their 
pedigrees. Uhlan was got by Bingen, whose sire, 
May King, was foaled at Palo Alto. Bingen also 
sired the dam of Lee Axworthy, 1:581/4, whose sire, 
Guy Axworthy, is a son of the California bred mare, 
Lillian Wilkes. Delmar, the sire of Major Delmar, 
1:59%, came from Palo Alto, and Conductor, the 
grandsire of The Harvester, was bred at the same 

Of the two-minute pacers California can claim 
seven in the matter of inheritance. Directum I, 
1:56%, and Napoleon Direct, 1:59^, trace to Direc- 
tor through Direct. Anna Bradford's Girl, 1:59^4, 
and Sir Roch, 1 :59V2> belong to the Electioneer fam- 
ily, while Sanardo, l:59!/2> Prince Loree, 2:00, and 
Merriman, 2:00, trace to McKinney, a horse that 
made his reputation on the Pacific Coast. 

While the limit of racing speed always has a fas- 
cination for people who are seeking off hand infor- 
mation about light harness horses, the flicker of 
fame which goes with the mark, rarely carries with 
it the acid test that keeps a race horse in the spot- 


light week after week when the racing season is in 
full blast. In that respect California has also been 
fortunate as in Palo Alto, Azote, Directum, Hulda, 
Direct, Muta Wilkes, Sweet Marie, Little Albert, 
Flying Jib, Anaconda, Klatawah, Cricket, and So- 
noma Girl, it gave the turf a group that it 
would be a difficult matter to duplicate from any 
other state. Each of them were tried when the 
heats were split and won. Each of them were lead- 
ers in their day and may be remembered when such 
speed marvels as Arion, Sunol, Lou Dillon, Stam- 
boul, Wildflower, Sweetheart, Freedom, Gold Leaf, 
Fausta, and Frou Frou, are forgotten. 


The growth of cities or changed conditions are 
responsible for the passing of the majority of race 
tracks. The first one in America was built on 
Hempstead Plain, Long Island, in 1665. It was lo- 
cated near the site of Belmont Park and was in time 
followed by the Centerville, Union, Fashion, and 
other courses, all of which have disappeared. 

On the Island of Manhattan there was at a very 
early date a race track on the church farm near 
the site of the old Astor House and within two 
blocks of Trinity Church. At a later date there 
was another in Harlem, where General Grant at- 
tended an impromptu matinee and reviewed a 
parade of the best Metropolitan road horses, which 
were seen regularly on the Bloomingdale Road. 


That track was followed by Fleetwood Park, the 
home of the Driving Club of New York. It was 
opened in 1870 and was the parade ground of the 
world's best trotters for over thirty years. Carl S. 
Burr won the first race trotted over it with the 
Hambletonian colt, Startle. It was an event for 
three-year-olds worth $5,000. Startle distanced 
Lothair, his only competitor, in the first heat, in 
2:37. It was also over this track that W. H. Van- 
derbilt in 1883 drove Maud S. and Aldine to a high 
wheel road wagon in 2:15!/2 after jogging the pair 
from his city stable. 

Apartment houses now cover the infield and 
stretches of the old course. Few of those who live 
in them are aware that the flat beneath the bluff, 
where the club house stood, was in the days that are 
gone graced with the presence of such turf cham- 
pions as Dexter, St. Julien, Jay Eye See, and 
Maud S. 

Chicago, while a modern city when compared 
with New York in the matter of age, has had a 
number of trotting tracks within its boundaries. 
One of the earliest was located near what is now 
known as Twenty-Second Street. Dexter was 
started there in 1866 against George M. Patchen, 
Jr. This race was trotted two weeks prior to the 
$5,000 match between Cooley and General Butler 
in which William McKeever, the driver of Butler, 
was killed while the horses were racing down the 
back stretch. A plank was torn from the fence and 
held so that McKeever's head struck it. The parties 


who committed the crime were never found. 

This track, which was known as Dexter Park, 
was in time followed by the West Side Course, where 
Johnston, Piedmont, Hannis, Charley Ford and their 
contemporaries met in many contests before it was 
given over to the runners. 

Before the West Side Course was dismantled, 
Washington Park was rated among the leading race 
tracks for the gallopers as well as the light harness 
performers. The American Derby became a classic 
through the efforts of the association which con- 
trolled it. General Phil Sheridan was its first presi- 
dent. The North Western Trotting Horse Breeders' 
Association also held meetings there for a number 
of years. One of its last efforts was the $15,000 
free-for-all, which Alix won during the World's Fair. 

Detroit has had three-mile tracks. Hamtramck 
was the first. It followed a half-mile course over 
which races were held in connection with a fair. 
Magna Charta won a race there in 1860, defeating 
St. Lawrence. 

Hamtramck Park gave way in the nineties to the 
Grosse Point Course. The latter was built by D. J. 
Campau, who revived racing in Detroit in 1886. A 
prolonged invasion of the runners put the Grosse 
Point track out of commission. It was succeeded 
by the Michigan State Fair. 

Cleveland had a half-mile track in the fifties. 
Races were given over it for over twenty years. 
The Abdallah gelding, Sir Walter, won there in 1866 
from Nabocklish and Pilot. In 1870 the Northern 


Ohio Fair opened its mile track at Glenville. In a 
few years the fair was abandoned, W. J. Gordon 
purchasing the fair grounds located on the north 
side of St. Clair Street, while the Cleveland Club 
took over the track and its equipment. 

The Cleveland Club and its successor, the Cleve- 
land Driving Park Company, gave one or two meet- 
ings each season for over thirty years. The condi- 
tions which governed the meetings faded when 
Glenville was annexed to Cleveland. 

When the track over which so much turf history 
had been made under Colonel William Edwards and 
his successors was dismantled, another was selected 
at North Randall. It was a portion of the Forest 
City Farm, where C. F. Emery bred trotters with 
Hermes, Patron, Brown Wilkes, Nugget and Mc- 
Adams at the head of his stud. This course is one 
of the fastest in America. 

Racing began in Buffalo at Cold Spring Park. 
It was followed by the Buffalo Driving Park, over 
which Dexter and Rarus made their records and at 
which its management gave a number of $20,000 
purses for the old-time trotters. This park was 
owned by C. J. Hamlin when the gates were closed. 
A few years later Kenilworth Park was opened. 
Its lights went out when Governor Hughes repealed 
the betting laws. 

Later the Buffalo folk crossed the Canadian bor- 
der for mile track racing at Fort Erie, where the 
runners appeared regularly. The trotters also made 
several visits to the same course. The Canadian 


three-day limit for trotting meetings made them un- 
profitable and they were abandoned. 

The mile tracks at Utica. and Rochester gave 
way to the growth of these cities. A Masonic home 
is located on the site of the Utica track while homes 
and business houses are located in Rochester where 
Maud Si St. Julien, Santa Claus, Robert McGregor, 
Jack, and Star Lily trotted for money and turf 
honors. For a time Rochester supported Crittenden 
Park. In time it went the way of other city tracks. 

Riverside Park was one of the first tracks built 
in the vicinity of Boston. It was a half-mile course. 
In 1865 Jock Bowen started Captain McGowan over 
it to trot twenty miles in an hour. He won in fifty- 
eight minutes and twenty-five seconds. This track 
was followed by Beacon, Mystic, Saugus, Combina- 
tion, and Readville. The site of Beacon is now a 
freight yard, while Mystic Park, where Goldsmith 
Maid made her record of 2:14 in 1874, was cut into 
building lots several years ago. Saugus is dis~ 
mantled. Readville faded in 1926. 



While for many years Indiana has been consid- 
ered the stamping ground of the pacer, it was the 
trotter, Red Cloud, that first made a place for the 
state in the light harness racing world. He was 
bred by J. S. Wade near Edinburgh, being foaled in 
1860, and made his record in 1874, when 14 years 
old, in a third heat at Buffalo, where he defeated 
Camors, Gloster, Nettie, Sensation, and St. James. 
Red Cloud was raced from 1871 to 1876. When he 
won in 2:18, he stood fifth in the list of fast trot- 
ters, Goldsmith Maid, Occident, American Girl, and 
Dexter being the only ones with faster marks. He 
soon had a few rivals, however, as the following 
week at Rochester, Lula trotted in 2:16^ and 
Gloster in 2:18, while Nettie won in 2:18 at Boston. 

Red Cloud was got by Legal Tender, a descendant 
of Blackburn's Davy Crockett, that was taken from 
Detroit to Kentucky in 1837. On July 8, 1874, he 
was also the storm center of one of the greatest 
demonstrations of anger that was ever seen on a 
race track. It occurred at Indianapolis, where he 
was named to start in a $5,000 purse with Gold- 
smith Maid and Judge Fullerton. When the race 
was called it was announced that Red Cloud was 
drawn. This roused the fury of the Hoosiers from 
the banks of the Wabash and White Rivers, who had 
paid their hard-earned coin to see the state idol in 

In a twinkling they stormed out of the grandstand 


shouting "Red Cloud or no race." Someone pro- 
duced a long rope and before the police could inter- 
fere, it was fastened across the track and guarded 
by men with pickets torn from the fences in their 
hands. A few of the leaders were convinced that 
Wade had been paid to draw his horse as it was 
well known that Goldsmith Maid was not on edge 
and on that account Red Cloud was expected to win. 
Wade was called to the judges' stand and finally 
consented to start Red Cloud, but notwithstanding 
his best efforts, no doubt on account of the horse 
not being properly prepared for the race, Goldsmith 
Maid won in 2:26, 2:25%, and 2:23, with Judge 
Fullerton in third place. 


While authors and artists have always shown a 
fondness for gray horses, they have never been 
popular in the racing world. As a rule, they have 
been considered soft, although none of the followers 
of light harness racing would admit that such a 
charge could be laid against Earl Jr., The Eel, or 
Dr. Strong, who was almost white when he trotted 
his last races. 

Being the weakest of all colors, gray does not re- 
main very long in a family. It cannot be repro- 
duced without having a gray parent. To this can 
be added the fact that there are but few gray stal- 
lions kept for service except by the breeders of 
Percherons. This accounts for so few gray horses 


being seen on the track or road, although Bobby 
Burns said that Tarn O'Shanter was 

"Well mounted on his gray mare Meg" 
when the witches whisked off her tail at the brig, 
and Sir Walter Scott assigned Fitz James a "gal- 
lant gray" in the Lady of the Lake. 

Of the thousands of trotting and pacing stallions 
which have been in the stud, Pilot Medium, Bobby 
Burns, and Strong Boy are the only grays that were 
successful sires of speed. Of these, Pilot Medium 
traces to Pilot Jr., one of the two gray horses which 
founded a family of light harness performers. 

Pilot Jr. was got by the black horse, Pilot, out of 
the gray mare, Nancy Pope. His color was carried 
into the 2:10 list by his son, Pilot Duroc, who go 
Keller Thomas, 2:12%, the sire of the handsome 
trotter, Locust Jack, 2:06^, and through his daugh- 
ters, Miss Russell, Tackey, and Dixie. 

Miss Russell leads all brood mares in extreme 
speed among her descendants. Maud S. and Nut- 
wood, her two most noted foals, were chestnuts; 
Russia, 2:28, and the pacer, Sclavonic, 2:09 1 /4, being 
her only performers which inherited her color. Of 
her undeveloped foals, Nutbourne, the gray brother 
of Nutwood, sired Cheyenne, the winner of the 
Transylvania in 1891, and Lady Russell produced 
five performers, one of which was the gray horse, 
Re-Election, 2:27 1 / 4, sire of the pacer, Refina, 
2:08 1 / / 2> and the dams of Vaster, 2:07 1 ,4, and Mamie 
Locke, 2:083/4. 

The line of performers from Tackey traces to 


her son, Pilot Medium. The gray gelding, Jack, 
2:12, was his first successful performer. He won 
the first Flower City $10,000 Purse at Rochester in 
1889 and the first Transylvania at Lexington the 
same year. Of Pilot Medium's 2:10 performers, 
Waubun, 2:0914, and Pilot Boy, 2:09%, inherited 
the color of their sire. His son, Lee's Pilot, sired 
the gray trotter, Judge Lee, 2:08*4, while one of 
his daughters produced Great Medium, 2:09%, and 
Tokio, 2:09, another gray, had a daughter of Pilot 
Medium for a grandam. The color of Dixie was 
carried into the 2:10 list by Zoe Dillon, 2:08, 
through the gray mares, Zephyr, Baroness, and 
Rexie Maywood. 

The imported horse, Messenger, to whom practi- 
cally all of the trotters of today trace through Ham- 
bletonian, was a gray. His color, with a few excep- 
tions, disappeared after two removes. One of the 
exceptions was the inbred horse Engineer 2nd, sire 
of Lady Suffolk, the first 2:30 trotter, the only 
world's champion that was a gray. The color was 
also continued through Gideon. After being taken 
to Maine, he sired the dam of the gray horse, In- 
dependence, 2:211/4, which William Rockefeller drove 
on the road with Cleora, after they made a team rec- 
ord of 2:16V2 to a pole cart at Hartford. 

Of the old-time stars of the trotting turf, Hope- 
ful and Charley Ford were grays. At a later date,- 
Sam Purdy contributed the gray pair, Charley C- 
and Strontia, both of which were clever race horses.. 
Within the past decade, Lon McDonald came down 


the line with Robbie B. McGregor, 2:091/4, and Bob 
Douglas, 2:041/2. 

Up to the close of 1926 there were but five gray- 
horses with records below 2:06. Of this lot Gray- 
worthy stood at the top of the list with a record of 
2:021/4. The others are Dr. Strongworthy, 2:041/4; 
Bob Douglas, 2:04i/ 2 ; Peter Daw, 2:05%, and Dr. 
Strong, 2:053,4. 

Of the other gray trotters, Jack Curry won sev- 
eral races with Supol, 2:10, before he was shipped 
to Russia, while Dandy Jim, 2:09%, and Jim Ferry, 
2:09%, and Amo, 2:091/4, did the most of their 
the word in any company. Albert C, 2:091/2, did 
not do much racing. Vanity Oro, 2:091/4, was re- 
tired after she made her record; while Dr. Mack, 
2:091/4, and Amo, 2:09%, did the most of their 
racing on the half-mile tracks. The gray geldings, 
Hendryx and John Taylor, won the M & M at De- 
troit. Alcryon, another gray, won the Charter Oak 
Purse in 1889, and Senator A, the Transylvania in 

Of the gray pacers Earl Jr. and Fay Richmond 
are the fastest. Each of them carry records of 
2:011/2. Earl Jr. inherited his color from his dam, 
Jenny Cameron, while Fay Richmond got his from 
his sire, New Richmond, 2:0714. This line runs 
from them through Jewess to the gray horse, A. W. 
Richmond, which Joseph Cairn Simpson took to 
California. A. W. Richmond also sired the mares 
which produced Silver Dick, 2:091/4, and Waldo J., 
2 :09, another pair of grays. 


Of the other gray sires which are represented in 
the 2:10 list of pacers, Manager, with a record of 
2:06%, leads with Bob Manager, 2:09*4, and The 
Ghost, 2:0814- He was got by Nutwood, out of the 
gray mare, Carrie, 2:2914, a daughter of George 
Wilkes and the gray mare, Belle Bashaw, which also 
produced Strong Boy, 2:ll 1 / 4, the sire of Dr. Strong, 
2:05%. Alcryon, the blind horse, is represented by 
Amos R., 2:091,4, while his son, Alcryone, another 
gray, is credited with Sylviaone, 2:0914. The Eel, 
2:0214, appears in the list as the sire of Eel Direct, 
2:091/4, and Re-Election, as has been stated, is the 
sire of Retina, 2:081/2, the gray mare which Jock 
Bowen raced for several years. 

Blue Bull had two gray sons that sired 2:10 speed 
at the pace. Of this pair, Jim Wilson got Wiltran- 
by, 2:06%, the sire of the gray gelding, Arrow 
Tranby, that made a time record of 2:05 at In- 
dianapolis. The other, Blueskin, was a brother to 
the gray mare, Kate McCall, 2:23, which John D. 
Rockefeller drove for a number of years to pole with 
Midnight. He got Bullmont, 2:09%. 

The gray horse, Democracy, 2:07!^, which car- 
ried everything before him on the half-mile tracks, 
was got by Happy Partner, a gray son of Happy 
Medium. Vernwood, a son of Wilkeswood, passed 
his color along to Joelisco, 2:08%, while the gray 
coat of Birdie B., 2:0914, ran through Nicholas B. 
to the gray mare, Lady Brooks, by Amber, one of 
the first American trotters taken to Austria. 

The other gray pacers inherited the color from 


their dams. Walter Hal, 2:04, was out of Duck, by 
Brown Hal and the gray, Mary Bales, 2:2614. In 
addition to producing the beautiful trotter, Wilkes 
Brewer, she also threw the almost white pacer, Zom- 
brewer, 2:04^4, dam of Graybrewer, 2:08^4. The 
gray horse, Wood Patch, 2:05 1 /4, got his color from 
Phenol, 2:07 1 / 4, through her daughter, Heloise Grat- 
tan. Doctor B. P., 2:05 1 / 4, was out of Fossie O., 
2:1514, while Arab Girl produced Bessie Bonehill, 
2:053/4, the dam of Joe Patchen 2nd, 2:0314. 

Of the other gray pacers, Valley Day, 2 : 031/4 ; Pale 
Face, 2:03i/ 2 ; Harry the Ghost, 2:04i/ 2 ; Kate Mc- 
Kinney, 2:04%; Guy, 2:063/4; Ella T., 2:0814, and 
Gil Curry, 2:091/2, were successful in racers. Prior 
to their day, when the high wheel sulkies were in 
vogue, Argyle, 2:143/4, was an important factor in 
a number of events. Sammy Keyes of Pittsburgh 
also made a place for Lucy, 2:14, in the big four. 
Her breeding was unknown, some one having 
shipped her east in a car of horses before her speed 
was discovered. The pacers also had a gray cham- 
pion in Sweetzer. He cut the world's record at 
that gait to 2:16 in 1877 and equalled it the follow- 
ing after Sleepy George reduced it to 2:15 in a race. 



Buffalo was, for a number of years, the leading 
member of the Grand Circuit, but very few horses 
were raced from that city until C. J. Hamlin began 
blending the Mambrino King, and Chimes blood, 
with that of Almont Jr. and Hamlin Patchen, both 
of which failed when pinched in split heat races. 
While they were in the ascendant, the clever old 
gentleman, who made the name of the Village Farm 
a household word, advocated mile heats, two in three 
and even dashes, but when the Mambrino Kings 
entered the arena and were followed by the Chimes 
family, he wanted nothing but three in five, or 
seven in eleven if anyone was looking for an argu- 

During the waiting period, C. J. Hamlin was seen 
almost daily at the Buffalo Driving Park, especially 
after Frank Baldwin put Belle Hamlin in the 2:30 
list. While there he became acquainted with a 
young man from Lockport, N. Y., who was then in 
business in Buffalo, and also devoted a few hours 
each day to training a chestnut gelding by Mohi- 
can. He told the young man after watching this 
horse carefully that in his opinion the gelding would 
do for a trip down the line, so the latter shipped his 
pupil to Boston for a tryout in fast company at the 
June meeting. A third to Mill Girl was what stood 
to his credit when the race was finished, but after 
he cooled out, Harvey Ernest, as that was the name 
of the young man referred to, decided that he would 


take a chance with Beauregard in the Grand Circuit. 
This was in 1885, in the high wheel sulky days, the 
year after Maud S. and Jay Eye See started the 
2:10 list, but even then 2:20 trotters were not 

Aiming for the highest spot in sight, Harvey 
Ernest entered Beauregard at Cleveland, Rochester, 
Buffalo not being in line that year, and in two races 
at Albany. The first start was at Cleveland. When 
Colonel Edwards called the 2:35 class, ten horses 
came out for the word. All of the bunch except 
Beauregard are now forgotten, although they were 
well known in their day. Horace Brown had the 
favorite, Sir Roger, while John Bostwick was up 
from Tennessee with Robin Hood, and Geers had 
the gray mare, Kate Isler. Peter V. Johnson was 
in line with Silver Leaf, while J. I. Case thought he 
had a second Phallas in Edgehill. 

Brown was confident that Sir Roger would win. 
He sold at three to one over the field. When the 
horses were sold down, Beauregard tagged along 
in the field, which Bride and Armstrong scattered 
among the pikers in the betting ring. For the first 
two heats it was Sir Roger all the way, Robin Hood 
and Kate Isler keeping him busy. In the third heat, 
on the trip up the back stretch, the favorite made a 
break. Beauregard won the heat. That cinched 
first money but Brown did not give up until the 
fifth heat was decided. He also forced Beauregard 
to his record of 2:21!/2- 

Harvey Ernest started Beauregard in the balance 



of his Grand Circuit engagements, winning the next 
three races in nine heats. In the last one at Albany- 
he made Jack Feek think that Kitefoot was a coun- 
terfeit when she tried to take the pole on one of the 
sharp turns at Island Park. 

After Beauregard was laid away, Harvey Ernest 
drifted into other business, and did not do much rac- 
ing until H. S. Henry secured him to train the Penn 
Valley Farm horses in 1892. That was at the tail 
end of the boom days, when every cross road town 
or tank station, that felt so disposed, had either a 
kite track or offered a bunch of early closing purses 
that would have wrecked a national bank if anything 
went wrong. H. S. Henry was also a boomer in the 
horse business. When he started in, he would not 
pay a thousand dollars for anything that stood on 
hoofs, but as soon as he learned the ropes under S. 
A. Brow r ne and a few other wise ones, he would bid 
ten or twenty thousand dollars for a horse at 
auction, and finally landed Anteeo on Browne for 
fifty-five thousand dollars. He purchased Young 
Wilkes, when he had one foot in the grave, and 
started in to make him a leading sire. He also raked 
together a stable of race horses and started after the 
money. As a rule they were not good enough to 
win, but they could get up close enough to the leader 
to let their owner know w T hat one had a chance. That 
knowledge was a source of profit. 

With Harvey Ernest as driver the Penn Valley 
Farm horses were chased after everything in sight. 
He also made the developers of early speed sit up 


and take notice with two yearlings, all he trained. 
One of them, Mill Lady, made a pacing record of 
2:30. The other, trotting under the name of Con- 
formation, won over a field of eight at Sturgis, 
Michigan, and came through on the Independence 
kite, where he defeated a large field in 2:45Vk 
2:37 1 / 4, fo"r a five thousand dollar purse, it being 
the last time that a baby trotter was required to 
race two heats in order to win. This colt was bred 
by John H. Shults and was by Cuyler. 

Between the Independence days and 1909, Harvey 
Ernest located at Syracuse, N. Y. At odd times he 
trained, and drove a few horses, but did nothing 
startling until Ernest L. White requested him to 
drive Baron Alcyone in the thirty-five thousand 
dollar handicap for trotters that Andy Welch staged 
for his first Grand Circuit meeting at Readville. 
Thirty-eight horses took the word in the event, and 
while the Baron H. gelding had been a mile in 2 : 13 ^4 
at a matinee, it was a very rare thing for him to go 
a heat without making a break. 

When the handicap was announced Baron Alcyone 
was given five hundred and forty feet, one hundred 
and eighty yards, while as on the preceding year 
such good trotters as Sonoma Girl, San Francisco 
and Lady Jones were placed where they could not 
have caught the leaders if they had been on an ex- 
press train. That, of course, made it all the easier 
for the platers, as after Hylie Bird had led for a 
mile and a quarter, Ernest sailed by and won, the 
time for the mile and a half being 3:09^, a 2:15!/2 


gait. For the one hundred and eighty-nine and a 
quarter seconds racing Baron Alcyone was paid fif- 
teen thousand dollars. 

After cutting a rather wide swath with the trot- 
ter, Daniel, Harvey Ernest decided when he located 
in Cleveland to purchase a trotter that was good 
enough to become a member of the family. A num- 
ber were run through the mill before he selected 
Ima Jay, by Jay McGregor, that Scott Hudson raced 
so well before he was exported to Russia. 

Ima Jay was developed under the slow method of 
Turner and Hickok and when she turned for the 
word on the half-mile tracks her competitors found 
that she had good manners, was ready to go the 
route and keep going. In 1916 she was given a peak 
at the mile tracks, but had to be taken home when 
she pulled up lame in the Charter Oak Purse. The 
next year she again appeared at Hartford and won 
and followed it up by winning the Transylvania at 
Lexington after what proved the fastest seven-heat 
race on record. It also gave Harvey Ernest an op- 
portunity to touch another high spot in light harness 



Notwithstanding the fact that the blue grass 
counties of Kentucky has been recognized as the 
home of the trotter Bingen is the only foun- 
dation sire or family builder bred in the state. From 
the earliest days, the Kentucky breeders were lib- 
eral buyers of stallions and in time they reaped a 
golden harvest. While all families were repre- 
sented, the reputation of Kentucky rests upon the 
descendants of four horses. They are Mambrino 
Chief, Alexanders Abdallah, George Wilkes and 
Peter the Great. 

Abdallah, the sire of Hambletonian, stood at Lex- 
ington in 1840 but was returned to New York. He 
was followed by the Canadian horse Pilot. Black- 
burn's Davy Crockett was brought from Detroit, 
several Morgans from Vermont, and Tom Hal from 
Philadelphia. Each of them added a few units to 
the horse history of Kentucky, but they would have 
been forgotten if Mambrino Chief had not appeared 
in 1854 and Alexander's Abdallah in 1859. 

Mambrino Chief made seven seasons in Kentucky. 
He was dead when Lady Thorn, his fastest per- 
former, carried everything before her on the north- 
ern tracks. Alexander's Abdallah's services were 
limited to six seasons, as in the winter of 1865 he 
was run off fizom Woodburn Farm by soldiers and 
died of exposure. These two horses and their 
descendants put the flying trot into the first flight 
of Kentucky horses, the Mambrino Chief family 



supplying the mares with which Alexander's Abdal- 
lah and his sons were mated. 

Almont and Belmont were the leaders in this 
branch. General Withers' methods spread sons of 
Almont all over the country. Of the exiles, Allie 
Gaines proved a leader in Minnesota, Altamont in 
Oregon, Atlantic in Ohio before he was exported 
to Italy, Hamlin's Almont Jr. and Almonarch in 
New York, Bostwick's Almont Jr. in Tennessee, Le 
Grande and Piedmont in California, and Rampart 
in Nova Scotia. Belmont also got a number of 
sons, the leaders being King Rene, who remained 
in Kentucky, and Nutwood, whose get was scattered 
over Pennsylvania, California, Kentucky, and Iowa. 

In 1873 New York sent another family builder to 
Kentucky, the best of all, George Wilkes. He still 
had nine years of usefulness before him. In that 
period, George Wilkes got the greatest array of light 
harness performers and sires of racing speed that 
has ever been credited to any horse. In a few years 
his sons were carried to all of the states in the Union 
as well as the Canadian provinces, while Kentucky 
was fortunate in retaining Bourbon Wilkes, Gam- 
betta Wilkes, Baron Wilkes until he was well along 
in years, Jay Bird, Wilkes Boy, Onward, Red Wilkes 
until he was an old horse, Simmons, Young Jim, 
Wilton, William L., Betterton, and Petoskey. All of 
them had their admirers but Baron Wilkes was the 
only one that left a great son in Kentucky to per- 
petuate his memory. That horse was Moko. Wil- 
liam L.'s name was also recalled when his grandson, 


Axworthy, was shipped to Lexington, where he was 
followed by Guy Axworthy. Alcyone, a son of 
George Wilkes, that was shipped to Massachusetts 
early in life, was in time represented in Kentucky 
through McKinney, by Belwin, and in the next re- 
move through Zombro, by San Francisco. 

Of the other sons of Hambletonian taken to Ken- 
tucky, Dictator, Happy Medium, Aberdeen, Harold, 
Administrator, Victor Bismarck, and Sherman's 
Hambletonian each enjoyed their day in the sun- 
shine and then faded into the pages of turf history, 
although the Harold line was carried on for one 
remove by Lord Russell. Happy Medium was also 
destined to find a place when his Michigan bred 
grandson, Peter the Great, appeared in the blue 
grass country in 1902. He remained there until 1917 
and in fifteen years proved the greatest sire of early 
and extreme speed. 

The career of Bingen was just as unexpected. 
His sire, May King, was discarded after a test on 
the turf and in the stud, although one morning at 
Cleveland I heard Joseph Outhwaite offer J. C. Sib- 
ley $20,000 for him. In time May King drifted to 
Fairlawn Farm, where A. Smith McCann succeeded 
General Withers. To McCann belongs the honor 
of mating him with Young Miss by Young Jim. She 
produced Bingen. He was purchased by George 
Leavitt and shipped to E. H. Greeley, Ellsworth, 
Me. Leavitt sold the colt in his two-year-old form 
to J. Malcolm Forbes of Boston. When given an 
opportunity, Bingen like Hambletonian proved a sire 


of stallions. Nearly all of them were endowed with 
the quality of getting early and extreme speed. He 
also got Uhlan, 1:58, a champion. 


Hollyrood Farm at Lexington, Ky., is the head- 
quarters of John L. Dodge. He was born in New 
London, Conn. From that point he drifted to New 
York, where he acquired sufficient wealth to satisfy 
an ordinary mortal. He then began breeding trot- 
ters at Middletown, N. Y., but transferred his ven- 
ture to Kentucky and Georgia, where he established 
a winter training camp at Grovetown. 

In the interval he appeared on the New York 
Speedway behind a number of horses, his most suc- 
cessful wagon performer being the pacer, Redinda, 
which George West drove to a record of 2:07*4 oy er 
the kite track at Independence, Iowa, in 1887. This 
mare became the tap root of Hollyrood Farm and its 
racing stable. Her daughter, Fanny Stanton, 
2:101/4, produced Hollyrood Bob, 2:04%, the fastest 
three-year-old trotter in 1918; Joe Dodge, the sire 
of that splendid race mare, Hollyrood Kate, 2:05 1 / 4; 
Hollyrood Hebe, the dam of Hollyrood Naomi, 
2:07V2> an d a number of others. 

After enjoying a dinner at Tommy Murphy's cot- 
tage on the day prior to the opening of the 1918 
Poughkeepsie meeting, Mr. Dodge said: "I began 
breeding trotters with the Bingen family and got 
plenty of speed in King Cole and Fanny Stanton, but 


like nearly all of the first Bingens, they would jump 
when pinched. In addition to that every wise body 
said that I was a poor driver, so I decided to switch 
to a breed that did not make mistakes. I selected 
Peter the Great. In the first crop of foals I got 
Hollyrood Bob and Hollyrood Naomi and I liked 
them so well that I purchased Lady Wanetka out of 
Walter Cox's stable. She was destroyed by fire after 
I refused twice what she cost me, while Hollyrood 
Bob won in 2:04% and Naomi is almost as fast and 
as reliable as an old-fashioned eight-day clock. Now 
everybody says that I am a very fair teamster." 

The conversation was taken up again on the first 
day of the Boston meeting in 1919. The water was 
dripping off the roofs of the stables and while wait- 
ing for the rain to stop, Mr. Dodge said: "Holly- 
rood Kate could have trotted in 2:04 at Poughkeep- 
sie. She won in 2:05*4, eased up all the way 
through the stretch. I never saw a trotter step a 
mile as fast with as much ease as she did that 
afternoon and I regret very much that there was 
not something in the field to force her out. Holly- 
rood Naomi, however, has plenty of company. At 
Cleveland the judges called me into the stand and 
asked why I did not make a better showing against 
Mignola after he had trotted a last quarter in 
thirty seconds. I had to come from behind and 
trotted the quarter in twenty-nine and a half sec- 
onds to catch him while he was going comfortable 
even at that clip. After that race Naomi hooked 
up with McGregor the Great at Kalamazoo and To- 


ledo, where she was close up in 2:05 and a fraction 
as well as at the Cleveland August meeting, Phil- 
adelphia and Poughkeepsie. With Cox's four-year- 
old out of the way she would look even better than 
Hollyrood Kate." 

Periscope was then a member of the Hollyrood 
stable. She was bred by John E. Madden at Ham- 
burg Place. He put her in the show window after 
she won a two-year-old event at the inaugural meet- 
ing of the Grand Circuit in 1918 in 2:10% from 
First National, Brusiloff, and Brother Peter. The 
scouts kept looking her over as the stables moved 
down the line until John L. Dodge paid $10,000 for 
the Siliko filly. He won with her at Poughkeepsie, 
Boston and Syracuse. A break put her out of the 
money at Columbus, where she trotted a half in 
1 :01, while at Lexington she finished second to Prin- 
cess Etawah in the two-year-old division of the Ken- 
tucky Futurity. 

In 1919 Periscope and Mr. Dodge were at the pay 
window regularly in the big three-year-old events. 
She won the Champion Stallion Stake from Molly 
Knight and Brusiloff in 2:0814, 2:06%. Her next 
appearance was in the Breeders' Futurity, where 
she finished third to Molly Knight and Norman Dil- 
lon in 2:06 1 /4. The wet weather and heavy footing 
told on the chipper going filly. When she met the 
same field at Syracuse over the clay course as 
smooth as a billiard table she won in 2:041/9 and 

Periscope's next appearance was in the Review 


Futurity at Columbus, where she won again from a 
field of nine. This was followed by a victory in the 
Kentucky Futurity in 2:041/2 after Brusiloff had won 
two heats. 

Periscope was not raced as a four-year-old. The 
following year she made a trip through the Grand 
Circuit. Her card showed that she was started in 
ten races, of which she won seven and was second 
in the other three. Her first start was in a trotting 
sweepstake at Cleveland, where she won in 2:031/2 
after losing a heat to Peter Coley. At Toledo she 
won in 2:031/2 and at the Columbus summer meet- 
ing in 2:0414, after losing heats to Millie Irwin and 
Charley Rex. 

The $15,000 free-for-all at Cleveland August 
meeting brought out all of the best trotters. It was 
won by Periscope in 2:04Vk the second heat going 
to Millie Irwin in 2:041/4. Periscope made her next 
start at Readville, where she defeated Sister Ber- 
tha in 2:03%. Her next appearance was at Hart- 
ford, where she finished second to Grayworthy in 
2:021/2 in the Charter Oak Purse. This start was 
followed by victories at Syracuse and Columbus, 
where Peter Coley forced her out in 2:04%. At 
Lexington she again met Grayworthy and finished 
second to him in the Transylvania in 2:03 and the 
Castleton in 2:03^4- While on the turf Periscope 
won over $50,000. When retired she was placed 
among the brood mares at Hollyrood Farm. 

John L. Dodge was one of the first Kentucky 
breeders who booked mares to Peter Volo after he 


was retired to the stud. In 1925, when the tide of 
popular favor turned towards that horse on ac- 
count of the showing made by Peter Maltby, Mr. 
Dodge also had a leader in Hollyrood Susan, the 
winner of the May Day Stake. 

The Hollyrood Farm products by Peter Volo also 
went to the front in many of the leading events. Its 
group included Hollyrood Walter, winner of the 
$25,000 pace at Kalamazoo, with Hollyrood Volo in 
second place. 

Great Britton, like Periscope, proved a fortunate 
selection for Hollyrood Farm. He raced in 2:03 1 / 4. 
and was retired to the stud. Hollyrood Jacqueline, 
2:03 1 /2> was in his first crop of foals. She was the 
leading three-year-old pacer on the mile tracks in 
1927. Her dam was Hollyrood Kate, 2 :05%. 


In 1925, during the hot June day on which Gor- 
don Dillon won the fourteenth renewal of the Horse 
Dealers' Sweepstake at Trenton, N. J., M. R. Mar- 
gerum, the manager, and his son, Fred, entertained 
a few friends at lunch in his office in the grand- 
stand. Edward T. Stotesbury was at the head of the 
table. In the whirl of horse talk the Philadelphia 
capitalist, notwithstanding the fact that he had 
then passed pier seventy-six on life's journey, took 
an important part and for the time tossed aside the 
cares and annoyances which follow in the footsteps 


of those who control millions. 

A glance from the office window brought into 
view a long row of maples which at one time stood 
on the edge of the Fashion Farm mile track. To 
the left in a clump of trees the roof of the house 
which H. N. Smith occupied could be seen. Across 
the broad field the last open space of the farm, which 
was at one time the home of General Knox, Jay 
Gould, Rosalind, Lucy, Goldsmith Maid, Lady Thorn, 
Tattler and many other turf celebrities, it was pos- 
sible to discern the enclosure where most of them 
were buried. 

In a few years the home builder and road maker 
will remove the last vestige of the Fashion Course 
which was on the map prior to the war between the 
states and its successor, the Fashion Farm. 

Trenton has been a light harness racing center 
for almost a century. In 1833 the black gelding, 
Edwin Forrest, won there over the Eagle Course. 
The following year Sally Miller, afterwards the dam 
of Long Island Black Hawk, defeated Columbus and 
Screwdriver at two mile heats. 

Since that date the Quintons, the Konovers, the 
Pitmans and others kept Trenton on the racing map. 
Meetings were given at intervals, but they did not 
become regular until the Interstate Fair was organ- 
ized in 1888. Since that date the trotters and pacers 
appeared the last week in September and made con- 
siderable turf history. 

When reference was made to the Fashion Farm 
and the champions buried there, Mr. Stotesbury said, 


"I remember as a young man going to Aristides 
Welch's farm and seeing on the lawn two stone slabs 
under which two famous horses were interred. I 
do not remember their names, do any of you?" 

One of the guests said, "The stones to which you 
refer were placed over the remains of Flora Temple, 
the first trotter to beat 2:20, and imported Leam- 
ington, sire of Iroquois, the only American bred 
horse that ever won the English Derby." 

"A splendid tribute," said Mr. Stotesbury. "They 
were worthy of it." 

Later on he referred to the days when he owned 
the great race mare, Sweet Marie, 2:02, by McKin- 
ney, and said, "George Webb, who had charge of my 
horses, purchased her for me. In 1907 she appeared 
at a number of places and tried to reduce her record. 
She failed on the mile tracks but she made a re- 
markable showing on the half-mile courses. At 
Allentown she defeated Major Delmar, who had a 
record below two minutes, in 2:07, and later on 
trotted the same course against time to harness in 
2:07 and to wagon in 2:08. At Lima, Ohio, she 
trotted another half-mile track to harness in 2:07 
and to wagon in 2:09%." 

As the conversation drifted on horses for the 
road, track and show ring, Mr. Stotesbury said: 
"From a boy I always wanted to be about horses. 
While I did not have to do it, as a youngster, I took 
a special delight in grooming my horse, cleaning 
the harness and washing the wagon I used on the 
road. From that time until the autos and hard sur- 


face roads took away all of the pleasure of driving 
I had one or more teams and drove every day. Some 
of my teams were fast enough to win in any com- 
pany. All of them were sound, handsome and had 
perfect manners. This in time prompted me to ex- 
hibit them at the horse shows. 

"About this time Alfred Vanderbilt asked me to 
join with a number of other horse lovers and put 
the National Horse Show on a sound basis. It cost 
us over $25,000 a year, but it was worth it. From 
that time I became a regular exhibitor in the road 
horse classes, winning my share of the honors and 
receiving the usual number of defeats. At times 
my manager resented the awards, but I told him 
to take the bitter with the sweet, as if he did not 
some one would say Stotesbury would not show un- 
less he could win. 

"For a number of years Colonel Kipp and I were 
rivals. The honors were very close. The Colonel 
always exhibited at the National. One year he came 
to Philadelphia and was defeated. He loaded his 
horses on the cars and went home. For a time there 
was a little letter writing, but like all other troubles 
it blew over. 

"I am a director of the National Horse Show as 
well as the Show in London. One year when my 
horses were in England, Webb was taken sick. I 
did the driving. It afforded me great pleasure to 
win with American bred horses before the King and 
Queen. Finally we came to what looked like a diffi- 
cult class. Webb insisted on driving. The doctors 


told him that he was liable to die in the wagon. 
'Nothing would suit me better/ said George. He was 
helped into the wagon and won. From that time 
he began to get well. 

"In my day I have had a lot of pleasure buying 
and selling horses. One day I was in Pierpont Mor- 
gan's New York office. He took me aside and said 
'Ed, up in Fifty-Eighth Street there is a dealer who 
has a pair of horses that look good to me. I want 
you to go up and buy them/ I suggested that he 
send some one who was unknown to the dealer and 
told him he would be sure to know me and fix the 
price accordingly on account of having seen me ex- 
hibiting at the shows. He would not have it that 
way so I went. 

"The dealer spotted me as soon as I entered the 
stable and led out his team. I never asked for the 
price. Later he telephoned that he had an offer of 
over $5,000, and asked if I wanted them. I told him 
that I was not interested. When I saw Mr. Morgan 
I told him that I did not like the team, but that I 
would send him a better pair with my compliments. 
They proved a little too much horse for him and I 
think he passed them along to his son. 

"One year before we shipped to Atlantic City, 
Webb put together a pair that cost him about $700. 
They made a clever team. After they won George 
Watson of Baltimore sent a man over to the stable to 
get a price on them. Webb asked $5,000. The man 
returned with a report that the price was rather 
high, but if it was cut a little Watson would take 


them. Webb made it $4,700. Watson gave him a 

"Webb called me up and reported the sale. He 
also said that Mr. Watson wanted him to show the 
team for him a few days later. I told him to send 
me the check. When received it was deposited for 

"When Webb brought out the team to show for 
Mr. Watson he looked them over and requested Webb 
to reverse them. Webb told him if he did they 
would be beaten, but as they were his horses he 
would make the change if he insisted on it. He did 
and the team was defeated. Watson was miffed and 
I was told said that Stotesbury cheated him. He 
did not say it to me, however. A little later when 
Watson took up short tailed horses I repurchased 
the team for $2,500 and won with them at a number 
of shows." 


In 1928, the morning after Ethelinda won the 
Kentucky Futurity, Ed A. Tipton and a few friends 
met at an early breakfast in Lexington, Ky. H. B. 
Rea of Pittsburgh remarked that there had been 
some changes in the "trots" at Lexington in the past 
forty years. Tipton nodded and said, "Thirty-six 
years have elapsed since I was elected Secretary of 
the Kentucky Trotting Horse Breeders' Association. 

"After W. H. Wilson brought George Wilkes to 
Kentucky he called a number of the breeders to- 


gether and organized the association. The purses at 
the first four or five meetings were so small that few 
outside of Kentucky made entries. The stockhold- 
ers in Fayette County were usually in the majority 
at the meetings. What they said went in those days. 

"Finally in 1887 there was to be a change in the 
office of Secretary. The Lexington group picked 
Tom Martin for the place. So far as anyone knew 
he was the only candidate until R. G. Stoner, who 
had talked the matter over with the stockholders liv- 
ing outside of Fayette County, presented my name. 
I had not been consulted and for that matter did not 
know that the association was looking for a 

"Stoner won. He sent word for me to come to 
Lexington the next morning. I did so and when I 
arrived a few of those who knew me tendered their 
congratulations upon my election to office. That 
was the first that I knew about it. 

"Later on I learned it was true. At the same time 
I found that the meeting had been adjourned with- 
out the salary being fixed. The home folks attended 
to that. They made it $250 a year, expecting that I 
would not accept it. 

"They were surprised when I told them that I 
would take it. I moved to Lexington and continued 
dealing in a small way in horses as I had at Paris. 

"Up to that time I had never had anything to do 
with a race meeting. Colonel Stoner, however, as- 
sured me that I could do the work and would make a 
success of it. 


"While living at Paris I had become acquainted 
with William B. Fasig of Cleveland. He came there 
two or three times a year to purchase horses for his 
Ohio friends. I also knew that he was the Secre- 
tary of the association which gave the Grand Circuit 
meetings. As soon as I was settled in Lexington I 
decided to go to Cleveland and have a talk with him. 

"Fasig showed me all anyone could about planning 
a trotting meeting. When I asked him to suggest 
something in the way of a race that would attract 
national attention and ensure a large attendance, 
Fasig said that if I could make a race in which Belle 
Hamlin and Prince Wilkes would start, Lexington 
would have something that everybody would talk 
about. He also told me that he could not get it for 
the Cleveland meeting on account of the location and 

"That night I went to Buffalo to see C. J. Hamlin, 
the owner and breeder of Belle Hamlin. He said 
that he would enter if the Kentucky Trotting Horse 
Breeders' Association would give a $1,000 purse for 
the event. 

"My next jump was to Philadelphia where I made 
arrangements with George Singerly to start Prince 
Wilkes. Later on an entry was secured from S. A. 
Browne for Lowland Girl. 

"Upon my return to Lexington I got the directors 
together and told them what I had done. It was the 
first information they had on the subject. Some of 
them considered the matter rather bold, but finally 
the majority voted to go on with the race. Later on 


they more than doubled the amount of money offered 
for the class and colt races. 

"The 1887 meeting was the best one ever held in 
Lexington up to that date. Prince Wilkes defeated 
Belle Hamlin in 2:16 to high wheel sulky, while 
Princeton and General Wilkes won the stallion trots. 
The New York state bred mare Mamie Woods won a 
three year old trot in 2 :26 and Chimes won a race for 
foals of the same age. 

"From that day to this 'trots' at Lexington have 
grown in popularity until now they are attended each 
year by horsemen from all over North America 
with an occasional visitor from Europe. In 1893 the 
first Kentucky Futurity was trotted. It was won by 
the California bred colt Oro Wilkes. The Transyl- 
vania dates from 1889. Doble won the first one with 
the Pilot Medium gelding Jack from Geneva S., Nor- 
val, Alcryon and Nelson. The Walnut Hall Cup was 
added in 1897. Geers won the first one with The 
Monk. Since then the Ashland, Castleton, Tennes- 
see and May Day Stakes have become fixtures while 
the time honored events known as the Kentucky and 
Lexington Stakes have been renewed each year with 
one or two exceptions since the association was 



There is a tinge of romance connected with the 
first two horses which are designated by names in history of Connecticut. Both of them lived dur- 
ing the Revolution and were, if the legends are to 
be believed, connected with it. They appear in the 
annals as Ranger or Lindsey's Arabian and True 
Briton, also known as Beautiful Bay and Traveler. 

Ranger was a Barb. According to tradition, he 
was presented as a colt to the commander of a Brit- 
ish man-of-war by the ruler of one of the Barbary 
states. He took the colt with him on a cruise to a 
South American port, where the youngster was 
turned loose in a lumber yard for a little exercise. 
While there, a pile of boards fell on him and broke 
three of his legs. When it was proposed to kill the 
colt, the skipper of an American vessel offered to 
try and save him. He had him carried on board his 
boat and slung up with his legs in splints. The bones 
knit and when the vessel reached New London, 
Conn., the colt walked on shore sound. In a short 
time this horse became the property of Colonel 
Wyllis of Hartford. He called him Ranger and ad- 
vertised him for service in the Connecticut Courant 
in 1770. John Howard also had him in Windham in 
1778, after which he was sold to Captain Lindsey and 
taken to Maryland. 

General Washington, who was a clever horseman, 
is credited with calling the attention of Captain Lind- 
sey to this horse, his interest in him being aroused 


by the fact that he was the sire of many of the 
excellent horses in the Connecticut cavalry. 

For over half a century True Briton was credited 
with being the sire of Justin Morgan, the founder of 
the Morgan family of horses. Joseph Battell in the 
first volume of the Morgan Horse Register also sup- 
plied him with an elaborately tabulated pedigree, 
tracing his inheritance to the Barbs, Arabs and 
Royal mares through Lloyd's Traveler and Betty 
Leeds by Barbraham, son of Godolphin Arabian, 
Linsley and other writers of the Morgan horse also 
state that True Briton was stolen during the Revolu- 
tion from James DeLancey, who was the first im- 
porter of English race horses to the colony of New 

No one ever disputed this story until John H. Wal- 
lace came along with his iconoclastic hammer and 
showed that James DeLancey never owned a horse 
named True Briton and also that he sold all of his 
horses and returned to England before the war 
started. He also produced an item from the New 
York Packet for October 19, 1780, showing that Lieu- 
tenant Wright Carpenter stole a horse from Colonel 
James DeLancey, who was at one time sheriff of 
Westchester County, New York, and rode him into 
the American lines at White Plains after a vigorous 
pursuit. Whether this horse or only the story 
reached Hartford has never been determined. It is 
a fact, however, that Selah Norton of East Hartford 
owned True Briton, having purchased him from a 
Mr. Ward of Hartford. He in turn is supposed to 


have secured True Briton from someone connected 
with the horse stealing venture in the vicinity of 
New York. 

The horse True Briton was in the stud in Connect- 
icut and Massachusetts under one of his three names 
from 1784 to 1795. Justin Morgan, the man who 
took the original Morgan horse to Vermont, had 
charge of him at West Springfield, Mass., in 1785 
but his claim to the paternity of the horse called 
Justin Morgan was shattered when it was found that 
True Briton was advertised in the Connecticut 
Courant in 1792 to stand for service in East Hart- 
ford, Conn., the year that some other horse, possibly 
Young Bulrock, a Dutch horse, got the tap root of 
the Morgan family at West Springfield. 

In 1795 a horse called Figure appeared in the rec- 
ords at Hartford and was sent to Vermont, where 
he remained for a brief period in the vicinity of 
Rutland. After he disappeared, no horse of note 
came to the surface in the "Nutmeg State" until the 
pedigree investigators began looking for the ances- 
tors of Flora Temple, the little bob tailed mare that 
startled the world in 1859 by trotting in 2:19%. 
They found after considerable travel and corre- 
spondence that Flora Temple was got by Bogus 
Hunter, a son of Kentucky Hunter, sire of the pacer 
Oneida Chief, that won at three mile heats to saddle 
from Lady Suffolk in 1843. At a later date they 
also learned that Kentucky Hunter was by a horse 
called Highlander, that was foaled in 1821 and taken 
from Connecticut to Oneida County, New York, by 


Joshua Watkins. This horse was represented as 
being by a son of imported Messenger out of Mary 
Dawson by imported Highlander. 

Nine years after Watkins' Highlander was foaled, 
the Yankee peddler Elias L. Rockwell brought the 
black horse Pilot from Montreal to Stafford Springs, 
Conn. After wintering him there, he started on a 
trip to New Orleans, where Pilot was sold after pac- 
ing a mile in 2:26. Pilot's next transfer was to 
Louisville, Ky., where he got Pilot, Jr., w r hose son 
Tattler sired Voltaire, 2:20 1 / 4, one of the best trot- 
ters ever ow T ned in Connecticut, and which was for 
several seasons in the stud with Idol at W. H. Peck's 
farm in West Hartford. In his day, he was also a 
rival of that sturdy trotter Thomas Jefferson, that 
was raced successfully by William B. Smith of Hart- 
ford from 1866 to 1878 and a contemporary of Rys- 
dyk, sire of Clingstone, 2:14, the "demon trotter," 
that was bred by Charles M. Pond of West Hartford. 

Thomas Jefferson was got by the Canadian horse 
Toronto Chief, out of the black mare Gypsy Queen, 
which appeared on the horizon of the racing world 
at Louisville, Ky., on October 27, I860, in a ten- 
mile race with Captain McGowan and Belle of Wa- 
bash, whose name appears in the pedigree of The 
Moor, sire of Beautiful Bells and grandsire of Stam- 
boul. At that time Gypsy Queen was represented 
as being by Wagner out of a mare by imported Glen- 
coe, a first class race horse pedigree while if the 
truth is ever known she was either by a son or 
grandson of Vermont Black Hawk, that was owned 


for a number of years near Rochester, N. Y. 

Thomas J. Vail purchased Gypsy Queen and 
shipped her to Hartford. He also mated her with 
Toronto Chief and bred Thomas Jefferson, as well 
as his brother Naubuc that was taken to California, 
where he got the dam of Directly, 2:03 1 / 4. After 
one generation the family was no longer a factor in 
the light harness racing world. 

For a number of years Rundle and White main- 
tained a stock farm at Danbury, with the Alcyone 
stallion Quartermaster at the head of the stud. Like 
his sire he was a magnificent individual and was 
awarded first honors at the National Horse Show. 
This farm was also for a time the home of Andante 
and Nominee, both of which, as well as a number of 
the developed sons of Quartermaster, were sold to 
European buyers. 



Bonner and Beecher 

In the seventies when Robert Bonner was driving 
Dexter on the road in New York City he frequently 
hitched him to a two-man wagon and invited a friend 
to have a ride through Central Park and along the 
Bloomingdale Road behind the champion. General 
Grant, after he was elected President, was included 
in the number, and in memory of the event a local 
firm published a colored print showing the two cele- 
brated men riding behind Hambletonian's fastest 
son. The noted divine, Henry Ward Beecher, while 
writing his novel Norwood for the New York Ledger, 
also had a ride behind the horse which Charles J. 
Foster referred to as the "son of the morning." After 
jogging through the park Dexter felt the speed 
spark snapping and rushed off at the top of his clip. 
For a brief period he was beyond control, but when 
Mr. Bonner managed to take him back he noted that 
his passenger was clinging to the seat rail with both 
hands while tears were coursing down his cheeks. 
When he asked him if he would stop the horse, Mr. 
Beecher, whose voice had thrilled two continents, re- 
pelied : "Do not stop him, Mr. Bonner. Do not stop 
him, sir. What you see are tears of joy over a ride 
behind such a magnificent horse." 

Making Speed Rapidly 

Al Blake was a hard luck trainer that was located 


for many years at the old Cleveland Driving Park. 
It was a very rare event for him to get a horse that 
was good enough to go to the races, but he always 
lived in the hope that someone would bring him a 
trotter or pacer that would under his management 
prove a Dexter or a Darby. One spring day when 
all trainers' hopes are high, two young men living in 
Cleveland brought him a handsome mare. In their 
opinion she was perfection and had a chance to be a 
second Goldsmith Maid. Notwithstanding all of 
Blake's skill, however, he could not drive her a quar- 
ter faster than forty seconds. As Blake did not 
have many horses, he knew that if the owners were 
convinced that she would not improve he would be 
minus a boarder. So whenever they came out to 
see her perform, she had either been worked that 
morning or the day before, or had a little mishap 
that would make it unadvisable to take an airing. 
Finally one day the judges' stand was moved toward 
the three-quarter pole so that the spectators in the 
grandstand could have an unobstructed view of a 
Knights of Pythias drill in the infield. As soon as 
Blake heard of it he sent for the owners of the mare 
and told them that she was ready to step a quarter. 
After locating them in the Judges' Stand he told 
them he would let her hum the last quarter. It was 
in the high wheel sulky days and when their favorite 
made the trip in 33 seconds they were astounded. In 
order to be sure that they made no mistake they 
asked Blake to repeat her and this time she whizzed 
by in 32i/ 2 seconds, a 2:10 clip. Being positive that 


they had a champion the two owners decided that 
Blake could never train one of that kind so they set- 
tled with him, and sent her over to Splan with in- 
structions to hold her over. Splan obeyed orders, 
but when he started her up the following spring she 
hung at a quarter in forty seconds. After trying 
everything that he could think of he asked Blake for 
the key that would unlock her speed and while he 
was miffed over the matter Al finally told Splan to 
move the Judges' Stand. 

An Unusual Present 

For a number of years Deacon Partridge won the 
county race at his home town in northern New York. 
In fact it became such a regular event that a few 
people suggested that the association give him first 
money in the spring and let him spend it when it 
would do the most good. Finally one bold spirit de- 
cided that he would call a halt so he slipped down to 
Syracuse and purchased a real trotter. His selec- 
tion was a handsome gelding and after bringing him 
home he started in on a long slow preparation that 
always brings results. At every opportunity he 
worked out with the Deacon and was soon satisfied 
that he lay over his prospect at least four or five 
seconds. Finally when race day came the insurgent 
decided to let the Deacon have the first heat so as 
not to give the old gentleman too much of a jolt. On 
the next trip he decided to make a close finish so as 
not to get a faster record than necessary. When he 
won by a head as he thought, he was surprised that 


the judges gave the heat to the Deacon. As he fin- 
ished on the inside, however, he thought that they 
must have overlooked him. This exasperated him 
so much that he won the third heat by an open 
length. As he passed the stand he looked up at the 
judges and shouted: "Please give that heat to Dea- 
con Patridge." Solomon in all of his glory was no 
prouder than that man when he jogged back to the 
stand only to hear the judges announce: "Third heat 
and first money to Deacon Partridge by request of 
Mr. Smith. Mr. Smith second and second money." 

Jock Bowen in Eclipse 

In 1869 Robert Bonner purchased a chunky brown 
gelding by Edward Everett and named him Joe El- 
liott, after the sporting editor of the New York Her- 
ald. After driving him a half to wagon in 1:11 he 
turned him over to John Murphy to train. He made 
good progress with the gelding and worked him a 
mile in 2:1914. His deportment, however, went to 
the bad while he also became a confirmed puller. At 
that time Jock Bower was the strong man of the rac- 
ing world and Mr. Bonner shipped Joe Elliott to him 
at Boston. Jock managed to get him ready for a 
fast mile, but before it could be delivered the horse 
refused to go the right way of the track. At this 
time the world's record was 2:16%, held jointly by 
Goldsmith Maid and Occident. Mr. Bonner was sat- 
isfied that Joe Elliott could beat it if he would behave 
so he went over to Boston to try him out. After 
several attempts he suggested to Bowen that he turn 


the horse and drive him the reverse way of the track. 
Joe Elliott appreciated the change and reeled off a 
mile in 2:15%. Bowen was astounded when he saw 
the time, as that was before the day of watch carry- 
ing drivers, and when he asked Mr. Bonner how he 
happened to think of the reverse trip, the latter made 
no reply. He did, however, step up to Bowen and 
after removing his cap took his own high hat and 
put it on Jock's head. As he released it the rim 
dropped to the reinsman's shoulders and when 
Bowen emerged from the eclipse he did not require 
any further explanation. 

Explaining the Market 

John H. Shults and J. W. Daly were two very 
wealthy men. Both of them were fond of trotters 
and had large farms on which they bred them. Both 
of them also purchased and sold at the auctions, 
their selections nearly always costing large amounts 
and their offerings as a rule selling very low. One 
day when both of them were having their usual run 
of luck in the sale ring, Daly approached Mr. Shults 
and said : "Mr. Shults, can you tell me why it is that 
when you and I want to buy a horse the prices hop 
up into the thousands, while if we want to sell it is 
a hard matter to find buyers. " Almost like a flash 
Mr. Shults replied with a smile : "Daly, every horse- 
man in America considers you and I the two great- 
est judges of trotters in the world. As soon as we 
bid on one they know it must be first class or we 
would not look at it. They try to get it away from 


us and we have to pay the top price. Then when we 
sell a few they know that they cannot be any good or 
we would not part with them. That accounts for 
the low prices. ,, 


Ohio occupies a unique place in light harness 
racing. It gave the turf five champions before very 
much breeding was done in the state, while at a 
later date it placed the acid stamp of merit on its 
products by contributing Cresceus, the only trotting 
stallion that was a world's champion. 

Pocahontas broke the ice for the Buckeye State 
in 1855 when she won to wagon in 2:17 1 /£. She was 
followed by Yankee Sam, 2:16 1 /2> in 1869, Sleepy 
George, 2:15, in 1878, and her grandson Sleepy Tom, 
2:12*4, in 1879. Smuggler also appeared in the 
seventies, when his mile in 2:15 :l 4 at Hartford gave 
him and Marvin a national reputation. 

Nothing is known of the breeding of Yankee Sam 
or Sleepy George, but Pocahontas, Sleepy Tom and 
Smuggler, as well as Shanghai Mary, the tap root 
of the Electioneer family, trace to Iron's Cadmus, 
whose sire was one of the horses which the Virginia 
soldiers brought to southern Ohio after the Revolu- 
tion. Hiatoga also came from the same source, 
which with the Morgans in the Western Reserve 
were the foundation stock of the state. 

Brown's Bellfounder, the only son of imported 
Bellfounder that made a mark in the world, Mohawk, 


and Merring's Blue Bull were the next additions. 
The reputation of Bellfounder rests on the descend- 
ants of Belle Lupe, the grandam of Belmont, while 
the Mohawk trotters spread all over central Ohio 
from Knox County. Merring's Blue Bull also known 
as Ohio Farmer was located in Butler County, where 
he got Pruden's Blue Bull. He was the sire of Wil- 
son's Blue Bull, the horse that put the speed germ 
in the Indiana trotters. 

The Hambletonian family contributed New York, 
Rysdyk and Alert, while C. F. Emery, encouraged by 
his success with Parana, went to Kentucky and pur- 
chased King Wilkes, Wedgewood, Monaco, Hermes, 
Nugget and Connaught. Also at a later date he 
strengthened the Forest City Farm stud by select- 
ing Brown Wilkes and Patron. All of them got 
speed but none of them approached the showing of 
Elyria, the son of Mambrino King that put Lorain 
County on the map of the horse world. He proved 
a century sire. Wilton, another century sire, was 
located at Circleville during the last few years of 
his career. Bobby Burns, the banner bearer of 
Washington Court House, by including pacers, runs 
over a hundred ,and Norval, who was located at 
Lima, is in the same list. 

The above are only a few of the horses which 
made reputations in Ohio. No survey of the state 
would be complete without a reference to Robert 
McGregor, who got Cresceus while he was located at 
Toledo where he died, or Osgood's Patchen, that 
stood near the Michigan line and got the splendid 


race mare Nightingale who was represented on the 
turf by Miss Bertha Dillon and Harvest Gale through 
her son Barongale. To these it is also necessary to 
add the names of Bayard, Atwood, Pilot Wilkes, 
Ortolan Axworthy, Binjolla, Strong Boy, Stillson, 
Wilkie Collins, Tom Rolfe, Star Pointer, Tom Rogers, 
Gold Leaf, Nutwood Wilkes, Highwood, Edgehill, 
Ambassador, Olcott Axworthy and Newton's Allie 
Wilkes. Williamson's Belmont and Simpson's 
Blackbird, two of the foundation sires of California, 
were also bred in Ohio and taken across the plains by 
those who followed the forty-niners. 


A remarkable performance against time was 
entered on the books in 1925 when Peter Manning 
reduced the two-mile record from 4:15*4 to 4:10%. 
It was the first change in fifteen years. 

Peter Manning was driven in this trip against the 
watch by Alonzo McDonald. He made the first mile 
in 2:051/9 and the second in 2:04%. 

The first two-mile record for trotters was made 
over one hundred years ago when the New York 
Trotting Club opened the track at Centerville on 
Long Island in 1825. On that occasion Screwdriver 
trotted in 5:38. 

Screwdriver made his record in May. In October 
of the same year Trouble moved the mark down to 
5:27, when he defeated Tom Thumb. This mark 
stood until 1835 when Columbus won a heat in 5:26 


from Dutchman at Philadelphia. The next year 
Dutchman won at the same distance over the Center- 
ville Course in SilS 1 /^. In 1839 he made another 
slash in the mark when he placed it at 5:11. In the 
years which intervened Greenwich Maid and Edwin 
Forrest also changed the figures. 

After Dutchman's day the two-mile record was 
held by Lady Suffolk, Ripton and Flora Temple. The 
last named left it at 4:50V2 where it remained from 
1859 to 1882 when the Grand Circuit put on a series 
of two-mile races. Steve Maxwell won one of them 
at Rochester, N. Y., in 4:48 1 /2- Doble carried the 
mark down to 4:46 with Monroe Chief. 

Fanny Witherspoon was the next leader. In 1885 
at Chicago, "Knap" McCarthy drove her two miles 
in 4:43!/4. The record remained at that figure until 
1892 when the bike sulky appeared. While at Nash- 
ville that season Geers started Nightingale to reduce 
it. She trotted in 4:33 1 / 4, a cut of almost ten seconds. 

The following year George Fuller set Greenlander 
down for a trip against this mark. He changed it 
to 4:32. Nine years elapsed before another trainer 
made a bid. It was made by Scott Hudson with 
Onward Silver. His first start was at Lexington 
where he trotted in 4:29^- The next week at Mem- 
phis the Onward horse tried again and trotted in 

The following week George Ketcham came out at 
the same point with Cresceus. In his trial he trotted 
the first mile in 2:10*4 and the second in 2:06 1 /2> 
making the time for the trip 4:17, a reduction of 


eleven and a quarter seconds. 

For the second time in his career Geers started a 
horse to reduce the two-mile mark when he brought 
out The Harvester in 1910. He cut the limit to 
4:1514. It rested at that point until Peter Manning 
trotted in 4:1014 at Cleveland. 

The following table shows the reduction of the 
two-mile record from 1826 to 1925: 
Screwdriver, ch. g., by American Commander. 

Centreville, L. I., May 15, 1826 5:38 

Trouble, by Bishop's Hambletonian. 

Centreville, L. I., Oct. 3, 1826 5:27 

Columbus, b. g., by Superior. 

Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 28, 1835 5:26 

Dutchman, b. g., by Tippoo Sahib. 

Centreville, L. I., May 6, 1836 5:18^4 

Greenwich Maid, b. m., by Factor. 

Hoboken, N. J., 1837 5:16 

Edwin Forrest, bl. g., by Tuscarora. 

Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 16, 1838 5:13 

Dutchman, b. g., by Tippoo Sahib. 

Hoboken, N. J., Oct. 4, 1839 5:11 

Lady Suffolk, gr. m., by Engineer 2nd. 

Centreville, L. I., May 10, 1842 5:10 

Ripton, br. g. 

Philadelphia, Pa., May 31, 1842 5:07 

Flora Temple, b. m., by Bogus Hunter. 

Jamaica, L. I., July 19, 1853 4:59 

Flora Temple. 

Centreville, L. I., Oct. 17, 1855 4:57 

Flora Temple. 


Centreville, L. L, Aug. 16, 1859 4:50% 

Steve Maxwell, gr. g., by Ole Bull Jr. 

Rochester, N. Y., Aug. 10, 1882 4:48% 

Monroe Chief, b. s., by Jim Monroe. 

Lexington, Ky., Oct. 21, 1882 4:46 

Fanny Witherspoon, ch. m., by Almont. 

Chicago, 111., Sept. 25, 1885 4:431/4 

Nightingale, ch. m., by Mambrino King. 

Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 22, 1892 4:33% 

Greenlander, bl. s., by Princeps. 

Terre Haute, Ind., Nov. 4, 1893 4:32 

Onward Silver, ch. s., by Onward. 

Lexington, Ky., Oct. 15, 1902 4:29% 

Onward Silver. 

Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 23, 1902 4:2814 

Cresceus, ch. s., by Robert McGregor. 

Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 31, 1902 4:17 

The Harvester, br. s., by Walnut Hall. 

Lexington, Ky., Oct. 13, 1910. 4:1514 

Peter Manning, b. g., by Azoff. 

Cleveland, Ohio, Aug. 15, 1925. 4:10% 


A short thick set man with reddish hair and mus- 
tache in which there was a sprinkling of white, 
turned his chair toward a table and called someone 
in Wall Street over a private wire. After ticking 
off a few messages and receiving replies he closed 
the key and resumed the conversation by remarking 
that it was his only connection with the street and 


that when the wire was put in, the most of the calls 
came from New York from parties who were anxious 
to reach him while on a visit to the Fashion Stud 
Farm at Trenton, New Jersey. The speaker was 
Henry N. Smith, at one time the most rampant bear 
on the Stock Exchange and whose failure for over 
five millions almost caused a panic. 

With a smile he referred to the ripple which he 
caused in the world of finance at the time and said : 
"From the beginning of my career fortune used me 
as a football. She favored me with many a boost 
when I did not deserve it, and whenever I received a 
jolt there was no one to blame but myself." 

Upon being asked for a brief sketch of his career, 
Mr. Smith, who in his day owned Goldsmith Maid, 
Lady Thorn, Lucy and Jay Gould as well as Rosa- 
lind, Tattler, General Knox and several other fast 
trotters, replied: "My career dates from the Civil 
War. I was then living in Buffalo, N. Y. When 
gold went to a premium I made trips to Canada pick- 
ing it up and disposing of it in the American market. 
In this way I secured sufficient capital to start a pri- 
vate bank in Buffalo, and when it began to prosper I 
started investing the deposits in Wall Street. 

This was prior to the day of private wires and in 
order to look after my investments I was compelled 
to make two or three trips a week to New York. At 
the same time I was also forced to keep up appear- 
ances at the bank and see that the depositors were 
satisfied that it was solvent. Finally a rumor ran 
through the city that everything was not right at 


the bank. When I heard of it, instead of making a 
denial I purchased the finest residence I could find 
on Delaware Avenue and started in to furnish the 
house and stable in a manner that made the neigh- 
bors stare and also loaded the local papers with a 
column or two story about it. In a few days the 
flurry was over and the deposits flowed in heavier 
than ever. 

"About this time a Mr. Martin who had consider- 
able capital asked me to make a few investments for 
him and in a brief time we opened a New York office 
under the name of Smith and Martin. One evening 
while stopping at the Clarendon Hotel in New York, 
Charles Kerner introduced me to a slim man with a 
sallow complexion, full beard and sparkling black 
eyes. He asked me to place a few 7 orders for him in 
the street, and when I looked at his card I saw that 
his name was Jay Gould. His selections brought 
him a good return and he proved such a successful 
investor that we took him into the firm, changing it 
to Smith, Gould and Martin. By this time I passed 
the Buffalo bank along to other parties and located 
in New York. All the world knows the history of 
the firm on Wall Street, as well as the part it played 
on Black Friday. 

"After doing a general business in almost every- 
thing in the street, we took up railroads and event- 
ually controlled the Erie. With unlimited wealth 
there also came a desire to dabble in trotters and be- 
fore long I owned the best in the world. Dan Mace 
had Lady Thorn ready to reduce Dexter's record 


when he carelessly allowed her to walk off a loading 
platform at Rochester and broke her hip. Doble did 
the trick, however, with Goldsmith Maid, but there 
were days when it kept me busy to convince Hickok 
that he should not try and defeat her with Lucy. 

"After purchasing Judge Brigham I changed his 
name to Jay Gould, and while my partner seemed to 
be pleased with the compliment and also owned a 
small interest in him for a time, he never did warm 
up to the trotters. He was a confirmed money grub- 
ber and would rather lay wires to trip up the unwary 
than get out in the sunshine and enjoy himself. 

The first difference we ever had was started by a 
horse. Gould and I were out with a few others in- 
specting the Erie railroad. When returning to New 
York I instructed the conductor to side track the spe- 
cial train at Chester so that all of us could go to 
Rysdyk's place and see Hambletonian. At the last 
minute Gould decided that he would remain on the 
train. As the balance of us walked away we prom- 
ised to be back in an hour. 

Two or three hours had elapsed when we returned 
and the train was gone. Gould ordered the conduc- 
tor to proceed to New York. The next morning I 
told him what I thought about it. He did not say 
very much but that quarrel led to others until one 
day there was an open break over some trivial 

Confident of my usual good luck I told Gould that 
it would not be long before I would have him grind- 
ing an organ in front of the City Hall. He listened 


patiently until I finished my tirade and closed the 
matter by quietly remarking that when I did he 
would use me as a monkey to collect the pennies. 

"Details are unnecessary. He won and while he 
did not press me to the limit I was stripped of every- 
thing except the property I had given my wife, this 
farm and the horses. Since that date I have devoted 
my time to breeding trotters and I have sent out a 
few good ones and also sold a number for fair prices. 

"Goldsmith Maid and Lady Thorn are buried in a 
little plot near the Judges' Stand on the inside of the 
farm track and when Lucy dies she will also rest 
near them. This building is equipped with all the 
modern conveniences of a club house, but all that I 
use in it is this wire to call up some one on the street 
for a few minutes' conversation. Years ago I be- 
came an expert telegrapher and picked up many a tip 
direct from the sender, through my familiarity with 
the Morse code." 

This conversation took place in the office of the 
Fashion Stud Farm at Trenton, N. J., in 1886. Since 
then the parties referred to have passed away. The 
farm is also a thing of the past. All of the horses 
that were then there are now dead, but a few de- 
scendants of Goldsmith Maid's son Stranger are seen 
occasionally on breeding farms or at race meetings. 
The Goulds still control the millions their father left 
them, while the family of his partner is forgotten in 
the world of finance. 



There are two places to pick the winners. One is 
the sale ring and the other the race track. At the 
auctions, the horse owners and breeders bid against 
each other. On race day everybody either goes it 
alone, or follows the crowd. The latter get quick 
action for their money while the patrons of the sale 
ring frequently wait years before they know whether 
they drew a blank or a star. 

While the latter are never numerous, there are 
years when they come in groups as was seen in 1912 
when St. Frisco, Lu Princeton, Lee Axworthy, Prince 
Loree, Peter Scott, Guy Axworthy, Peter Johnston, 
and Major Woolworth passed under the hammer. 
The first four were sold as yearlings. St. Frisco 
was fortunate in passing into Geers' stable. From a 
fair three year old which few trainers would have 
continued to race on the mile tracks, the old master 
moulded the San Francisco colt into a free for aller. 

Lu Princeton drifted to New Jersey, where he be- 
came a fair half-miler. In time Walter Cox added 
him to his stable. Lu Princeton's first year on the 
mile tracks was so unproductive that Barton Pardee 
decided to sell him. Cox induced him to give the 
white faced horse another trip. He made good and 
trotted in 2:01. 

Both Lee Axworthy and Prince Loree were out of 
mares that were in foal when purchased for Walnut 
Hall Farm. Gay Bingen was consigned by Ardmere 
Farm in 1911. The following spring she produced 


Lee Axworthy, who in his four year old form de- 
feated Peter Scott and Peter Volo and finally re- 
duced the stallion record to 1:58*4. Deloree, the 
dam of Prince Loree, was sold twice while she was 
carrying him. In November, 1911, John H. Shults 
sold her to J. W. Bailey. He sent her back to the 
midwinter sale. She was purchased for Walnut Hall 
where she foaled the Transylvania winner of 1919. 

Peter Scott was one of the best purchases made at 
the auctions in 1912. He passed into Walter Cox's 
stable. In 1914 he sold him for $30,000. The fol- 
lowing year he won $50,535. 

Another clever group passed through the auc- 
tions in 1915. It included The Real Lady, Sanardo, 
Emma Magowan, Miriam Guy, Labe Riddell, Bertha 
McGuire, and Baronatta. The Real Lady proved a 
futurity winner and reduced the three year old rec- 
ord to 2:03. Sanardo proved a two minute pacer, 
while at Atlanta he forced Single G. to pace the three 
fastest heats on record. 

Emma Magowan was one of the two year old stars 
of 1916, and Bertha McGuire proved a high class 
three and four year old. Miriam Guy raced bril- 
liantly as a two and three year old. Labe Riddell 
was a busy horse on both the mile and half-mile 
tracks for five years. Roger Rourke picked up Bar- 
onatta for a trifle. He proved one of the most suc- 
cessful half-mile track performers ever seen in New 

Mr. Dudley and Jeanette Rankin were included in 
the offering for 1918, while in 1914 Mary Putney, 


Chilcoot and Northspur ran the gauntlet of the bid- 
ders. An injury kept Chilcoot from being one of the 
greatest race horses that ever turned for the word. 
Even with that handicap he was the best stake horse 
in Murphy's stable in 1918 until he pulled up lame 
after winning the Charter Oak Purse at Hartford. 

Few outside of Cox's stable ever heard of Mary 
Putney until she worked a fast mile at Hartford dur- 
ing the meeting in 1915. She was sold that week 
and within a month won the big futurities at Colum- 
bus and Lexington. 

Native Belle, the first two year old to beat 2:10, 
and Tenara, one of the best stake horses out in 1912, 
were sold within a few minutes of each other in 1909. 
This was the year after The Harvester passed 
through the ring. He was then a three year old and 
won all of his engagements that season. 

The half brothers Peter the Great and J. Malcolm 
Forbes were transferred to Kentucky through the 
sale ring, the former going in 1903 and the latter in 
1909. Santos, their dam, was also sold at one of the 
early Cleveland sales. 

In 1903 Lou Dillon was sold as the "fastest green 
trotter in the world." She made good by trotting in 
1:58V2- Star Pointer was heralded as a coming 
champion when he was sold in 1896 with a mark of 
2:0414. After he reduced it to 2:021^ he appeared 
again the following year. James A. Murphy pur- 
chased the half brother to Hal Pointer and reduced 
his record to 1:59^. Another trip to the sale ring 
made the first two minute performer the property of 


W. J. White for his stock farm at Cleveland. 

Tiverton, the winner of the Charter Oak Purse in 
1904, passed under the hammer with a trial in 
2:1814 to recommend him. Lisonjero also had a 
three year old trial in 2:21 1 /2 to his credit when the 
bidders looked him over in 1901. 

Carpet made four trips to the sale ring. In 1901 
Marcus Daly sold her to J. B. Rhodes of New Bed- 
ford, Mass. He sent her back in 1902 when John H. 
Shults made the last bid. After being mated with 
Axworthy, she was sold again that fall. J. W. Bai- 
ley took her to Kentucky, where she foaled General 
Watts, a futurity winner, three year old champion 
and successful sire. Carpet's wanderings were not 
over, however, as in 1903 she was back again in foal 
to The Bondsman and sold to John Donovan of St. 
Joseph, Mo. 

Guy Axworthy made four trips to the sale ring. 
Axworthy, his sire, and Lillian Wilkes, his dam, were 
each sold twice. The latter produced eight foals 
at Shultshurst. The first two died. The next two 
were fast road horses. The fifth was not trained. 
Lilly Stranger followed, while the seventh was a 
cripple. In 1902 she dropped a bay colt. After he 
was weaned, his dam was sent to the sale. That colt 
was Guy Axworthy. 

The Wilton mares Silicon and Silurian, which had 
been used as a road team, were sent to the auctions 
in 1901. From there they went to Kentucky, where 
Silicon produced Siliko and Silurian foaled Manrico, 
both of which won the Kentucky Futurity. Spier 


Farm contributed a noted trio in 1901 in Major Del- 
mar, Ecstatic and Ethel's Pride. The fillies were 
then yearlings while Major Delmar had a three year 
old record of 2:25. This mark was reduced to 
1:59%. Ecstatic paced in 2:01% and Ethel's Pride 
trotted in 2:06%. Soprano, Czarevna and Baroness 
Virginia passed through the auctions in 1909 a few 
weeks after they met in the Kentucky Futurity. 
Bertha C, a heat winner in the same event, followed 
them at the midwinter sale. After that date she 
produced Miss Bertha Dillon, 2:02Vk, and Sister Ber- 
tha, 2:023,4. 

John Dewey, the sire of Juno, 2:02%, was in the 
same sale, while the Shultshurst lot included Queen 
Worthy and Morgan Axworthy. In 1911 Spriggan, 
the winner of one of the $20,000 events at the Pan- 
ama Pacific Exposition, and Worthy Prince was 
among the lots which had very little speed to attract 
the attention of the buyers. 

Ortolan Axworthy was passed along in 1913. He 
was followed in 1917 by Abbie Putney, Edward P., 
and Lucille Bingen, the last named being in the Bill- 
ings sale with The Harvester and William. 

Many of the turf champions have appeared in the 
auction ring. One of the most remarkable groups 
was seen in 1900 when The Abbot, 2:03^, at that 
time the world's record, Robert J., Azote, Onward 
Silver, Prince Alert, and Sunol were sold, while 
Maud S. was exhibited when Robert Bonner's horses 
were disposed of. There was another parade of rac- 
ing material in 1904 when E. E. Smather sold Major 


Delmar, who had then a record of 2:01^; Billy 
Buch, 2:07%; Dr. Strong, 2:053/ 4 ; John M., 2:023/4; 
Wentworth, 2:04i/ 2 ; Sadie Mac, 2:061/4, and Sphinx 
S., 2:05%. This was almost duplicated the follow- 
ing year when C. K. G. Billings reduced his matinee 
stable by disposing of Morning Star, 2:04; Prince 
Direct, 2:07; Prince of Orange, 2:06i/ 2 ; Angus 
Pointer, 2:013/4; Greenline, 2:07%; Sir Albert S., 
2:033/4, as well as The Monk and Equity with which 
he reduced the team record to 2:073,4. 


No emigrant ever demonstrated that the United 
States is the land of opportunity more than John H. 
Shults of Brooklyn and New York. He was born in 
Alsace in 1832, and decided to sever the home ties 
while a small lad. Nominally French, his parents 
were thrifty Germans, but from the day he landed 
in New York he became a full fledged American and 
never recrossed the Atlantic. 

One day while walking along a street in New York 
he called attention to a "Boy Wanted" sign in a win- 
dow and remarked that one like it gave him his start 
in life or as he remarked : — "I walked down the gang 
plank with all of my worldly possessions in a little 
bundle. While near Fulton Market I saw a sign in 
a window. I applied for the job and in ten minutes 
I was busy working for $3 a week with the privilege 
of sleeping under the counter." 

Days ran into weeks and weeks into years. In the 


interval the sturdy lad from Alsace learned the Eng- 
lish language and saved his dollars, although they 
came in slowly. One day a man who delivered soft 
drinks at the store told him he wanted to sell out and 
get an inside job. Young Shults asked him how 
much he wanted for the business. As soon as he 
told him, much to his surprise, Shults purchased it, 
borrowing a portion of the capital from a friendly 
butcher in the Fulton Market. 

The pep that Johnny Shults put into the ''pop" 
business resulted in a very rapid growth. In a few 
months he had half a dozen wagons on different 
routes while the proprietor of the new enterprise 
never missed an opportunity to purchase or trade for 
a bad acting or balky horse that other people could 
not get along with. His iron will that never desert- 
ed him through life, great strength, and the "tope" 
rope soon put the outlaws on their good behavior and 
it was not long before the sale of horses of this kind 
brought in more money than the soft drink business. 
At the same time the vigorous young owner had an 
eye for speed in harness and was frequently seen on 
Third Avenue and the Bloomingdale Road behind the 
Poughkeepsie pacer and a number of other local 
celebrities whose names were never recorded. 

When the bank account connected with the com- 
bined ventures began to show a healthy growth, a 
Brooklyn man offered to trade a run-down bakery 
for it. While John H. Shults knew nothing about 
baking bread, he decided to take a chance and re- 
moved his headquarters across the East River. In 


a short time the residents of Brooklyn and Manhat- 
tan began to hear of Shults bread. In four or five 
years, thousands of them were eating it, while the 
daily income of the thrifty emigrant leaped into the 

Pleased with his success John H. Shults soon 
began adding light harness racing speed to the 
stable where his delivery horses were kept and on 
pleasant afternoons he was frequently seen on the 
Prospect Park drive behind Farmer Boy, Kitty 
Bates, and Lady Pritchard. He purchased the last 
named because she was a puller that no one could 
drive her with comfort. Under his method shebecame 
a perfect road mare and could be driven anywhere 
with two fingers, while under any conditions she 
would stop to a standstill at the word of command. 

In October, 1886, when the Glenview Farm trot- 
ters were sold at Louisville, Ky., John H. Shults 
was at the ringside and secured a national reputa- 
tion in a day by paying $28,000 for Pancoast. At 
the same sale he also purchased five others, includ- 
ing Cuyler and Beatrice, dam of Patron, Prodigal 
and Patronage, paying $46,350 for the lot. From 
that date he also became the most enthusiastic 
auction ring buyer of trotters in the world, and when 
he wanted a colt or a filly, if anyone got it away 
from him the price was well up in the thousands. 
One day in the old rink on Third Avenue in New 
York City, Scott Quinton was executing a few 
orders for Marcus Daly of Montana from the L. J. 
Kose consignment. He had orders to buy a two- 


year-old colt named Mascot and he secured him 
after $26,000 was charged to the Daly account. 
John H. Shults was the contending bidder, while on 
the same day the purchases for himself amounted 
to over $60,000. 

In order to make a home for his trotters Mr. 
Shults purchased the old Deerfoot half-mile track 
on the Brooklyn Boulevard and added to the prop- 
erty until he had over 200 acres in that section and 
Flatbush. Long low buildings were erected to 
shelter the stock and a splendid mile track con- 
structed. The training operations were carried on 
on a large scale, such reinsmen as Driscoll, McDow- 
ell, Arnold, Sanders, Thomas, Wilson and a host of 
others being at different times on the payroll. For 
some reason or other few of their pupils ever got to 
the races and when they did usually failed to win, 
the few exceptions being Edith R. and Town Lady. 

No one ever heard the proprietor of Parkville 
Farm complain of the hard knocks which fortune 
dealt him. He even came back with a smile when 
Pancoast was struck by lightning. Cuyler was sold 
and Stranger took his place in the stud. He failed 
to come up to expectations. Finally, one afternoon 
in Madison Square Garden, Mr. Shults made a 
starting bid of $500 on a chestnut colt bred by A. B. 
Darling and named Axworthy. The son of Axtell 
was led over to Parkville Farm and remained there 
in the stud until the land was sold for more than 
twice what it and all of the buildings and horses on 
it originally cost. He was then removed to Shults- 


hurst, near Port Chester, N. Y. 

Prior to making this change John H. Shults while 
on a visit to California offered William Corbett half 
a million dollars for his farm and trotters, including 
Guy Wilkes. The offer was declined, and by a strange 
stroke of fortune he secured for $500 a stallion by 
a son of William L., brother of Guy Wilkes, that 
founded a family greater than the one which John 
Goldsmith made famous. 

The Axworthy family started slowly as its 
founder was given but very few opportunities in 
the stud. As soon as his colts began to appear on 
the turf such performers as Tom Axworthy, Jack 
Axworthy, Alta Axworthy, Guy Axworthy, Hamburg 
Belle, General Watts, Haleworthy and many others 
soon demanded recognition, and proved conclusively 
that their sire was as great a stock horse as his sire 
Axtell was a trotter when as a three-year-old he 
reduced the stallion record to 2:12 and sold for 

While in pursuit of his hobby, John H. Shults 
spent over a million dollars for trotters and while 
speaking of it a short time before his mind passed 
into the shadow, he said that he had made money 
by the venture as his profits on the real estate in- 
vestments for farms on which he kept his horses 
more than offset the losses. He also frequently re- 
marked that half of the pleasure was taken out of 
his life by all of his ventures except horses, which 
he made in a business way turning into gold. 
■ For all time John H. Shults will be remembered 


as the greatest buyer of trotting horses at auction. 
His appearance in the sale ring always made a flut- 
ter while his cape overcoat, high hat, and white hair 
worn rather long made him conspicuous. He 
adopted the auctions to dispose of his surplus 
horses, his greatest offering being Axworthy, for 
which William Simpson paid $21,000. He also sold 
at public auction Guy Axworthy, sire of Lee Ax- 
worthy, the champion trotting stallion, as well as 
Carpet, when she was carrying General Watts, the 
Kentucky Futurity winner in 1907. 


The first colt stakes for trotters were given by 
the Spirit of the Times and Turf, Field, and Farm, 
two New York publications devoted to all kinds of 
sports. Both disappeared several years ago. A 
few associations and clubs also offered purses for 
two and three-year-old races for small amounts, but 
none of them had what could be called established 
futurities until the Charter Oak Park Association, 
at Hartford, Conn., opened one which matured dur- 
ing its Grand Circuit meetings the latter part of 
the eighties and early in the nineties. They were 
for large amounts, and received a tremendous entry. 
It was so large, in fact, that mushroom associations 
sprang up at a number of places and offered events 
for large amounts on the chance that they would 
make a profit on the entrance fees. This actually 
happened at a number of places, one of them being. 


Terre Haute, where Orrin Hickok, after he won with 
Silicon, 2:13 1 /2> was handed the guaranteed amount, 
while the promoter retained the excess payments. 

In 1890 the Kentucky Trotting Horse Breeders' 
Association adopted the plan which had been started 
by the association at Hartford and opened a stallion 
representative stake for foals of that year to be 
trotted in 1893, when the youngsters were three 
years old. Also in 1891, when renewing the offer- 
ing, it added a two-year-old division and named the 
event the "Kentucky Futurity. " In these two races 
and several others that followed, all of the money 
that was received went to the winners. That they 
were well patronized is evidenced by the fact that 
in 1893 the two-year-olds raced for $5,000 and the 
three-year-olds for $11,900. In 1894 the two-year- 
olds raced for $5,000 and the three-year-olds for 
$26,430, while in 1895, when Oakland Baron won 
the three-year-old division, it was worth $20,000, 
while the two-year-olds raced for $7,500. 

In 1893, when the first of the three-year-old events 
matured, the California-bred colt, Oro Wilkes, 2:11, 
by Sable Wilkes, 2:18, won after a five-heat contest, 
in which Medio, 2:141/2, by Pilot Medium, won two 
heats. In the two-year-old division the Wilkes Boy 
mare, Nellie A., defeated the Nebraska-bred filly, 
Ella Woodline, 2:23i/ 2 . 

California did not show in front again until 1912, 
when Manrico, 2:07*4, won after a six-heat strug- 
gle. His connection with the Pacific coast was 
only through ownership, as he was bred and foaled 


in Kentucky, where his sire and dam were also bred. 
The returns show that up to the close of 1927 
twenty-three of the thirty-five winners of the three- 
year-old division were either bred or foaled in Ken- 
tucky, and included such performers as Thorn, 
2:121/4; Boralma, 2:07; Grace Bond, 2:091,4; Miss 
Abdell, 2:093/4; Siliko, 2:111/4; Guy McKinney, 
1:5834; Aileen Guy, 2:03i/ 2 ; Mr. McElwyn, 1:591/4; 
Lee Worthy, 2:02i/ 2 ; Rose Scott, 1:5934; Periscope, 
2:03i/ 2 ; General Watts, 2:06%; The Harvester, 
2:01; Grace, 2:0434; Peter Thompson, 2:07i/ 2 ; Man- 
rico, 2:0714; Peter Volo, 2:02; Mary Putney, 
2:04%; Volga, 2:04i/ 2 , and The Real Lady, 2:03. 

Of those which invaded Kentucky and secured 
first honors in the Kentucky Futurity, Rose Croix, 
2:111/4, was bred and developed by M. E. McHenry, 
who drove her in the race. She was foaled in the 
blue grass country, and was sent to Illinois for 

Peter the Great, 2:071/4, was the first colt foaled 
in the north to win the Kentucky Futurity. He 
was bred by D. D. Streeter, of Kalamazoo, Mich., 
and made his first appearance at Lexington in 1897, 
when he finished second to Janie T., 2:14, in the 
two-year-old division of the futurity. In his three- 
year-old form he again returned to Lexington, and 
won, while Limerick, 2:143/4; Charley Herr, 2:07, 
and Seraphina divided second, third and fourth 
moneys. Shortly after this race Peter the Great 
was purchased by J. Malcolm Forbes, of Boston, 
Mass., and taken to Milton, Mass., where he sired 


Sadie Mac, 2:06 1 / 4, the winner of the Kentucky- 
Futurity in 1903. She was also the first in the 
Peter the Great family to place her name in the list 
of winners to which her sire afterwards contributed 
Grace in 1910, Peter Thompson in 1911, and Peter 
Volo in 1914, when he placed the three-year-old rec- 
ord at 2:031/2, Volga in 1916, and Ethelinda in 1923. 
The family also added another winner when Rose 
Scott, 1:59%, by Peter Scott, landed the futurity. 

Until the Peter the Great winners appeared on 
the horizon the Baron Wilkes trotters were consid- 
ered the leading futurity family. Oakland Baron, 
2:091/4, one of his sons, won the event in 1895, with 
Baronmore, 2:141/4, another son that was to be 
heard from later, just outside the money, while 
Oakland Baron also sired Lady Gail Hamilton, 
2:0614, that finished second to Nella Jay, 2:141/4, 
in 1902, and Rhythmic, 2:06%, in turn the sire of 
Rhythmell, 2:041/4, that was second to Manrico in 
1912. In 1899 The Bondsman, still another son, 
finished third to Boralma. 

Through his sons Baron Wilkes secured a strangle 
hold on the Kentucky Futurity. The first one to 
break into the limelight was Moko, when Fereno,, 
2:051/2, won in 1900 after having secured first 
honors in the two-year-old division. This splendid 
filly was followed by Siliko in 1906, Manrico in 1912, 
and The Real Lady in 1917. Moko also sired the 
dam of The Harvester, who won the Kentucky 
Futurity in 1908, as well as Susie N., 2:091/4, who 
finished second to Miss Adbell in 1905. 


Of the other sons of Baron Wilkes, The Bondsman 
sired Grace Bond, the winner in 1904, after a terrific 
battle with Alta Axworthy, 2:10V2> and Colorado 
E., 2:04%, winner of second money in 1910 as well 
as the three-year-old champion trotter of his day. 
Baroness Virginia, 2:08*4, the winner of 1909, was 
sired by Baron Review, 2:21^, another son of Baron 
Wilkes. The Baron Wilkes horse, Baronmore, also 
sent a winner to Kentucky in 1901, when Peter 
Stirling, 2:liy 2 , defeated Walnut Hall, 2:0814. An- 
other son, Barongale, 2:11*4, finished second to 
Sadie Mac in 1903, and still another son, Ed Custer, 
2:10, was awarded third money in 1916. In 1909 
this horse also was represented in the classic by 
Miss Bertha C, 2:10*4. In this race Czarevna, 
2:07 1 / 4, won the first two heats, Baroness Virginia 
the next two, and Miss Bertha C. the fifth in 2:10*4. 
Baroness Virginia won the deciding heat in 2:14. 
The premiums were awarded Baroness Virginia, 
first ; Czarevna, second, and Bertha C, third. This 
line was again represented at Lexington in 1917, 
when Miss Bertha Dillon, a daughter of Miss Ber- 
tha C, started in the futurity. In the first heat 
of the event she was beaten a head by The Real 
Lady in 2:05, and was distanced in the second heat 
through a mishap. That the Lexington race, how- 
ever, did not show her true form is evidenced by 
the fact that two weeks later, at Atlanta, she won 
the deciding heat of the Matron Stake in 2:03*4, 
making a new world's race record for three-year- 
olds. In 1919 Periscope, 2:031/2, won. She was by 


Siliko, the Moko colt which landed the event in 1906. 

Sadie Mac, the winner of the Kentucky Futurity 
in 1903, was the first New England winner, while 
the Allen Farm finished second with Bisa, 2:10 1 / 4, 
in 1907, and with Binvolo, 2:07%, in 1908. John H. 
Shults, of New York, was responsible for the pro- 
duction of General Watts, the winner in 1907. The 
colt was foaled in Kentucky, where his sire, Axwor- 
thy, died in 1917, and got Sparkle Watts, 2:10%, 
winner of the two-year-old division in 1914; Maho- 
met Watts, 2:0814, who finished second in the same 
division in 1911, and Allie Watts, 2:0714, winner of 
second money in the four-year-old division in 1916. 

In 1918 the supremacy of the Axworthy family 
started. Nella Dillon was its first winner. She 
was followed by Lee Worthy, Mr. McElwyn, Aileen 
Guy, Guy McKinney and Iosola's Worthy. 

Wisconsin was credited with a futurity winner in 
1901, when Peter Stirling defeated Walnut Hall. 
That state also has to its credit in this event such 
good trotters as Barongale, Ed Custer, and Miss 
Bertha C. The South contributed its only winner in 
1913, when Geers defeated Peter Johnson, 2:08%, 
with Etawah, 2:03, a son of Al Stanley, 2:0814, that 
finished third to Trampfast, 2:12^, in 1907. 

The Kentucky Futurity was started as a three- 
year-old event in 1890. The two-year-old division 
was added in 1891. Another change was made in 
1895, when the pacing division for two-year-olds was 
included in the published conditions. The first of 
these races was contested in 1897 and won by Will 


Leyburn, 2:06. From that time until 1902 this 
division was won by Extasy, 2:10!/^; Lucie May, 
2:22i/ 2 ; Alice Mapes, 2:061,4; Improbable, 2:20, and 
Jessie Herr, 2:18. There was no pacing race in 
1903, as in 1901 the pacing division was changed 
from a two to a three-year-old event. Phalla, 
2:041/2, won in 1904, and was followed, respectively, 
by Bonalet, 2:091/4; Brenda Yorke, 2:0414; Shake- 
speare, 2:09%; Catherine Direct, 2:101/4; Maggie 
Winder, 2:061/4; Twinkling Dan, 2:061/4; Braden 
Direct, 2:011/4; Anna-Ax-Me, 2:081,4; Homer 
Baughman, 2:08%; Anna Bradford, 2:00%; Gen- 
eral Todd, 2:04; Sister Bingen, 2:06%, and Poor- 
man, 2:07%. In the twenty races for the pacing 
division of the Kentucky Futurity there was but one 
creditable contest. It was programmed in 1911, 
when Braden Direct was the winner. 

The Kentucky Futurity is the blue ribbon event 
of the trotting turf. It never has been won by a 
counterfeit, while many of the greatest trotters 
have taken the word in it. No other race can fur- 
nish such a galaxy of winners as Peter the Great, 
Boralma, Sadie Mac, Siliko, General Watts, The 
Harvester, Peter Thompson, Manrico, Grace, Eta- 
wah, Peter Volo, Mary Putney, The Real Lady, 
Arion Guy, Rose Scott, Lee Worthy, Mr. McElwyn, 
Guy McKinney, Iosola's Worthy. The last two 
also won the Hambletonian Stake, the most valu- 
able event for trotters. They in themselves con- 
stitute a gallery of champions, but they are not by 
any means the only great ones, as among the de- 


feated may be found such names as Lee Axworthy, 
l:58y^ f the champion trotting stallion; Larabie the 
Great, 2:123/4; Surpol, 2:10; Charley Herr, 2:07, 
one of the best race horses that ever wore a shoe; 
Walnut Hall, 2:08*4; Ethel's Pride, 2:06%, a Tran- 
sylvania winner; Soprano, 2:03%, a champion of 
two continents, and The Bondsman colt, Colorado 
E., that reduced the three-year-old record from 
2:063/ 4 to 2:0434. 


One of the last golden cords that bind the lovers 
of light harness racing to the days when a 2:30 
trotter was a star and a 2:25 horse a champion was 
severed when David Bonner died on December 31, 
1917. For over fifty years his face was familiar to 
all the patrons of trotting tracks while thousands 
knew and admired him for his sterling qualities as 
a man as well as his skill as a reinsman. 

As a lad David Bonner emigrated with the other 
members of the Bonner family from Londonderry, 
Ireland, to Hartford, Conn. Robert, his older 
brother, learned the trade of a printer in the Hart- 
ford Courant office and started for New York as soon 
as he completed his apprenticeship. It is now an old 
story how he purchased the New York Ledger and 
built up a family story paper which was seen in 
thousands of homes all over this continent. Rob- 
ert's success induced the family to follow him to 
New York, where his brother David was soon in- 


stalled as circulation manager of the Ledger. An- 
other brother went west, locating in Wisconsin, while 
a sister remained in Hartford, where she married 
John Allen. 

Upon the suggestion of his physician Robert Bon- 
ner purchased a pair of horses to drive on the road. 
As he jogged through the park and up Harlem Lane 
he saw Commodore Vanderbilt and other admirers 
of speed glide by behind their fast trotters. He de- 
cided to join them and beat them at their own game. 
With this object in view and also with an eye on 
the advertising that went with it, he purchased the 
fast mares, Lady Palmer and Flatbush Maid, as 
well as Peerless and the Auburn Horse. They were 
followed by Dexter, for which he gave A. W. Fossett 
$35,000, as well as Joe Elliott, that trotted a mile in 
2:15V2 when the world's record stood at 2:16%; 
Lady Stout, the first three-year-old to beat 2:30; 
Grafton, Mosely, Startle; and beautiful mare, Poca- 
hontas, by Ethan Allen. 

While he never raced a horse Robert Bonner soon 
found that his brother David was not only a splen- 
did judge of a trotter but also one of the best ama- 
teur reinsmen that ever put a foot in a wagon. It 
was, therefore, not long before David was seen on 
Harlem Lane and the Bloomingdale Road behind his 
brother's trotters and the latter was delighted when 
he heard that he was usually the victor in his 
brushes with Commodore Vanderbilt and other 
members of the sealskin brigade. 


There came a day, however, when there was a 
slight cloud in the sky over a little brush between 
Dexter and Pocahontas. Robert Bonner drove the 
champion while David was behind the mare. As 
the pair flashed down Harlem Lane the white-faced 
gelding was in front, Robert Bonner as usual yell- 
ing louder than Splan ever could. Pocahontas was 
at Dexter's w r heel and Dexter could not pull away 
from her. David was driving her very carefully 
and actually had her in hand when they pulled up. 
That evening in Robert Bonner's library a reference 
was made to the brush and after being asked for 
his opinion David said: "Robert, that mare Poca- 
hontas can beat any living trotter in a brush on 
the road. I do not except even White Legs," which 
was the stable name of Dexter. This did not please 
Robert and he saw that David did not have another 
brush with Dexter, but that David Bonner was 
right was evidenced by the fact that John Murphy 
afterwards drove Pocahontas a half over Fleetwood 
Park in 1:0414, a 2:08^ gait, and that at a day 
when the world's record was 2:17%. 

As soon as Robert Bonner was convinced that 
David was a good judge of a horse he sent him to 
Kentucky to purchase mares for the farm which 
he established near Tarrytown, N. Y. On one of 
these trips he was accompanied by his nephew, 
Alley, and while at Woodburn Farm purchased for 
himself the Harold mare, Bicara, that was at the 
time carrying the colt, Pancoast, for which John H. 
Shults afterward paid $28,000 at auction. The price 


of the mare was $300, but on the following day Alley 
persuaded him to trade her for Tina. He also se- 
lected Nutbourne, brother to Nutwood, to place in 
the stud at the Bonner farm as a stable companion 
of Startle, the fastest and best looking son of Ham- 
bletonian, that was literally buried all his life among 
the Westchester hills. Also when Robert Bonner 
purchased Maud S. from W. H. Vanderbilt, David 
was selected to go to Saratoga and look her over 
before the transfer was made. 

In a brief period David Bonner began buying 
horses on his own account, his boldest venture being 
the selection of Dictator, the brother of Dexter, 
which he purchased in partnership with H. C. Mc- 
Dowell and Alley Bonner, and sent to Kentucky, 
where his reputation was already established by the 
performances of Director, Phallas and Jay Eye See. 
He also purchased in partnership with Charles Ray- 
mond the gray gelding, Phil Thompson, before he 
appeared in Chicago in 1881 and reduced the three- 
year-old record of the world to 2:21, while he sold 
Midnight, the dam of Jay Eye See, 2:10, to Senator 
Stanford, who took her to California, w r here she pro- 
duced the well-known trotter and sire, Electricity, to 
the cover of Electioneer. 

Mambrino Startle, a brother of Majolica, was 
owned by David Bonner. He kept him for a num- 
ber of years at Danville, Ky., where he sired the 
great race mare, Mambrino Maid, as well as the 
dams of Emma Offut and Guinette. The Canadian 
bred mare, Wanda, 2:17%, by Ridgewood, was the 


last brood mare owned by him. She was a present 
from Frank Work, who drove her on the road a 
number of years. From her he bred several trotters, 
three of them being by Axworthy. 

In the early eighties, when the Driving Club of 
New York controlled Fleetwood Park and the ad- 
mirers of trotters gathered there every afternoon 
and Sunday morning to see them step over the fast 
oval that swept over to the New Haven tracks and 
back around the point of rock in front of the Morris 
Mansion, David Bonner was its President. Then, as 
now, everyone at some time during their career 
made a trip to New York and when those who ad- 
mired trotters joined the throng, very few of them 
left the city without visiting Fleetwood Park, where 
they never failed to meet David Bonner. While 
holding the highest office in the gift of the club, lo- 
cated in the leading city of the country, David 
Bonner always had time to stop and speak with any- 
one that addressed him. A man's station in life did 
not make a particle of difference with this big, 
whole-souled gentleman, and if there was anything 
that he could at any time do for anyone his services 
could be had for the asking. 

In 1883, during Mr. Bonner's term of office as 
President of the Driving Club of New York, ar- 
rangements were made for a special race between 
the champions, St. Julien and Jay Eye See. At the 
time the star of the Volunteer gelding was on the 
wane, while Jay Eye See was within three-quarters 
of a second of his limit. September 29th was the 


date selected and as rain fell the preceding night, it 
was a hard matter to get the track in shape for fast 
work. The footing was safe, however, when J. I. 
Case, the owner of the gelding which placed the ini- 
tials of his name in turf history for all time, de- 
murred about starting. At this point the Scotch- 
Irish of the Bonner family broke loose and in a few 
curt words David Bonner told the western million- 
aire that the thousands that came to see the race at 
Fleetwood Park would be disappointed and that he 
would not be responsible for what they would do 
to him and his horse if he kept him in the stable. 
This caused consternation in the Hickory Grove 
Farm stable and in a few minutes Bither appeared 
on the track behind Jay Eye See and Orrin Hickok 
with St. Julien. As a contest the race did not 
amount to much as St. Julien gave it up in the last 
half of the first heat. 

David Bonner was one of the first men to rec- 
ognize the fact that Hambletonian was destined to 
be a great sire of trotters. Seeing a small advertise- 
ment in the Spirit of the Times he went to Chester 
and looked him over. Also after examining his colts 
and seeing a few of them step, he prepared another 
advertisement for W. M. Rysdyk and placed the 
horse's fee at $100, from which it gradually rose to 
$500. He was the only man aside from Rysdyk's 
employees who was ever permitted to drive this em- 
peror of stallions at speed on the road, while he also 
lived to see Uhlan, one of his descendants in the 
fourth generation, place the world's record at 1:58. 


David Bonner was born December 17, 1837, at 
Londonderry, Ireland, and kept constantly abreast 
of the times. Up to 1910 he never was ill for a day 
while he was spared to see all of the old guard that 
made the roads of New York famous cross the 
divide. In his day he had many a brush with Com- 
modore Vanderbilt and his son, William, Sheppard 
F. Knapp, Joseph Harker, M. L. Mott, L. D. Pettee, 
J. W. Perrin, George Alley, Charles Kerner, Z. E. 
Simmons, William Simmons, William Humphreys, 
Isaiah Rynders, Fred Dietz, William Parks, James 
Galloway and a host of others. As they passed 
on, he picked up new friends and acquaintances 
whose tastes were kin to his own and took 
just as much interest in the performances of The 
Real Lady and Miss Bertha Dillon as he did in the 
days before the 2:30 list was thought of or the 
trotter recognized as a fixed breed. 

In the early days Hiram Woodruff, Dan Pf if er and 
Sim Hoagland knew and respected David Bonner as 
a thorough horseman. He also saw John Murphy, 
Orrin Hickok, Dan Mace and Hiram Howe and oth- 
ers pass on in the next generation, while the world 
knew that they also had the same opinion of him. 
As his name passed into the shadow it was with the 
knowledge that Thomas W. Murphy, Alonzo McDon- 
ald, Walter Cox and the other reinsmen looked upon 
him in the same light. 

All the great trotters and pacers that America 
has produced, as well as their owners and breeders, 
passed in review before David Bonner. He saw 


Lady Suffolk, the first 2:30 trotter to harness, and 
was present when Flora Temple, the first 2:20 trot- 
ter, started in many of her races with George M. 
Patchen, John Morgan, Widow Machree, and Prin- 
cess, the dam of Happy Medium. In their day he 
also drove Dexter, Rarus and Maud S., and followed 
the careers of Goldsmith Maid, St. Julien and Jay 
Eye See. He was present when Sunol was delivered 
to his brother's stable in New York and noted from 
time to time how the world's record for trotters was 
reduced after the appearance of the bicycle sulky by 
Nancy Hanks, Alix, The Abbott, Cresceus, Lou Dil- 
lon, and Uhlan. 

In the early days David Bonner was one of the ad- 
mirers of Ethan Allen, the typical Morgan trotter, 
and saw him succeeded as the champion stallion by 
George M. Patchen, Fearnaught, George Wilkes, Jay 
Gould, Mambrino Gift, Smuggler, Phallas, and Maxie 
Cobb. He could recall vividly the time trials for the 
championship honors in 1890 and 1891 by Nelson, 
Allerton, and Palo Alto, and which was followed the 
following year by the-struggle between Kremlin and 
Stamboul. Later on the honors awarded the son of 
Lord Russell were wrested from him by Directum, 
Cresceus, The Harvester, and Lee Axworthy, 
1:5814. In his day the pacer also came to his own, 
Pocahontas being followed on the honor roll by 
Yankee Sam, Sweetzer, Sleepy George, Rowdy Boy; 
the blind horse, Sleepy Tom ; Johnston, Direct, Mas- 
cot, Flying Jib, Robert J., John R. Gentry, Star 
Pointer, and Dan Patch, l:55!/4. 


During the growth of the trotting industry David 
Bonner knew personally all of the' leading men who 
were actively identified with it. In Orange and 
Dutchess Counties, New York, he frequently visited 
the homes of W. M. Rysdyk, Charles Backman and 
Edwin Thorne. He was also a welcome guest in 
Kentucky at the farms maintained by A. J. Alexan- 
der, W. T. Withers, H. C. McDowell, J. C. McFar- 
ren, R. S. Veech, Richard West, W. C. France and 
a host of others, while at times he visited Ten- 
nessee, where he was entertained by Campbell 
Brown, the Overtons, V. L. Kirkman and General 
Harding at Belle Mead. Senator Stanford, Count 
Valensin and William Corbett in California knew 
him, while scarcely a season passed that he did not 
look in on J. Malcolm Forbes, William Russell Allen, 
Erastus Corning, William B. Smith and other east- 
ern breeders whose names appear frequently in the 
early volumes of the stud book. 

In 1867, 1868 and 1869 David Bonner was pres- 
ent when the first colt races open to the world w r ere 
trotted on the Long Island courses and followed the 
youngsters that appeared each season from that 
date, noting the triumphs as they reduced the 
world's race records to the points where they 
were placed by such horses as Etawah, Colorado 
E., Peter Volo, Volga, Miss Bertha Dillon, and Air- 
dale. Of no other man connected with light harness 
racing can it be said that he saw the first trotter 
that beat 2:30 to harness and lived until there were 
over thirtv-three thousand with records below that 


figure. He also lived in the days when it was 
scarcely considered worth while to keep a record of 
the breeding of pacers and until over twenty-five 
thousand had placed their names in the 2 :25 list. 


The most exasperating feature in connection with 
racing is to have a horse that has speed and the 
perfect manners which go with a high class per- 
former and a defect that is apt to keep him in the 
stable on race day. Such a horse makes a lot of 
trouble. Still, with a skillful groom and careful work 
a number of such cripples keep on the move all sea- 
son after they have been fortunate enough to stand 
the preparatory work. 

A sample of this was seen in four Charter Oak 
Purses. In 1900 Andy McDowell dropped off at 
Hartford with the Epaulet mare, Georgena. No one 
looked for her to win. Many considered her a doubt- 
ful starter. Andy, however, considered Georgena 
his meal ticket at the time and prepared her care- 
fully for the big event, which she won after Mc- 
Dowell sized up the field in the first heat. 

McDowell's showing with this mare recalled what 
he and Monroe Salisbury did with that magnificent 
cripple, Azote. This big gelding was bred at Palo 
Alto. He started out in life as one of a lead pair 
in a four-horse team. One day while Orrin Hickok 
was at the Vina ranch with Captain N. T. Smith, he 
saw the Whips gelding and took a fancy to him. A 


few days later Azote was transferred to the Hickok 
stable. The following spring he shipped him east, 
but notwithstanding his clever way of going and 
perfect manners Hickok could never get him up to a 
mile where he thought he would do in Grand Circuit 

Azote was returned to California. Monroe Salis- 
bury got control of him. He and Andy McDowell 
found the key to his speed and in time gave him a 
record of 2:043/4. During all of that time Azote 
had a bad ankle. The trouble was caused by the 
joint being bruised by the chain traces when he 
was a work horse on the Vina ranch. 

After Hulda knuckled over in the fourth heat 
of the $15,000 free-for-all at Chicago in 1893 Hickok 
took her back to California and patched her up for 
another trip to the races. When she was ready 
Orrin shipped her to Cleveland and put her in trim 
for a trip in the fast classes. Hulda's first start 
that year was over the Glenville track. 

When race day came Hulda was led out to meet 
Hickok's old pupil, Azote. He had been mowing 
down the fields wherever he went and at Cleveland 
McDowell won with him looking for horses. Mc- 
Dowell always claimed that Azote was the best 
racing trotter that ever wore harness. He could 
carry his flight of speed further than any horse he 
ever drew a line over and if another brush was re- 
quired to land a heat Azote always had it in reserve 
when called on. 

Murphy won two renewals of the Charter Oak 


Purse with the limpers, R. T. C. and Chilcoot. In 
1911 the initial horse won all of his engagements, 
notwithstanding the trouble which he had with his 
feet. As only a couple of days elapsed between R. 
T. C.'s race at Readville and Hartford he was rather 
crimpy when led out at Charter Oak Park. He 
warmed out of it, however, and won. R. T. C. had 
corns. Chilcoot had tendon trouble. His last start 
was in the Charter Oak Purse. He won it although 
Murphy had some doubts over being able to keep 
him in the race to the finish. 

Lameness was all that kept Chilcoot from being 
one of the fastest trotting stallions that ever stepped 
on a race track. He had the speed and a dash of 
the gameness which was displayed by the Mambrino 
King mare, Nightingale. The pair traced to the 
same family in the maternal line. Geers had plenty 
of trouble keeping Nightingale's feet in trim to 
carry her through a race, but when she was ready 
few could catch her and none could race longer. 

Tenara was another Charter Oak Purse winner 
that was patched up for a trip to the races. An- 
drews prepared her for the fray. She won almost 
all of her engagements in 1913, but was finally com- 
pelled to stop the week after the Hartford meeting. 

Few trainers have gone to the races and won with 
more cripples than Walter Cox. In 1922 he aired 
Abbedale on a few occasions and showed that if 
nature had provided him with a set of sound ten- 
dons he w T ould have been a champion. Prior to that 
he put over A Game of Chance when everyone 


thought he was ready for a trip to the dry dock, 
and followed it with that clever pony, Frank Dewey. 

Star Pointer and Napoleon Direct were another 
pair of racing pacers which notwithstanding faulty 
underpinning placed their names in the two-minute 
list. Star Pointer was the first to beat even time. 
Prior to that he had been raced by Geers and Mc- 
Clary, who marked him. Pointer always had 
trouble with one ankle. It was started by a sprain 
when he was a three-year-old. As he grew older 
it bothered him. 

Napoleon Direct was also hampered by leg trouble. 
Geers made a special study of him and kept him 
going as long as anyone could. When he was ready 
there was not a pacer in training that could catch 
Trim. None of the free-for-allers ever had a greater 
flight of speed than Napoleon Direct and no one ever 
saw a horse in harness show a faster brush than 
Napoleon Direct did in a race at Lexington. 

Hal Pointer, the best racing pacer ever foaled in 
Tennessee, was rather crimpy the first year that 
Geers had him in his stable. Corns caused it. 
When they yielded to treatment the big horse made 
trouble for everybody. California owners made a 
target of him. The first sent Adonis against him 
and failed, after the Sidney gelding won a heat. The 
next year they tried Yolo Maid, but with no better 
success. The little black horse, Direct, was the next 
one to appear. He came over the mountains as a 
trotter. Considerable weight was required to make 
him go at that gait. When it was removed Monroe 


Salisbury had a pacer that made the world stand at 

In time Hal Pointer and Direct met. In their 
first race Hal Pointer won. When the pair arrived 
in Tennessee, the home of the Hals, the result was. 

In time Direct was hampered by tendon trouble. 
Still, he kept going until nature called a halt. Geers 
admired the little horse which defeated his star. He 
bred a Tom Hal mare to him and got Direct HaL 
This horse retired unbeaten and founded a formid- 
able family of pacers. 

Palo Alto, one of the last of the high wheel sulky 
champions, was a cripple. He "was lame in all of 
his races. Marvin kept him going and finally drove 
him in 2:08%. Palo Alto, like Expressive, was out 
of a thoroughbred mare. They were the best pair 
of half-breds ever seen in harness. 

No three-year-old ever made a campaign that could 
compare with Expressive. She was on the go from 
one end of the season to the other and did more to 
convince the public that the Electioneers were game 
than any trotter bred at Palo Alto. Nature finally 
rebelled and Expressive was retired to the stud, 
where in time she became a famous brood mare. 

Fred Egan made a race horse out of Braden Direct 
by constant attention to his feet. Jay Eye See, 
the first trotter to go in 2:10, came back after being 
rated as a relic and paced in 2:06 1 / 4. Prince Loree 
was marked defective and dropped to a point where 
he was valued at $50. With care he recovered and 


became the double-gaited champion. Country Jay 
also had his ups and downs. Macey made a remark- 
able campaign with him as a four-year-old. After 
that hock trouble kept him in the shadow for a num- 
ber of years. 

Mignola and E. Colorado, two of the cleverest rac- 
ing stallions that have ever been seen on the mile 
tracks, had their troubles and survived. While 
owned in Iowa the Allerton horse broke a bone in 
one of his ankles and was sold as soon as he would 
go sound. He cut- a wide swath in the fastest com- 
pany. Mignola closed his racing career at Hartford 
when Mariondale defeated him in the Charter Oak 
Purse. E. Colorado also trotted one of his fastest 
miles in that race in 1921 when Cox won the event 
with Greyworthy. 


While on the turf John Splan was credited with 
many witty remarks. They made him almost as 
well-known as the fact that he reduced the world's 
record of Goldsmith Maid from 2:14 to 2:131/4 with 
Rarus, marked Johnston in 2:06% to high wheels, 
secured the first sweep through the Grand Circuit 
with Wedgewood, and made the names of Newcastle 
and Newburger familiar by winning a long series of 
races with them. Splan lived and sparkled in the 
days of harness racing when the breed was being 
founded and trotting horses were in a measure 
manufactured by the men who developed them. 


One of Splan's most brilliant flashes was placed on 
record in the lobby of the St. James Hotel, on Broad- 
way, near 33rd Street, in New York. The English 
jockey, Fred Archer, whose name became a house- 
hold word on this continent on account of him win- 
ning the English Derby with Iroquois, had made a 
trip across the Atlantic in search of health. His 
headquarters were at the St. James, whose pro- 
prietor, Captain Conner, was an ardent admirer of 
the gallopers. 

One afternoon while Archer was there John Splan 
dropped in for a visit. A group of horsemen sug- 
gested that it would be a capital idea to introduce 
Archer as the greatest living jockey to Splan as the 
greatest living driver. Archer was very much 
pleased with the suggestion and after the greetings 
were exchanged the slender little man sidled up to 
the big, six-footer and said, "By the way, Mr. Splan, 
what are the principal fixed events on the trotting 
turf in America ?" He then went on to state that 
in England they had the Derby, St. Leger, City and 
Suburban, etc., etc., under that head. Splan waited 
patiently until his new acquaintance had completed 
his explanation. He then stooped over and in a 
hoarse whisper said in Archer's ear: "Between you 
and me, Fred, they are nearly all fixed." When 
Captain Conner heard of it he offered to bet a bot- 
tle and a bird against a glass of cold water that 
Archer would die without ever knowing what Splan 

After the campaign in 1876 Splan took Rarus to 


California. He did not hesitate to state in the most 
emphatic terms that the long-backed gelding could 
beat any trotter on earth. A gold miner in "Frisco" 
named Patrick Finnigan at that time owned Santa 
Claus. Hickok was training him and considered him 
a good horse, although at that time he was a long 
way from top form. Finnigan, however, was satis- 
fied that his horse could trim anything that wore 
shoes and that all that would be necessary for 
Hickok to do would be to hitch him to a sulky, ap- 
pear on the track and scare everyone into the 

When Splan found how the land lay he skirmished 
around, succeeding in raising $5,000 and offered to 
make the match. When Finnigan saw that Splan 
was in earnest he refused to warm his horse up for 
less than $10,000. As the conversation took place 
at the Baldwin Hotel, he asked the clerk to bring him 
a check on the Bank of California. Sitting down at 
a desk he made it out for $10,000, handing it to the 
clerk and said they would have the race as soon as 
Splan covered it. 

Splan looked at him for a moment and without 
batting an eye asked the clerk to bring him a check. 
He also sat down at a desk, made it out for $10,000, 
handed it to the clerk and told Finnigan that they 
would have the race the next day. This staggered 
the worthy representative of the Emerald Isle, but 
the race failed to materialize. 

In 1887 Splan had a gay time with the black geld- 
ing, J. Q., by Kentucky Prince, Jr. He was then 


owned by J. H. Temple, proprietor of the old Ross- 
more Hotel, Forty-Second Street and Broadway, New 
York. J. Q. was a good trotter, but very uncertain 
and no one ever knew what he was going to do until 
he was actually in the contest. Also at times he 
would race like a dub for a heat or two, then come 
to and tramp on everything in sight. J. Q. was 
certainly a trouble maker for drivers, owners and 
gamblers. He took a fall out of all of them and 
frequently scattered his followers in all directions. 

One pleasant day Splan had J. Q. in the free-for- 
all trot at Detroit, Mich. The judges were satisfied 
that he could win, but J. Q. would not try. After 
two trips, both of which Hickok won with Arab, 
Splan was taken down and Frank Van Ness substi- 
tuted. The change did not improve matters, while 
Hickok went on and won with the Arthurton geld- 
ing. The following week the Grand Circuit fol- 
lowers were at Cleveland. On the morning prior to 
the meeting Splan was sitting alone near the en- 
trance to the big barn at Doan Brook Farm. While 
glancing toward the gate which led into the Cleve- 
land Driving Park he saw a horse jog through 
hitched to a phaeton. It had two occupants, D. J. 
Campau of Detroit, a well groomed gentleman, and 
a colored boy. 

As the phaeton approached Splan, Mr. Campau, 
who was driving, stopped the horse, handed the 
reins to the colored boy, stepped out of the vehicle 
and came toward him. As he was one of the offi- 
cials who was in the stand at Detroit the preceding 


week the greetings were not very cordial. This, 
however, did not prevent him from presenting the 
object of his visit, as after a crisp good morning, he 
said : "Mr. Splan, I have come here to tell you that 
I am convinced we made a mistake by taking you 
out last week." Splan looked at him a moment and 
when the situation was getting rather embarrassing 
said with a slight smile, "My friend, this is very kind 
of you. Last week you insulted me before ten 
thousand people and this morning you take it back 
before a nigger." 

Splan had another merry race with J. Q. in 1887. 
It was trotted at Rochester, N. Y., and, while the 
horse had been doing well, no one would bet a cent 
on him.' On this particular day Hickok was again 
behind Arab. The latter started at three to one 
over the field and romped home in front in the first 
heat, with J. Q. last in a field of six. In the second 
heat Bessie interfered with Arab going away and 
J. Q. won after a sharp brush with Kitefoot. The 
manner in which the black gelding stepped this mile 
convinced Splan that he was on edge. Splan con- 
veyed this information to a few friends and between 
heats they were very busy in front of the grand- 
stand, where Quimby was doing business with those 
who were inclined to speculate. 

The showing made by J. Q. did not disturb 
Hickok or make those who were backing his horse 
suspicious. On the trip up the back stretch in the 
third heat, however, when J. Q. came through the 
field and was lapped on the favorite as they flashed 


by the half-mile pole, Hickok looked over and asked 
Splan why he was in such a hurry. Splan replied 
that he had a little business out in front and was 
going to attend to it. This rather staggered Orrin, 
for J. Q. was going easy, while Arab was out to the 
limit. He then intimated to Splan that it would be 
advisable to take back, but, instead of making a 
move in that direction, Splan replied, "Well, Orrin, 
I just received a telegram from 'Little Splan' that 
she needs a sealskin coat for next winter and J. Q. 
is going to win it for her today." He did, but it was 
by a narrow margin. 

In the early nineties Hickok came over the moun- 
tains with a light colored chestnut gelding called 
Peep O'Day. He was aptly named, as his sire was 
Dawn, but nature, when completing the job, failed 
to favor him with four legs sound enough to carry 

Hickok tried all known methods to get him to 
the races in the Grand Circuit, but failed. He, 
therefore, left him with Splan to patch up and sell. 
Splan found a customer in Cal. Morris, a coal oper- 
ator and banker, and, after getting the horse half 
ready by giving hirn as little work as possible so as 
not to interfere with his underpinning, Peep O'Day 
was pointed for a trip through the Ohio fairs. 

The races at those meetings proved easy picking 
for the California trotter, as it was only a workout 
for him to defeat the horses he met. His owner's 
eyes also sparkled with delight when he would read 
in the Plain Dealer and Leader how Peep O'Day was 


winning one or two races a week. Also, when he 
was not busy swapping coal mines or running the 
bank, Cal. Morris footed up in his mind the win- 
nings of his horse, but without allowing anything 
for entrance fees, shipping expenses, hotel bills, and 
the long preparation he had been given at Glenville 
before disappearing in the bushes. 

Finally the day of reckoning came and Mr. Morris, 
with smiles radiating from every angle of his rotund 
personality, drove out to Doan Brook Farm for the 
"coin." After a little visit with Splan on the porch 
of the farmhouse he explained the object of his visit. 
Splan told him that his account had not as yet been 
made up, but that if he would come out Sunday 
morning it would be ready. Bright and early Sun- 
day morning Mr. Morris appeared at Glenville. His 
account was ready, and showed that it just bal- 
anced, while the horse and halter were still his prop- 
erty. Also in order to make him feel good, Splan 
walked him over to his garden and gave him a 
couple of heads of cabbage and a bunch of beets for 
the family. 

In the seventies, when Splan w r as located at Buf- 
falo, a young man moved out to the track with a 
horse and a copy of Hiram Woodruff's book on the 
trotters. The horse was trained according to the 
printed word until one day after a rain storm there 
was a big puddle of muddy w T ater on the inside of 
the track fence near the three-quarter pole. At that 
point the horse bolted and tossed his trainer over 
the fence into the mud. 


Splan jogged by as the embryo trainer jumped to 
his feet and pulling over to the rail he said with a 
smile, "Well, Charley, what does Hiram say to do 


In the latter part of the eighties, when D. J. 
Campau revived light harness racing at Hamtramck 
Park, Detroit, Mich., he decided after giving three 
meetings that it would be advisable to stage an event 
which would attract National attention. After con- 
siderable deliberation he opened a $10,000 purse for 
2:24 trotters. It was named the Merchants' and 
Manufacturers' Purse, which in time was abbrevi- 
ated to the M. and M. 

The race was a success from the start. "Tink" 
Hills won the first one in 1889 with the Dauntless 
gelding, Hendryx, from a field of thirteen. Bud 
Doble finished second with the favorite, Amy Lee, 
while such horses as Alcryon, Greenlander, York- 
town Belle and So Long were outside the money- 
The event was not disposed of so easily the fol- 
lowing year, when of the eleven starters Play Boy 
and Suisun each won heats before Bob Stewart was 
awarded the honors with Walter E., one of the most 
consistent trotters that ever took the word. 

The M. and M. in 1891 was made m^tnorable by 
the plunge of the Montana delegation on Prodigal. 
Andy McDowell had the mount and considered his 
horse a sure winner. In the first heat a railroad 


conductor from South Bend, Ind., flashed out in front 
behind the bay gelding, Prince M. He remained 
there to the finish. The judges set him back for 
a swerve in the stretch and gave the heat to Prodi- 
gal in 2:1714. The next three heats proved easy 
sailing for Temple Bar, driven by George Spear. 
Geers finished second in the last one with Honest 

The next three renewals of the M. and M were 
won in straight heats by the black Nightingale, 
Siva, and J. M. D. George Ketchem, of Toledo, Ohio, 
was among those who saw Nightingale win. Her 
success prompted him to purchase her dam, from 
which he bred the champion, Cresceus, 2:02*4. 

The race won by Siva was the last renewal of 
the M. and M. contested over Hamtramck Park. The 
following year the flags floated over Grosse Pointe 
track, where J. M. D. defeated Rex Americus, much 
to the discomfiture of C. J. Hamlin as well as the 
admirers of the Onward colt, which cost the Buffalo 
man $15,000. 

Geers had a winner at Detroit the following year 
when he drove The Corporal in the deciding heats 
of the seventh renewal, defeating Don L. and Iron 
Bar. He was also behind the Mambrino King mare, 
Valence, when she finished third to Emma Offut in 
1896, Red Star being in second place. Rilma was 
the next winner, Footed laying-up-heat tactics 
enabling her to defeat Oratorio, Red Star and The 
Abbott, which afterwards reduced the world's record 


to 2 :03^. There were many unpleasant things said 
after this race. They were also repeated in 1899, 
when Royal Baron won in the same manner for N» 
W. Hubinger, a victory which, in a measure, com- 
pensated him for what he lost the preceding year 
when Directum Kelly defeated Belle J., after she 
had won two heats. 

Geers appeared in the limelight at Detroit in 1900 
when he won the M. and M. with Lady Geraldine. 
It was a very cheap race, the deciding heat being 
trotted in 2:22. From that date, however, it re- 
quired a 2:10 trotter to win, Eleata stepping the 
deciding heat in 2:08% when Tom Marsh won with 
her in 1901 over Country Jay and Neva Simmons. 
Scott Hudson also won a splendid race in 1902 with 
the blind horse, Rhythmic, while Wentworth could 
only save his entrance. 

The downfall of the Texas trotter, Wainscott, 
made the renewal of this race in 1903 memorable,, 
Dick Wilson defeating him very unexpectedly with 
John Taylor, but it required a fifth heat in 2:10^ 
to do it. Stanley Dillon, Angle and Ann Direct won 
the next three renewals of the M. and M., the last 
named trotting her race at Cleveland, Ohio, where 
the big event was transferred on account of a local 

Conditions being favorable in 1907, the M. and M. 
was again revived at Detroit and resulted in the best 
contest seen in the event up to that date. When 
the list of nominations was published, it was found 
that Sonoma Girl and Highball were named. High- 


ball won the first heat in 2:07i/ 2 , "the Girl from the 
Golden West" forcing him out. On the next trip 
Springer showed in front with Sonoma Girl, the 
time for the heat being 2:061/4, the fastest time 
made in it up to that date. She also won the de- 
ciding heat in 2:091/4, the race being on the three- 
heat plan. 

The following year the race was advertised to 
terminate at the end of the fifth heat, and while 
Geers had in Alceste what proved the best starter, 
the honors went to Spanish Queen on account of 
her position in the summary. The next three re- 
newals of the M. and M. were never in doubt after 
the word was given, McDonald winning one with 
Margin and Geers the next two with Dudie Arch- 
dale and Anvil. 

Murphy won his first M. and M. in 1912 with 
Queen Worthy. The next year Geers again led the 
procession with Reusens, the big chestnut gelding 
defeating Tenara after the Moko mare had won two 
heats in 2:081/4 and 2:063/4. 

In 1914 the M. and M. was reduced from a 2:24 
to a 2:14 class. The change brought out a higher 
class lot of trotters. Rhythmell won the first heat 
in 2:061/4 and was distanced in the second, which 
was placed to the credit of Linda Wrona in 2:051/2. 
Cox showed in front on the next trip with Peter 
Scott and won in 2:0714, McDonald getting the 
place with McCloskey. Lassie McGregor, the 
starter from the Murphy stable, was unsteady in the 
first three heats. In the fourth she was on her good 


behavior and won in 2:09 1 / 4, Mahomet Watts get- 
ting the place. She also won the fifth heat in 2:10 
and the seventh in 2:08%, the sixth having been 
placed to the credit of Peter Scott. This showing 
gave him second money. Peter Scott tried again 
in 1915. He was then in the Murphy stable and 
was defeated by Lee Axworthy in 2:06^, 2:043/4, 
2:04%, the fastest and most closely contested M. and 
M. ever trotted. In 1916 the royal battlers, Mabel 
Trask and St. Frisco, met in the M. and M. and 
the mare won, her first heat being trotted in 2:05 1 / 4- 
Cox won again in 1917 with Busy's Lassie after Al 
Mack had placed two heats to his credit. That race 
closed the chapter. 


Andy Welch was one of the most unique charac- 
ters ever seen on the trotting turf. While he was 
Irish to the finger tips, he was born on the Island 
of Jersey in the English Channel and came to Amer- 
ica with the balance of the family as a small boy. 
Hartford, Connecticut, was selected as the stopping 
place and like many a motherless lad, Andy grew up 
on the streets. While peddling papers and shining 
shoes in the vicinity of the old City Hotel and Gold 
Street he also had ample opportunity to see more 
green cloth tables than school books. 

His start in life was made in a gambling room 
when a jewelry salesman staked him to a stock that 
he soon disposed of at a profit. He also followed 

T R T A L N G 365 

that business for a time, but the fairy wand of 
chance caught his fancy, although he soon 
abandoned the spinning wheel with the nimble mar- 
ble for work in the open. This led him to the trot- 
ting tracks. Charter Oak Park was one of the first 
he saw, and as soon as he put up his board as a 
book maker it did not take him very long to extend 
his operations to the leading courses of the country. 

While a betting man, Andy Welch was like the big 
Boston boy, John L. Sullivan, "always on the level." 
In the thirty odd years that he was connected with 
light harness racing as a layer of odds, horse owner 
or manager of race meetings, no one could ever point 
to a shady transaction that Andy Welch was con- 
nected with. He saw the cheaters come and go and 
while at times a few stung him for a big play on a 
fishy looking heat, he usually was clever enough to 
place it in the auctions before the tickets were 

In 1887, during the Grand Circuit meeting at 
Utica, N. Y., Andy Welch made his first good invest- 
ment in a trotter when he purchased Atlantic from 
R. W. Davis of West Williamsfield, Ohio. The sale 
was closed after the races and as the Ohio farmer 
refused to take a check, it kept Welch busy to find 
sufficient currency. When he did it was all in bills 
of small denominations. That, however, did not 
make any difference with Davis and rolling them up 
in a newspaper he started for the race track with 
the bundle under his arm. The next morning Welch 
learned that he sat up all night in a box stall re- 


counting the money by the light of a lantern. 

Welch turned Atlantic over to James Goldsmith. 
He won six out of seven races with him that fall. 
Goldsmith also had the horse ready to start down 
the line of the Grand Circuit the next summer when 
Welch sold him to an Italian. 

The amount which he received for Atlantic, to- 
gether with what he won on him, put Andy Welch 
in easy street. He then began buying and selling 
trotters as well as making book and while he owned 
several, one of them being the colt trotter, Wild 
Rake, which he sold to William Rockefeller, his next 
good winner and possibly his best one was the chest- 
nut mare, Star Lily. He picked her out of a Michi- 
gan trainer's stable in 1889 and within a month 
landed a ton of money with her when she won the 
$10,000 Flower City Stake at Rochester, N. Y. 

W. B. Fasig, who was a splendid judge of trotters, 
always said that Andy Welch could watch a heat 
from a chair and after it was over know more about 
what was going on than half of the drivers in the 
race. He also gave Fasig a sample of this in 1896 
when the latter was racing Rifle. Prior to the meet- 
ing at Cleveland, Welch told Fasig that Rifle would 
win. Fasig said that he did not have a chance, but 
Welch backed him just the same. After Rifle won, 
defeating such good horses as Lily Young, Angelus, 
Franklin, Bryson and eight others, Fasig asked 
Andy what he knew and Welch replied: "You 
started him in the 2:17 class. Two weeks ago you 
started him in the 2:12 class at Saginaw, Mich., 


where he finished second to Bravado in 2:111/2 over 
a slow track. I figured that none of the horses in 
the race at Cleveland could do that and to show I 
was right Rifle won the fifth heat in 2:11% and 
came back in 2:121,4." 

Very few knew that Andy Welch gave Fasig his 
first boost in the sale business. He had been holding 
sales at Cleveland but was unable to get many out- 
side consignments. Finally he booked one from 
California but at the last moment the consignor 
refused to ship unless he was guaranteed a certain 
amount. Fasig didn't know which way to turn until 
he thought of Andy Welch. He wired him and in 
a few hours he received a reply to draw on him for 
the amount required. The guarantee was never 
called for but it put Fasig on the up-grade in the 
sale business. 

One day Andy Welch said that the first time he 
entered Charter Oak Park he crawled under the 
gate. In 1891 he was warned off the course for 
shouting at the judges while they were discussing a 
decision in the Charter Oak Purse that was won by 
Hamlin's Nightingale and in 1897 he owned it. Later 
on he purchased Oakley Park near Cincinnati, Ohio, 
and gave Grand Circuit meetings at that city and in 
Hartford. His first jolt came with the purchase of 
Readville Park in Boston. When those who agreed to- 
go in with him stepped aside he shouldered the whole 
of it in order to make his word good and even then 
he would have come out all right if he had not re- 
newed the $50,000 Handicap. This made him a bor- 


rower while for the first time in his life he was 
called upon to pay interest. Up to that time he did 
not know what it was. 

So long as Andy Welch confined his operations to 
speculation, the balance remained in his favor but 
when his restless disposition and lightning like 
change of ideas were applied to the management of 
a race track and its upkeep, the bills were rather 
large. All of them were paid, however, and if it had 
not been for the depression in real estate values on 
account of the war, the balance would still have 
been in his favor when his spirit went out with the 
tide at Winthrop, Mass., in 1917. 

As he mingled with men on the race tracks or in 
the hotels, Andy Welch's subtle wit and sparkling 
repartee made him a conspicuous figure. He could 
always be found in an argument and while Andy was 
sure to differ with you on any subject from the 
weather to the next presidential election, no one ever 
heard him try to strengthen his argument by offer- 
ing to make a bet. That was confined to the race 
track where if he happened to get a jolt, he would 
open the back of his watch, take a peep at a bunch 
of shamrocks which he picked from a bank near 
Blarney Castle in Ireland, and chalk up the odds for 
the next heat. 



On October 14, 1887, while on a return trip from 
Fleetwood Park, New York, I took a chair on the 
porch at Barry's. The sun was beginning to drop 
behind the bluff back of the present Polo Grounds 
which were used at that time as a cinder dump by 
the elevated railroad. The road drivers who had 
crossed the bridge were returning while the blast of 
a horn floating over the Harlem told that the four- 
in-hands were rolling down the Avenue from Jerome 
Park where Lucky Baldwin won a race that after- 
noon with the Emperor of Norfolk. Inside the 
hotel I could hear the voices of a few of the mem- 
bers of the sealskin brigade, while the grooms were 
taking care of their horses under the sheds. 

The rumbling of the coaches on the wooden floor 
of McComb's Dam bridge gave notice of their ap- 
proach, but before they made the turn into 155th 
Street a thick set man with a full beard, wearing a 
top hat and driving a chestnut mare hitched to a 
one man wagon jogged down the slight incline and 
turned into Seventh Avenue. It was Robert Bonner 
with Maud S., 2:08%, the queen of the turf. Also 
in a brief interval Barry's guests drove away and 
quiet reigned on the Harlem. 

When the New York road drivers of Dutchman, 
Katy Darling and Ripton's day shifted their speed- 
ing ground from Third Avenue to Harlem Lane and 
the Bloomingdale Road a few of the proprietors of 
the road houses, including "Toppy" McGuire, fol- 


lowed them. Later on when the tide ebbed to Sev- 
enth Avenue where Colonel Mooney kept the road in 
as good condition as a race track, Commodore Van- 
derbilt and his associates changed their stopping 
place from the Cayuga Hotel to the Romantic Hotel, 
later known as Barry's. After this change Robert 
Bonner who stopped occasionally at the Cayuga to 
talk horse with the Commodore joined the group that 
did not stop on the road except at Fleetwood Park. 
The others included John D. Rockefeller, his brother 
William, Josiah M. Fisk arid A. B. Darling. All of 
them had splendid outfits; Peerless, Pocahontas 
and Dexter in the Bonner stable being succeeded by 
Pickard, Uncle Dave, Maud S. and Alfred S. John 
D. Rockefeller usually drove his cross matched pair, 
Midnight and Kate McCall. His brother, William, 
owned Independence and Cleora, that trotted in 
2:1614 to pole cart, while A. B. Darling started with 
Daisy and continued with her descendants until he 
bred Axworthy, the sire of Hamburg Belle. 

Commodore Vanderbilt died in 1876, after having 
many a brush behind Mountain Boy and Mountain 
Maid. He would not pay the high dollar for a trot- 
ter like his son William H., who was soon the leader 
of the sealskin brigade and who also had the honor 
of making four reductions in the trotting record of 
teams. In 1877 his pair, Small Hopes and Lady Mac, 
placed the mark at 2:23. When John Sheppard of 
Boston cut it to 2:22 with Mill Boy and Blondine, he 
brought back the honors to Gotham with a mile in 
2:20 by William H. and Lysander Boy. 


A local rival appeared in 1882 when Frank Work's 
geldings Edward and Dick Swiveller trotted in 
2:16%. Their performance prompted W. H. Van- 
derbilt to purchase Aldine. When hitched with 
Early Rose, the pair trotted Charter Oak Park in 
2:16 1 /2- His limit, however, was reached in 1883, 
when on June 15 he drove Maud S. and Aldine to 
road wagon in 2:15y2> the first half down the hill be- 
ing trotted in 1:05%. Frank Work could not dupli- 
cate this, although in 1884 Murphy drove his geld- 
ings in 2 :16Y4,. The rivalry was kept up until W. H. 
Vanderbilt died in December, 1885. 

While W. H. Vanderbilt and Frank Work were the 
leaders in the matter of teams, there were other fast 
pairs that brushed not only with them, as they never 
declined a challenge, but with the single hitches. 
Sheppard F. Knapp w T as always in the thick of the 
racing with Charley Hogan and Sam Hill until he 
sold the pair to Charles Schwartz of Chicago for 
$15,000 after driving them in 2:2134. John Har- 
beck and his son had several fast teams which they 
never favored with names, while I. Cohnfeld never 
missed an opportunity to parade Maxie Cobb and 
Neta Medium that trotted in 2:15% to pole. David 
Hammond also had a fondness for pairs and was 
frequently seen behind Frederica and Nellie S. as 
well as the white-faced mares Corona and Roberta. 

Major S. N. Dickinson was the last leader in team 
driving. He began with Alice Oats and Sally Brass. 
They were succeeded by Flora Huff and Cora Belle, 
which he sold to the Governor of Minnesota for 


$10,000. His next pair were Aubine and Lady 
Wellington, the first named costing him $15,000, 
while at the same time he offered $50,000 for Nelson. 
The Major's last pair were the race record makers 
Roseleaf and Sally Simmons, the dam of Hamburg 
Belle, 2:0114. Of single horses he also owned Jane 
R., Lady Winship, Zembia, Marie Jansen, Sir Walter 
Jr., sire of the dam of Uhlan, 1:58, and Cocoon, the 
dam of Robert C, 2:09%. 

Of the single hitches owned by members of the 
sealskin brigade, the spectators who lined the curbs 
on Seventh Avenue saw Frederick Vanderbilt behind 
Arthur Boy and Captain Jake Vanderbilt with Bos- 
ton, trial 2:20; William Trumbull with Mansfield, 
trial 2:25%; T. C. Eastman with Richard, 2:21, and 
it a later date Maud C, 2:10 1 / 4; George Alley who 
selected Dexter in the rough with the Middletown 
horse; and William Knapp with Nettie Thorne, 
2:25 1 / 4. Of the Bonner family, aside from Robert, 
his brother David drove Addie and Cora Belmont, 
2:24i/ 2 , while Alley used Volmer, 2:241,4, and King 
Rene Jr., 2 :17. William M. Beach depended on Lady 
Emma and David Scott thought so well of Jennie 
that he refused an offer of $10,000 from a man who 
wanted to race her. Sammy Weeks drove Major 
Root, 2:27, and Jerry Coster used the Young Jim 
gelding Garnet, 2:19, while Henry Hughes had Fides, 
2:221/4, and Skylight Pilot, 2:19. 

Colonel Lawrence Kipp, whose road rigs set the 
fashion for appointments and style not only at the 
National Horse Show but all over the country, fre- 


quently drove a pair, but for fast work depended on 
Bonita, 2:18i/ 2 , and Emoleta, 2:241/4. The Captain, 
trial 2:21, was the favorite road horse of A. New- 
bold Morris, who at a later date owned Lena Holly, 
2:18%. Charles Kerner owned Philosee, 2:221,4, 
and frequently reminded his friends that he at one 
time drove Fleetwing, the dam of Stamboul, 2:071/2, 
on the road. 

For a number of years J. B. Houston kept a splen- 
did stable of trotters, the list including Suisun, 
2:18%; Spofford, 2:18%; Compeer, 2:24i/ 2 ; Hades, 
2:27%, and Clara, 2:21, which he sold to Cortland D. 
Moss. Rose Medium, 2:261/2, was Willie Taylor's 
favorite, while E. H. Harriman drove Row r ena, 
2:24%, and Henry T. Mali owned Lassie, trial 2:23. 
When not being raced Kenilworth, 2:18 1 / 4, was 
driven on the road by Hugh J. Grant. Nathan 
Strauss enjoyed many a brush behind Joe Ripley, 
2:25, and also owned Majolica, 2:15. George Sis- 
tair had a lot of pleasure with Black Jack, 2:221/4, 
and C. W. Griswold drove Palma, 2:22-%. 

Albert C. Hall had many a brush with Wolford Z., 
2:22, and Joe Clarke and C. H. Chatfield sold Ellard 
for $5,000 after he led a few fields down the road. 
Knoxie, trial 2:23, was a favorite with Alex Taylor 
and John Alexander depended on Peralto, 2:261/2, 
when the clip was fast and the going good. 

The above are only a few of the sealskin brigade 
members, who made road driving popular and who 
by their liberal purchases encouraged breeders and 
trainers to develop trotters that had not only ex- 


treme speed but also good manners and desirable 
road qualities. In their day some of them could be 
seen every pleasant afternoon at Barry's or over the 
bridge at Gabe Case's, Fleetwood Park, Judge 
Smith's, Sibbons' or Jerome Park until it was taken 
by the city for a reservoir in 1894. In winter when 
the sleighing was good they were all out, in sealskin 
coats, riding in spider web cutters to the music of 
the bells. During the balance of the year their 
white melton coats with large pearl buttons, black 
derby hats and road wagons with black bodies and 
red running gear distinguished them from all others. 
All of those who made life merry on the New 
York roads have passed away and the glorious days 
when America's most famous trotters in beautifully 
appointed road rigs were seen almost every after- 
noon in spirited brushes on the speeding grounds 
faded with them. The descendants of the road 
horses of the last century are the race horses of 


After lunch when those who smoked were lighting 
their cigars, Walter T. Candler asked the venerable 
Charles E. Cox from whom his son Walter inherited 
the inclination to train and race horses. The old 
gentleman smiled as he turned towards the Georgian 
and said: "It must have come from a remote cross 
in the family pedigree. I never had horses that were 
fast enough to race and none of my people except 


Walter ever showed a disposition to get speed out of 
a horse. It is true that I used good horses in my 
business but none of them were trotters." 

"What's that?" snapped Walter Randall as he ran 
his fingers through a two-day stubble of beard and 
twisted a cigar into the corner of his mouth. "You 
never had any trotters? I wonder what you were 
doing at the Manchester race track every Friday 
morning from the day I was big enough to hold a 

"Why, Walter, you know I never owned a horse 
that was fast enough to be called a trotter," replied 
his father. 

"I know different," said Walter Randall. "You 
had as good as any of the butchers and raced them 
every Friday." 

"On fish day," remarked an interested listener. 

"Sure," said Walter, "and I can prove it." 

With that he was off upstairs and in a few min- 
utes returned with a framed photograph of a horse 
hitched to a high wheel sulky and a boy on the seat. 

"What do you call that?" said Walter Cox, hand- 
ing the picture to his father from whom it was 
passed to the balance of the guests who had lunched 
at the Cox home in Goshen, N. Y., that day in 1925. 
"Looks something like a trotter, doesn't it? I am 
the boy in the gig." 

The old gentleman laughed when reminded of the 
days in Manchester, New Hampshire, back in the 
eighties when the little gelding, and his son, now 
one of the most famous reinsman, raced for oats or 


a few dollars and won in 3:05 to 3:08. 

"That was some trotter," continued Walter. "I 
trained him, drove him, took care of him and father 
owned him. He could not trot within a minute of 
some that I have had since but folks were not in 
such a hurry in those days. I will also say that no 
horse ever had better care than that one." 

"What was his name?" asked a listener. 

"Why, do you want to look him up to see if he 
was straight?" asked Walter. 

"Oh, no. If he was wrong it is outlawed by this 
time," answered the same party. 

"Well, then, I will tell you," said the host. "It 
was Patten's Tom." 

"What became of him?" asked another. 

"Dad drove him into the country one day," report- 
ed Walter, "and returned with the handsomest gray 
horse I ever saw up to that time. He had made a 
trade and it looked like a good one for him. When I 
gave the new horse the once over I saw that he was 
wearing a set of three calk shoes, each of which 
weighed at least two pounds. He also had a long 
toe, something I had been led to believe a trotter 
should not have. I gave him a trial on the road 
hitched to an old Concord wagon and found that he 
could according to my idea trot fast. Father's knowl- 
edge of trotters in the rough moved up in my esti- 
mation five hundred per cent. 

"The next day I almost rubbed the skin off my 
hands scrubbing that gray horse with soap and 
water. He was as clean as a whistle when I finished. 


I braided his tail and mane with rags and as I tied 
each braid I was thinking what I would do to the 
Manchester butchers the next Friday morning. 

"The new trotter was then taken to the shop to 
be shod. I had his shoes removed and feet cut down 
until the horse looked to be half a hand lower. For 
foot wear I selected a pair of toe weighted shoes 
which were all the rage then and put on a light pair 
behind. Over a pound was taken off each foot. As 
I led the gray horse home I kept chuckling to myself 
when I thought of what I would do with him Friday 

"When the day came I was at the track with the 
new horse ready to race. He looked like a picture 
with his mane and tail frizzed and his dapple coat 
glistening in the sunshine. Some one called him 
Gray Eagle and I smiled. As soon as I started him 
up I got a jolt. In the new outfit he could not trot 
or run. Some one said he might fly. I did not dis- 
pute it and drove him back to the stable. The next 
day the handsome gray wearing his racing shoes 
went out in front of a butcher cart. 

"Oh, no, dad never had any trotters if you let him 
tell it. He started me and we're here." 



Before the autos forced the trotters off the roads, 
it was an ordinary occurrence for an owner to appear 
in races behind his horses and campaign them for 
several seasons. At that time, the majority of the 
horses were kept in the home stables and driven on 
the road, except during the racing season. A few 
owners also bred and developed their racing material 
while others purchased it. 

Of the owners who bred and developed their trot- 
ters, few had more spectacular careers than Charles 
Wagner and C. H. Nelson. The former was a 
Canadian farmer from Dickinson's Landing, On- 
tario. He raced Phyllis all over the country and 
won in all kinds of company. One of her first starts 
was in a three-year-old race at Ogdensburg, N. Y., 
and one of her last at Montgomery, Alabama. 

Wagner whisked the big brown mare into all kinds 
of races and did what he thought was best for the 
Wagner family. Phyllis never failed to respond when 
called on, even when her owner resorted to swim- 
ming her in a lake or river for exercise instead of 
track work. 

C. H. Nelson was a Maine contribution. He wore 
a Grand Army button. Few owners ever had a more 
beautiful pair of trotters than Aubine and Nelson. 
They were a revelation to the western race goers 
when the pair appeared at Buffalo, N. Y., in 1889. 

John Carey was another owner that drifted on to 
the mile tracks with a stallion. His mount was 


behind the Michigan bred horse, Junemont. There 
never was a finer individual and very few had a 
more consistent race horse than the big son of Tre- 

In 1907 J. Springer from the Pacific Coast at- 
tracted national attention by the brilliant series of 
races in which he drove Sonoma Girl against High- 
ball. No such a pair of record-breakers had ever 
appeared in the slow classes prior to that date and 
the "girl from the golden west" more than held her 
own in her bouts with the pride of the Geers stable. 
Their first meeting was at Libertyville, 111., where 
Highball won in 2:0614. A few weeks later at De- 
troit in the $10,000 M. & M., Sonoma Girl appeared 
at the top of the summary in the same time after 
Highball landed a heat in 2:07)4. 

To Iowa belongs the honor of sending out two of 
the most successful owners that were ever seen in 
the sulky in C. W. Williams and M. D. Shutt. Wil- 
liams won his spurs behind the stallions, Axtell and 
Allerton. He bred and developed them. Both of 
them became champions and both founded families 
of trotters, the Axtell strain being a leader today 
through the sons of Axworthy. The name of Shutt 
is linked with Penisa Maid. She was a trotter of 
the watch charm type with a winning habit that 
made all fields look alike to her. When in the zenith 
of her career, a broken pelvis bone resulted in her 
death and deprived the turf of what looked like a 
two-minute trotter. 

Ohio is credited with three amateur owners who 


earned turf honors with stallions. George Ketchem 
led off with Cresceus. He bred and developed him 
and strange to relate, this son of Robert McGregor 
is the only entire horse that became a world's cham- 
pion trotter. No one ever saw a better race horse. 
From his first start as a three-year-old he was raced 
early and late, wherever the money was in sight. 
All tracks looked alike to him. 

The other two Ohio amateurs are H. K. Devereux 
and David Shaw. When the League of Driving 
Clubs was operating on the mile tracks, the former 
made a sweep with John A. McKerron, while the 
latter duplicated the Ketcham and Williams showing 
by breeding and marking Peter Mac. Hitched to a. 
cart he drove him to a record of 2:03 1 / / 2> the three- 
quarter mark being passed at a two-minute gait. 

A unique character flitted across the screen when 
Prime Wright unhitched Nata Prime from a milk 
wagon and started for the races. She made her 
debut at Goshen, Conn., where the horses were raced 
on the road. When she won, Wright moved on to 
other fairs, where Nata Prime kept in the money 
until she touched 2:10. No one ever saw a trotter 
trained or cared for as she was. Still Nata Prime 
gave all she had in the matter of speed until out- 

Of the owners who made a bid for the leading fix- 
tures of the trotting turf, the returns show that 
George Forbes won the Charter Oak Purse with Oli- 
ver K. and that Harvey Ernest landed that event 
and the Transylvania with Ima Jay. E. E. 


Smathers won the gold cup at Memphis with Major 
Delmar, while Lou Dillon, the first two-minute trot- 
ter, swept off in front in a number of brilliant 
amateur events to wagon with C. K. G. Billings 
behind her. 

J. L. Dodge, Frank Jones, C. W. Lasell and H. S. 
Crossman are among the owners who drove in races. 
Mr. Dodge bred and developed the most of his rac- 
ing material, the best known being Hollyrood Bob, 
Hollyrood Kate, Hollyrood Naomi, and Hollyrood 
Susan, while of his other winners he purchased 
Periscope and Great Britton. Frank Jones frequently 
drove the leading members of Geers' stable, a 
number of which were owned by him. The latter 
included Highball, Dudie Archdale, Anvil, Etawah, 
Ardelle, and Baron Grattan. 

C. W. Lasell devoted his time to the development 
of the Henry Setzer trotters. In 1915 he won the 
National Stallion Stake with Henry Todd over the 
Empire City track, while in 1913 Nowaday Girl was 
the champion three-year-old trotter over the two- 
lap courses. Terrill S. was his most consistent per- 
former and Judge Lee his fastest. 

H. S. Crossman started with a few polo ponies. He 
shifted to the New York speedway and from there 
to the race tracks. He had a number of winners 
on both the mile and half-mile tracks, the star of the 
stable being the gelding, Worthy Chief, with which 
he reduced the half-mile track record for three-year- 
olds to 2:0914 at Mineola, N. Y. 



One morning in 1926, when a shower drove every- 
body at Charter Oak Park to cover, Gene Hyde 
drifted into Crozier's office. As the oldest in- 
habitant he was given a chair and a hint to start 
something. He hung fire until someone said that 
horsemen were superstitious. Gene broke in with 
the remark that there was none of that stuff in his 
makeup but that there was a day when a cat almost 
got him. 

"A what?" said Hodson, as he climbed on top of 
the desk to get away from the jinx. 

"I said cat," replied Hyde. "Has your hearing 
gone bad?" 

"Well, what do you think of that?" said Crozier. 
"I saw Snow and Millard Sanders traveling with 
pigeons. Mr. Snell had a gamecock and Billy Dick- 
erson a goat, but I never heard of anyone carrying 
a cat." 

"Well, I did for one trip," said Gene Hyde. "It 
was in 1891, the last year of the high wheel sulky. 
I trained here. John Shillinglaw did the driving. 
For horses we had Fanny Wilcox, her sister, Lizzie- 
mont, and Tom Carpenter. 

"That year the Philadelphia Driving Park offered 
a $2,500 purse, to which Fanny Wilcox was eligible, 
and other events. The meeting was early in July. 
I shipped over. 

"Some time before we shipped a cat that was al- 
most as big as that dog, Nipper, joined the stable. 


It put up in Lizziemont's stall. I saw it but said 
nothing. When we arrived at Philadelphia the cat 
was there. I then spoke to the boy. He said that 
he brought it for luck. 

"Lizziemont was my first starter. There were ten 
horses in her race. For two heats she finished last. 
In the third Shillinglaw managed to get through and 
won. It was a tight fit. The boy said the cat did 

"After skipping a day on account of rain, Tom 
Carpenter's race was called. Tom finished last for 
three heats. Before the fourth heat the boy who 
was taking care of him came to me and said the cat 
was in Tom's stall. At the same time he said that 
I owed him for two months' work and asked me to 
put it on Tom to win. 

"Billy Weeks had won the first two heats with 
Soto. She had a bad ankle. It bothered her in the 
third trip. Dr. McCoy won it with Gypsy Girl. I 
had a few field tickets and was satisfied that they 
were good. I also put the boy's money on Tom Car- 

"Shillinglaw won the fourth and fifth heats. He 
would have won the sixth if Mart Demarest had 
not carried him out until he made a break. Gypsy 
Girl finished first that trip. She was set back for a 
run. The heat was given to Grand R. Al Cum- 
mings drove him. He is still around Reading with 
a cork leg, but his upperworks are all right. 

"I went to the judges and called their attention 
to what Demarest had done. They told me I had 


laid up for three heats, and I had better go down 
and keep still. 

'Tom Carpenter made a break in the seventh heat. 
Grand R. won it. The race then went over. That 
night Dr. McCoy and a few others got me out of bed 
and wanted to do something. They wanted it all. 
I could not see it that way so I told them to help 
themselves. Tom won. His eighth heat was the 
fastest he trotted. 

"When the boy cashed he told me the cat did it, 
and said she was then with Fanny Wilcox. Fanny 
was the favorite in her race. She won in straight 

"That made three firsts for the cat. Next day, 
when I was getting ready to ship, the boy with Tom 
Carpenter looked me up and said 'Come over to the 
barn. I want to show you something/ I went and 
found the cat in the stall occupied by the black colt, 
Belmont Prince. He was in a three-year-old race. 
No one had ever heard of him, while two of the 
other starters were rated up to 2 :20, which was fast 
in those days. 

"By that time the cat was beginning to get me. 
In the betting ring I saw a couple of strangers buy- 
ing a few tickets on Belmont Prince. As soon as 
they stopped I took a few. As the colt race was 
the last on the card, I made it my business to see 
Belmont Prince get ready. He went a mile in 2:53. 
When he did not come out again I went to the two 
men who backed him and asked if the driver was 
going another mile. 


"They did not know. I told them that the colt 
could not go in 2:20 from a mile in 2:53. They 
suggested that I talk it over with the man who 
drove him. I did and at the same time told him to 
use my light sulky. He then went out and overdid 
it by trotting the last half in 1:07. 

"I knew if that colt was not a champion he was 
cooked. It did not do him any harm. Belmont 
Prince won, pulled up in 2:21^4. He distanced all 
of the field but one. That night or the next morn- 
ing, George Hossington, the owner and driver, sold 
Belmont Prince for over $10,000." 

"What became of the cat?" asked Hodson as he 
dropped from his perch on the desk and almost upset 
the stove. 

"I don't know," said Hyde. "I think Hossington 
stole it." 


Not since Noah paired the animals in the ark and 
led them out to renew breeding operations after the 
waters subsided has the world seen the equal of 
John E. Madden of Lexington, Ky., in the produc- 
tion and development of race horses. Within thirty- 
five years this powerful athlete has run a shoe- 
string into millions and purchased blue grass farms 
that extend to the horizon when viewed from the 
house in which he lives during the winter months. 

Glancing back into the early eighties those who 
know him can recall when he retired from the cinder 


path and appeared on the trotting turf with the 
gray gelding, Class Leader. He failed to make even 
an impression. Plodding along determinedly he 
soon made his presence felt. Good things began to 
come his way, while before long this restless spirit 
owned or controlled a high class lot of trotters and a 
number of valuable stallions. When he located in 
Kentucky a few resented his intrusion, but before 
long everyone was forced to recognize his ability as 
a dealer, while many of them also adopted his orig- 
inal method of doing business. 

Early in life John E. Madden decided to never sell 
a good horse to a poor man and that axiom frequent- 
ly brought him thousands for selections which in 
other hands would not bring hundreds for the same 
kind of material. The uniform success of the 
horses sold by him put the mintmark of merit 
on his establishment, while the limelight of victory 
followed in his wake not only among the trotters but 
also into the remotest recesses of the thoroughbred 

In the gray mare, Abbie V., Madden had a trotter 
that was only a few seconds shy of being a cham- 
pion and the big horse, Wyandotte, by Artimus, 
died on the verge of a triumph. He also owned an 
interest in Robert McGregor when he sired Cresceus, 
and selected the Kentucky Futurity winner, Siliko, 
as a yearling. 

That the trotter still and always has had a warm 
place in his heart is shown by the careful develop- 
ment given Hamburg Belle, Soprano, and Tenara. 



The splendid series of races which they won brought 
their own reward. Each of them as well as Siliko 
were wintered at Hamburg Place under the Madden 
method, a formula that carried health and strength 
with it, while he also reserved the right to trim their 
feet and shoe them when they were sent away to 
race. No matter where they were on shoeing day 
the Hamburg Place farrier went to them with a set 
of shoes made under their owner's supervision, put 
them on, and departed, leaving Andrews or McCar- 
thy to display the farm's representative on race day. 
Also if the food in the section in which they were 
racing was not up to the standard, hay or grain was 
also sent by express. No item was ever too small 
for Madden to overlook in the preparation of a horse 
for a race. 

When he purchased Hamburg Belle from her 
breeder it was known that she was a very fast mare 
but a confirmed knee knocker and worthless for rac- 
ing on that account. He leveled her feet and shod 
her so she went clear and in 1908 Hamburg Belle 
won five races in the Grand Circuit, one of them 
being the $10,000 Charter Oak Purse at Hartford in 
2:05, 2:06, 2:04%. The next year she defeated 
Uhlan at Cleveland in 2:01 1 / 4, 2:01%, a new race 
record, and was sold the same day for $50,000. 
Soprano, supposed to be fourth in the list of great 
three-year-olds in 1909, became under his manage- 
ment a magnificent race mare, while Tenara, known 
to be unsound, won a number of important events, 
one of them being the twenty-eighth renewal of the 


Charter Oak Purse. 

In the thoroughbred world John E. Madden has 
been equally successful. In that field, however, he 
added production to development and year after 
year a group of prospective winners passed between 
the granite posts at the entrance to Hamburg Place 
en route for the metropolitan tracks. To name the 
list of great race horses that John E. Madden has 
bred or owned would in a measure look like repro- 
ducing a handful of pages from the racing guide. 
He has had horses of all sizes, colors and ages, but 
in his own estimation the greatest of all was Ham- 
burg, which he honored by annexing his name to 
the place he calls home. He was followed by Yankee ; 
King James ; Sir Martin, who came very near win- 
ning the English Derby; Salvidere; The Finn; Old 
Rosebud; Sir Barton; Zev, and a host of others. 
From 1917 to the close of 1927 Madden-bred horses 
won 3,811 races, a remarkable record, probably 
never approached anywhere. During that period 
Hamburg Place was each year credited with more 
winners than any other breeding establishment. 

The success of John E. Madden can be attributed 
to the faith that he has in his work as well as the 
constant care which he gives all of the horses that 
he breeds or owns. When he breeds a horse or pur- 
chases one on the strength of his blood lines he does 
so with the knowledge of the fact that the sire 
plants the seed and if the sire is a failure, the colt 
is also very apt to follow suit. The germ of speed 
is in the seed of the sire. If it is not there the 


produce of the greatest mare will fail. This with 
the thorough understanding that the family is 
greater than the individual and that a fair horse of 
a good family is more apt to succeed in the stud 
than a champion of a black sheep family is the 
foundation stone of his establishment. There is, 
however, still another wheel in the cog work of his 
success. It is the range given the colt while fol- 
lowing his dam and after weaning time and his 
training after being taken in hand. Without the 
latter a good race horse is of no more value than 
an ordinary one. If it is not conducted properly he 
will drop still lower in the scale and his greatest 
efforts will under such conditions result in disap- 
pointments and losses. Under the Madden method 
it begins with regular feeding of nutritous food, all 
of which has been sampled freely and analyzed as 
to content and particularly as to food value and 
moisture. This is followed up with constant reports 
on the behavior of each horse night and day, es- 
pecially during the nights of days on which he has 
been worked or raced. 

From the time that the work of the stable ap- 
proaches racing speed each individual is studied 
constantly and given the exercise that his condition 
warrants. No two get the same kind of a prepara- 
tion. The delicate or unsound ones are handled 
with kid gloves, while the gluttons are fed and 
worked accordingly, the former being walked and 
breezed, while the latter are sent out for one or 
sometimes two repeats and finish flying. 


At feeding time and especially after being worked 
each member of the stable is watched as carefully 
as a sick child in a convalescent ward and the man- 
ner in which they dispose of their rations noted and 
reported. This is the "open sesame" of success as 
no one knows better than John E. Madden that the 
best horse that ever wore a shoe cannot defeat a 
plater if he is not eating and digesting his food 
properly. Also when trouble comes as it will in 
the form of sprains, bowed tendons, and all that 
sort of thing, the miracle man of the turf does not 
fly for the firing iron or a violent irritant. On the 
other hand he applies a cooling lotion with cotton 
and bandage, trims down the feet after removing 
the shoes to get proper frog pressure, and gives the 
afflicted one a couple of hours' run in the morning 
and afternoon in a paddock. By this method the 
fever is removed and Nature given an opportunity to 
repair the injury. It may take a little time to do 
this, but it will usually save the horse for future 

One day an anxious owner accosted John E. Mad- 
den and asked him for a little advice in regard to 
a valuable colt that had a complaining leg, and 
wanted his opinion in regard to applying a blister. 
Without going to look at the horse Madden told him 
that he would get better results if he applied a light 
blister where the saddle is placed on the colt's back, 
as it would insure a rest for two or three weeks and 
by that time a cooling lotion would remove the fever. 

John E. Madden's method of breeding, feeding, 


care and training are the four sides of the keystone 
of his success as a racing magnate. No one ever 
hears of his failures if he has any, while there has 
never been a year that the acid test of the race track 
failed to award him his share of winners even after 
he permitted his friends to select what they con- 
sidered the best in the paddocks at Hamburg Place. 
The records also show that no man will pay more 
money for a good horse than John E. Madden and 
no one has ever sold as many for the high dollar as 
the owner of Hamburg Place. 


There is a very narrow margin between victory 
and defeat in many races. Over-confidence has put 
many a driver on the mourners' bench. A mistake 
in getting a horse ready for a race frequently re- 
sults in a defeat. 

The only way to defeat a fast horse in a heat race 
is to carry the battle to him and hang on as far as 
you can go. At times when the horses are evenly 
matched and the fielders unite to pull down the fav- 
orite a fresh horse is detailed to carry him each heat 
and then combine in what will be the final if he 
wins it. The matter of leaving the decision to a 
brush in the last quarter only catches those who are 
not up to much. A skillful man will go along with 
a fast horse and when the teamster depending on a 
brush pulls out he has nothing to go with. 

In 1924, at Columbus, there was a remarkable 


contest when Fayette National defeated Etta Druien 
after she landed a heat in 2: 02 14. Murphy drove 
Etta Druien. When referring to the race he said: 
"I cannot remember a horse hanging on like Fayette 
National did in the first heat when the speed rate 
was so rapid. I thought I could slip away from him 
in the third quarter, which we trotted in 29 14 sec- 
onds, but the gelding was striding at Etta Druien's 
head and never seemed willing to let up. Had Mc- 
Kay let me get away from him I would have had a 
chance to ease up the filly and that might have won 
the next heat for her. As it was I had to race every 
foot of that heat and the next one and finally Fay- 
ette National wore my horse down. If McKay had 
made a single mistake he would have been beaten." 

Drivers who are in the habit of pulling up and 
letting the winner jog in should read the above para- 
graph before going into a race. If they are bothered 
with a short memory it would not do any harm to- 
paste it on the inside of their driving caps. At least 
they should never forget that the only way to defeat 
a fast horse is to force him up to the top of his. 
speed and keep him going to the end of the route. 

The trailer has a greater incentive to go on than 
the pacemaker. He has a horse in front of him to 
catch. The leader is also tormented by the steady 
footfall of the horse shadowing him. He has no way 
of knowing how much speed he has in reserve, while 
his driver must be ready at all times to stall off a 
brush. The majority of horses can make but one 
fast brush in a heat. When it is used the bolt i& 


shot. If a fresh horse comes along the leader is 

When training a horse or when getting him ready 
for a race, a driver touches the danger point when 
he permits him to move up to the limit of his speed 
for a long distance. A sample of this occurred at 
Lexington. That season Geers was chasing a trot- 
ter that trimmed him at every town. Prior to the 
Lexington race a friend looked up "Marse Ed" and 
asked him if he had a chance. Geers shook his 
head. As he turned to leave his friend said, "When 
the favorite was warming up, I timed him a quarter 
in thirty seconds." 

"Are you sure of that?" said Geers. 

When his friend said there was no doubt of it the 
veteran reinsman said, "I will beat him today." He 

When a horse is required to do anything out of the 
ordinary during a race he is very apt to tilt the 
margin of victory against him. The most glaring 
sample of this was seen in Chicago in 1883. That 
was the year that John Murphy brought out Ma- 
jolica. In his first race at Fleetwood Park, New 
York, the Startle gelding won from Judge Davis, 
Phallas, Frank G., and Peach in 2:17, the fastest 
time ever made by a green trotter in a race up to 
that date. The following week Majolica won the 
Clay Stake at Albany from Phallas and four others 
in 2:1914. He also won at Washington, Phallas 
being again second. 

From that point the horse was shipped to Chicago. 


Majolica was started there with Phallas, Felix, and 
Index. He won the first heat in 2:17. On the next 
trip the starter, Charles Smith, gave the word and 
rang the bell by mistake. Murphy went over the 
course. At the time the rules did not require the 
other competitors to do so. The time for the heat 
was 3:41. 

When Majolica was pulled up the other horses 
were standing on the stretch. When Murphy re- 
turned to the judges' stand the starter asked if he 
would then score for the third heat or claim the 
time fixed between heats by the rules. Murphy 
agreed to go on. Majolica lost the third heat to 
Phallas in 2:16 1 / 4. After the heat he was very much 
distressed. He also lost the race in 2:20, 2:21 14. 


The present system of racing originated in 
matches, the first being friendly brushes on the road 
or turnpikes, followed by wagers on tracks which 
were built for the contests. In time stands were 
added so that the spectators, who flocked to the trial 
grounds, could see the races. For years they w T ere 
free to all comers, but finally a thrifty individual 
began to make a charge to meet the up-keep, while 
at a later date someone thought of enclosing the 
grounds and charging an admission fee. Individuals 
and clubs also offered cups and plate for special 
events and when the track management began col- 
lecting money at the gate and grandstand, they also 


offered purses as an inducement for owners to enter 
and start their horses. 

No form of racing in the early days created so 
much enthusiasm as a genuine match, as was shown 
by the race between American Eclipse and Henry, 
which before it was contested became a battle be- 
tween the north and the south. When the trotters 
began performing under saddle they adopted the 
same method as the gallopers and it was continued 
after races to harness were introduced. In the days 
of Topgallant, Dutchman, Ripton and Lady Suffolk, 
if a match was made, it was for money and it was 
deposited before the horses took the word, or there 
was no race. These were the kind of events that 
enthused the old-time followers of light harness rac- 
ing on Long Island, one of the most spectacular 
being the flash between Pocahontas and Hero over 
the Union Course in 1855 for $2,000, when the 
pacing queen to wagon distanced her rival in the 
first heat in 2:171/2 an d * n so doing established a 
world's record that' remained unbeaten to any hitch 
until 1869. 

When the horses began to drift from the eastern 
tracks, there were so few of them in the first flight 
that their managers planned a series of hippo- 
dromes. The first set of these sham battles was 
staged in 1859 with Flora Temple and Princess as 
the stars. James D. McMann won all of them with 
the little bob-tailed mare, while James L. Eoff man- 
aged the affair and divided the receipts. 

Eoff was a California product, or at least he first 


attracted attention in that state. He was fortunate 
enough to play a return engagement of the same 
kind in 1866 with George M. Patchen, Jr., when 
Budd Doble had Dexter. In that year they trotted 
twelve of those matches, which was also the same 
number credited to Flora Temple and Princess. Of 
course Dexter won, while "Dismal Jimmy" gathered 
in his share of the spoil with a horse that scarcely 
had speed enough to see which way Dexter went if 
his speed had been turned on in any of the events. 

This gave Doble the cue in handling Goldsmith 
Maid. During the ten years he had her before the 
public, he took her on several barnstorming expedi- 
tions. The first was pulled off in 1869, when she 
won six races from American Girl. In 1871 and 
1872 she trotted a series of twelve races with Lucy, 
both of the mares being owned by H. N. Smith, al- 
though the public was not aware of it. In 1874 the 
perennial Goldsmith Maid came through again in 
half a dozen races with Judge Fullerton, while in 
1877 she made a tour of the California tracks with 

By this time the public began to have doubts in 
regard to the genuineness of trotting turf matches 
and the series which W. H. Crawford planned for 
Jay Eye See and Phallas, with other horses, when 
he was managing the Case stable in the early 
eighties, did not improve matters. Still a few of 
them were genuine, although their value was nearly 
always multiplied by two or four before the public 
was invited to see the contest. On this trip Jay 


Eye See defeated the old champion, St. Julien, over 
Fleetwood Park, New York, while he also defeated 
Majolica at Pittsburgh and Cleveland. At Roches- 
ter the clever people from Wisconsin struck a snag 
when they started Phallas against Trinket. The 
latter was then being trained by John E. Turner and 
on the day of the race he gave J. I. Case $500 to 
put on Phallas for him. After that no one could 
get a ticket away from the Case family. Those 
who were in with Turner took the other end. 
Trinket won in straight heats. Turner had Trinket 
up to record form and no one knew it but himself. 

In 1885, Phallas started in a real contest at 
Cleveland, on July 4, when W. B. Fasig succeeded 
in bringing together that formidable representative 
of the Dictator family and Maxie Cobb, the two 
champion stallions. The bills stated that the race was 
for $15,000, but whether it was or not does not make 
any difference as it was a battle royal until Maxie 
Cobb showed the white feather in the second heat. 
The time was 2:14, 2:15% and 2:20%, at a period 
when the stallion record against time was 2:13 1 / 4. 

In 1889 there was another genuine sporting 
match on the program at Lexington, Ky. That year 
A. L. McCrea, Jr., of Gouverneur, N. Y., offered to 
match the yearling filly, Stamina, by Patron, against 
any foal of the same age in Kentucky for $2,500 a 
side. Bowerman Brothers accepted the challenge 
and named Axminster, by Wilton. McCrea also- 
went to Kentucky to race them and won in 2:44%, 
three days after Stamina defeated a couple of other 


youngsters in a purse race for $750. 

Since that time match races for large amounts 
have not been very numerous, as races take the most 
of a horse's time, while owners are not disposed to 
risk the amount required to bring two good horses 
together in an event in which one of them must 
lose half of the wager. C. A. McCully, however, 
succeeded in 1901 in bringing together two cham- 
pions when he had Cresceus and The Abbott take 
the word for $12,000 at Brighton Beach. 

They were race horses of different types, Cresceus 
being of the bull dog variety that went away from 
the word with the whizz of a cannon ball and fin- 
ished without knowing where the wire was. The 
Abbott, on the other hand, wanted to be eased away 
with a silk glove and when under way had two- 
minute speed for the balance of the trip. 

All New York was out to see them go. It looked 
like another American Eclipse and Henry day. On 
the first trip they raced like trotting machines, 
Cresceus winning in 2: 03 14. In the second Cresceus 
shot away true to form. The clip made The Abbott 
leave his feet and as he broke his check before get- 
ting back on his stride, he was distanced. Cresceus 
won as he pleased in 2:06 1 / 4. Twenty minutes later 
he trotted another mile in 2:05. 

The last trotting match for big money was de- 
cided over Charter Oak Park at Hartford when 
Lord Derby and Boralma met on August 2, 1902, 
for $20,000. Boralma won the first heat in 2:08 
and went amiss in the second, which Geers won 


with Lord Derby in 2:09^. Two more heats were 
trotted by Lord Derby in 2:1814 an d 3:44 in order 
to comply with the terms of the match. Since that 
date two record-breaking matches were staged at 
North Randall, Ohio. The first was between Ham- 
burg Belle and Uhlan on August 25, 1909, when the 
daughter of Axworthy and Sally Simmons defeated 
the Bingen gelding in 2:01^4 on the first trip and 
distanced him in the second in 2:01%. W. J. An- 
drews drove the winner. He also had the mount 
behind Lee Axworthy when he defeated Peter Volo 
over the same course in 1916. Both of them were 
then four-year-olds, and up to that time Peter Volo 
was unbeaten. He won the first heat in 2:02 but 
lost the next two in 2: 03 14 and 2:041/4. Peter Volo 
retired from the turf with the mark that he made 
that day. Lee Axworthy trained on to a record of 
1:58!4., being the first trotting stallion to enter the 
two-minute list. 


When Dell McLean came east to Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y., to identify the horse Jack London, he referred 
to the days in his career when light harness racing 
was in the wild and woolly era in Oklahoma. At one 
meeting in an embryo town, a new starter appeared. 
He was sharp featured, slim built and walked with 
a limp. He looked more like a school teacher than 
a man who would step out in front of a judges' 
stand and lay down the racing law to a lot of drivers, 


any one of whom would cut down a man or run over 
the top of him if he thought he could make a dollar. 

On the first day, everything ran as smooth as oil. 
Each of the drivers seemed to be doing his level 
best to make it pleasant for the starter. The horse 
that Dell was racing was in the first race the second 
day. And as he remarked: "I made a bet on him 
for the first heat. After two scores, the word was 
given with my horse turned the wrong way of the 
track. Of course, I wheeled him around, set him 
a-going and managed to beat the flag. After pulling 
up, I jogged back to the stand and what I said to 
that starter would not look well in print. 

"He never replied and no one said a word. When 
I said my piece, I drove over to the stables. While 
the horse was being unhitched, the man who had a 
pacer in the next stall came over. He looked at me 
for a minute and when I began telling him a few 
things about the start and what 1 said to the starter, 
he smiled and asked me if I knew the starter. When 
I told him I did not and did not want to, he said, 
'Well, possibly you may. It is Frank James/ 

" 'Who/ said I, and I could almost feel the hair on 
my head stand on end. 'You do not mean Jesse 
James' brother/ 

" 'That is just who it is/ was the reply as he 
walked away towards the grandstand. 

"I could see that a few of the other drivers and 
grooms were whispering and looking towards me, 
so when the horse was put in the stall, I began to 
rummage around in a trunk for a big revolver which 


the grooms used to scare tramps off the trains when 
shipping. It was loaded and I slipped it in my hip 

"When my next heat was called, I told the groom 
to lead the horse down to the stand. I followed be- 
hind the sulky. As I approached the stand, I saw 
the starter come down the stairs. When he stepped 
on the track, I turned towards him with my right 
hand on the handle of the gun. 

"Of course, he saw what I did but Frank James 
never faltered. Walking towards me, he said scarcely 
above a whisper, 'Don't draw. If I wanted to get 
you, I would have winged you when you moved your 
hand. All that I came down for was to apologize for 
overlooking you when I gave the word in the last 

"The way he said it took all of the pep out of me. 
As I turned away without even accepting his apology 
he said in the same tone of voice, If you are not 
carrying that gun to make weight, leave it with 
the clerk of the scales until after the heat/ 

"I did." 



The last of the old guard among the trotting horse 
breeders of Kentucky passed when Lister Wither- 
spoon died at his farm near Midway in 1925. When 
he started in the business the average man was 
groping in the dark when looking for speed lines 
and he continued until a trotter raced into the two- 
minute list. 

In October during the "trots" at Lexington, Lister 
Witherspoon called at Henry B. Rea's box to inquire 
about Reamore, one of the products of his farm. 
When referring to this Guy Axworthy colt he said, 
"I bred six generations of his family and all of them 
in the female line produced speed." 

Between heats the breeder of Fanny Witherspoon 
and Aldine, both of which w T ere Grand Cricuit stars, 
said : "I began breeding trotters after the war be- 
tween the states. One of my first brood mares was 
by Johnson's Toronto, a son of Kinkead's St. Law- 
rence, the sire of the dam of the famous brood mare, 
Waterwitch. She produced Mambrino Gift, the first 
stallion to trot in 2:20. My mare was Mother Hub- 
bard. Richard Johnson, who lived near George- 
town, bred her. He sold her to R. A. Alexander for 
Woodburn Farm. While owned there she had foals 
by Alexander's Abdallah, Norman and Edwin For- 
rest. I got her in 1872 and sent her to Almont. In 
1873 she produced the brown filly, Aldine. 

"The fact that I bred this filly gave me more 
pleasure than all of the other horses I raised. This 


was on account of what William H. Vanderbilt did 
with her. I raced Aldine and won. Later on she 
passed through several hands to Frank Noble and 
John Sheppard of Boston, who sold her to W. H. 
Vanderbilt in 1882, the day she made her record of 
2:19*4 at Hartford. 

"At that time Mr. Vanderbilt owned Maud S. 
and Early Rose. Both of these mares were bred 
near me. Early Rose was foaled at Georgetown. 
James Elliott of Philadelphia purchased her and sold 
her to Mr. Vanderbilt after racing her a few years. 
She had a record of 2:20 1 / 4. Maud S. was bred at 
Woodburn Farm. She was sold at auction to a man 
named Bugher of Cincinnati. Bugher died the fol- 
lowing year and Captain George Stone purchased 
the Harold filly. Stone named her Maud S. after 
his daughter. 

"W. W. Bair trained Maud S. over Chester Park, 
a half mile track near Cincinnati. Stone sold Maud 
S. to W. H. Vanderbilt after she defeated Trinket at 
Chicago. In that race Maud S. trotted a third heat 
in 2:13 1 /2> which was for a long time the world's 
race record for four-year-old trotters. 

"When Aldine was added to the Vanderbilt stable 
Bair had Maud S. and Early Rose at Charter Oak 
Park. He hitched Aldine with Early Rose and drove 
them a mile in 2:161/2- This was a quarter of a sec- 
ond faster than the world's record. It was held by 
Frank Work's team, Edward and Dick Swiveller. 

"At that time the rivalry between the Vanderbilt 
and Work stables was keen. The air was full of 


challenges for a race as soon as it was announced 
that Aldine and Early Rose trotted in 2:16^. 
Nothing came of it. 

"The following year Mr. Vanderbilt put an end 
to the controversy when he drove to Fleetwood Park 
from his city stable behind Maud S. and Aldine and 
to an ordinary road hitch trotted a mile in 2:15 1 / / 2- 
It was the greatest amateur performance ever seen 
up to that time and was not beaten by a profes- 
sional until 1890, when W. J. Andrews drove Belle 
Hamlin and Justina in 2:15 at Terre Haute. Their 
owner and breeder, C. J. Hamlin, also drove this 
pair a mile in 2:13^ over the kite track at Inde- 
pendence, Iowa, the same year. 

"The Mother Hubbard family, to which Aldine 
belonged, gave me Betsey Baker, 2:30, by Dictator. 
She produced a number of foals, several of which 
raced. From her flock I reserved The Flower Belle, 
by Expedition. She had several trotters. From 
her I kept Harvest Belle, by Arion. She was mated 
with Peter the Great and produced Maru, 2:29V2> 
the dam of Reamore. 

"In the old days I had a mare by Gough's Wagner 
named Lizzie Witherspoon. Today on her breeding 
you could not get a dollar for her. In 1873 I bred 
her to Almont and she produced a chestnut filly. 
She was named Fanny Witherspoon. Crit Davis 
won a race with her at Louisville in 1880. From 
his stable she passed to Commodore Kitson. He 
owned her in 1884 when she trotted in 2 :1614. Splan 
marked her. She was a good race mare. While on 


the turf Fanny Witherspoon defeated such horses as 
St. Julien, Edwin Thorne, Santa Claus, Driver, Rob- 
ert McGregor and Monroe Chief. That sounds splen- 
did, but with me her showing never measured up 
to what Aldine did with Maud S. at Fleetwood Park 
in 1883 when W. H. Vanderbilt drove the pair to a 
top road wagon in 2:15 1 /2-" 


Christmas does not bring as much outdoor enjoy- 
ment to the horsemen of to-day as it did thirty-five 
or forty years ago, when every city and town in the 
north country had its afternoon session of racing 
on the snow. Today the trotters and pacers have 
their activities limited to the race track. In the 
old days racing was a side issue, while driving on 
the road was the incentive which prompted men to 
purchase and use them. 

The auto and the hard surfaced street which fol- 
lowed in its wake put a stop to road driving. When 
the road wagons with red wheels and black bodies 
were laid away, the sleighs with the robes and bells 
soon followed. 

In the eighties and for that matter up to 1910 the 
cities north of the Mason and Dixon line set aside 
each winter a street for racing on the snow. Every 
afternoon its curbs were lined with enthusiastic 
spectators who never grew weary applauding the 
fleet-footed trotters and pacers as they flashed by, 
hitched to sleighs of every description. 


Seventh and Jerome Avenues were the battle 
grounds in New York. Those who saw the throngs 
on those streets will never forget it. So long as 
there was sleighing they were crowded with every 
type of horse that was ever bred or imported to this 
continent. While the trotters and pacers were the 
most numerous the owners of other kinds drove to 
the Avenue so that they could mix in and also see 
the sport. 

Those who were familiar with the faces of the 
more famous road riders and especially the members 
of the "sealskin brigade" passed the word along as 
they saw W. H. Vanderbilt glide by behind Maud 
S. and Aldine or Early Rose, with which the Almont 
mare was frequently hitched. Attention would also 
be drawn to Robert or David Bonner as one or both 
of them whizzed up the avenue. 

They were in time followed by Frank Work be- 
hind Edward and Dick Swiveller, at one time the 
world's champion road team, or Colonel Lawrence 
Kipp, behind one of his prize-winning pair of trot- 
ters. These names also recall many who were on 
the road in those days. The group included A. New- 
bold Morris, Charles Kerner, J. B. Houston, John D. 
Rockefeller and his brother William, Jack Dawson, 
Henry T. Mali, Hugh J. Grant, George Sistare, Shep- 
pard F. Knapp, John Quinn, and the popular old- 
time road house proprietor, Gabe Case. 

All of the bright lights of road racing were not, 
however, confined to New York. Boston was al- 
ways a formidable rival. For years John Sheppard 


was one of the leaders in the "Hub." With James 
Golden to select his horses, this enthusiastic reins- 
man more than held his own behind Mill Boy, Blon- 
dine, Reina, Arab and Senator L. 

Worcester and Springfield each had a battle 
ground. The members of the old guard in Hartford 
still speak with enthusiasm of the days when Wil- 
liam B. Smith showed the way on Washington Street 
with his natty little black stallion, Thomas Jefferson. 

In Maine, Waterville still glows with the spirit 
aroused by C. H. Nelson. The leaders which he 
raced on Silver Street included Aubine and the stal- 
lion, Nelson, which he made a champion. 

For years Utica, Syracuse and Rochester had snow 
paths on which the horsemen battled for supremacy. 
In Utica, Charley Green and M. G. Thompson were 
the leaders, while at Syracuse A. J. Feek and his 
friends were always well in front. George Archer, 
Fred Cook and Burt Sheldon kept the light burning 
in Rochester. They always had plenty of speed 
with which to meet all comers. 

Delaware Avenue was the battle ground in Buf- 
falo. It gave C. J. Hamlin ample opportunity to 
display the style and beauty of the Almonts which 
he was then sending out from the Village Farm. 
C. J. Dunbar also appeared behind Johnston, the 
champion pacer of his day, and Perry Taylor with 
Mascot, the first horse to pace in 2:04. 

The battle ground in Cleveland was on Euclid 
Avenue. Its broad lawns gave the spectators ample 
opportunity to see the horses race and admire the 


skill of such old time road drivers as Colonel Wil- 
liam Edwards, W. J. Gordon, C. F. Emery, Melville 
Hanna, Cyrus Bosworth, and scores of others who 
answered the bell years ago. On this street Harry 
Devereux frequently displayed the skill as a reins- 
man which subsequently made him so conspicuous 
in the amateur ranks. 

A trip by Ed Smith's was for years the goal in 
Chicago. In that city James Murphy made his pres- 
ence felt by appearing, behind a triple team of pacers 
that flashed down the road like a runaway. No one 
ever tried that at any other point on a public street, 
although C. J. Hamlin did succeed in making a 
world's record to that kind of hitch at Cleveland in 
1891, when Geers drove the trotters Belle Hamlin, 
Globe and Justina in 2:14. 

In this way the trail could be followed westward 
to Milwaukee, St. Paul and Minneapolis, where there 
is still ice racing on the lakes, Kansas City, Omaha, 
and other cities in which the horsemen each winter 
raced on the snow. Finally the crowded conditions 
of the city streets shunted the horse to speed- 
ways. From there they moved to the race tracks, 
where the amateur end of the sport was soon blended 
with the professional. The road horse either be- 
came a race horse or disappeared. With them went 
the pleasure of driving on the road. 

Road riding had its mission. It made the trotter 
a reality. The pacer, a by-product, followed. The 
race tracks became their goal. Today they are to 
be found in the track stables scattered all over North 


America. Each summer they entertain thousands 
by their contests on the turf, while at Christmas 
time a few old gray heads gather around the hearth 
and tell of the glorious battles on the snow in the 
days that are gone forever. 


In 1849, when the call of the gold turned the 
world's mind towards California and lured thousands 
from their eastern homes across the isthmus or over 
the plains on horseback or under the canvas of a 
prairie schooner, St. Clair was six years old and eat- 
ing his fodder in a stable near Springfield, 111. He 
was a dark brown horse with the usual tan mark- 
ings, about fifteen and a half hands high, and 
weighed a trifle over a thousand pounds in fair con- 

When the gold fever rolled along the banks of the 
Sangamon River the breeder of St. Clair gave the 
horse to one of his sons before he moved toward 
the setting sun to seek his fortune in the Sacra- 
mento valley. From that day all trace of the horse 
was lost, while even the name of his breeder as well 
as the name of the man who drove him in the lead 
of an ox-team into the town now known as Placer- 
ville, Cal., in the fall of 1849 is unknown. 

The only link connecting the gallant pacer that 
founded a little racing family in the gold country 
with the prairies of Illinois is an old man's repeti- 
tion of a conversation on a street in Sacramento in 


1853 when Peter Roberts, who at that time owned 
St. Clair and was working him in a dray, was stopped 
by a stranger, who said he brought the horse to 
California. Roberts made a memorandum of what 
the stranger said in regard to the history and the 
breeding of St. Clair, but it was burned before any- 
one interested in the light harness horse made an 
inquiry in regard to it. This made St. Clair an un- 
known quantity in his little world which was limited 
to Sacramento and that vicinity until he was in 1864, 
like his pedigree, destroyed by fire. 

The above is all that will ever be known of the 
early career of St. Clair, a name that was also tacked 
on to him late in life by a pedigree maker, who after 
favoring him with an inheritance resplendent with 
Morgan and Canadian pacing blood, also fixed the 
place of his birth as St. Clair, Mich. His opportuni- 
ties in the stud were limited as in his day the only 
horses in the Sacramento valley were either native 
stock of Spanish descent or whatever the "forty- 
niners" brought with them. Still from that source 
when the final roll call was made, St. Clair was 
credited in the matter of racing speed with the clever 
performer, Lady St. Clair, a pacer that won at five 
miles to wagon in 12:54% in 1874 and retired with 
a record of 2:20; Ben Butler, 2:191,4; Jim McCue, 
2:30; as well as the trotters, Mayfly, 2:3014, and 
Mayflower, 2:30i/ 2 . 

In the seventies, when Leland Stanford placed 
Electioneer at the head of Palo Alto, he purchased 
the St. Clair mares, Melinche, Mayfly and Mayflow- 


er. They were mated with Electioneer and each of 
them produced champion trotters. Fred Crocker 
was Electioneers first 2:30 trotter. He was out of 
Melinche and in 1880 placed the world's record for 
two-year-olds at 2:25 1 / 4- The following year May- 
flower contributed another two-year-old champion 
when Wildflower trotted in 2:21. In 1883 the May- 
fly filly, Bonita, reduced the four-year-old record to 
2:18 1 / 4, while three years later, Manzanita, a sister 
of Wildflower, cut it to 2:16. These were the colt 
trotters that made Palo Alto famous. They also 
paved the way for Sunol, Palo Alto, Arion and the 
other record breakers. 

Before he started breeding trotters, Governor 
Stanford owned and developed California's first 
champion, the brown gelding, Occident. He was by 
Doc, a son of St. Clair. In 1873 he equalled the 
world's trotting record of 2:16%, which w T as then 
held by Goldsmith Maid. His record was also the 
fastest made by a descendant of St. Clair in the male 
line, while in the maternal line the pacer, Yolo Maid, 
carried the limit down to 2:12. She was a handsome 
brown mare with two-minute speed for a brush. 
Marcus Daly sent her east in 1891 to defeat Hal 
Pointer and failed. 

Yolo Maid's dam was by Dietz's St. Clair, a horse 
that also sired the dams of Mabel H., 2:20, and Gen- 
eral Logan, 2:2314. With them the St. Clair fam- 
ily passed into the shadow. Like a pocket it gave all 
of its golden speed quickly, the finest nuggets being 
treasured at Palo Alto, where the descendants of the 


Sacramento dray horse found a place among the 
seats of the mighty. 


A glance through the names of the leading drivers 
shows that a number of them remained in the spot- 
light for years, while there were others who flut- 
tered into the sunshine for three or four seasons 
with one horse and then disappeared forever. The 
latter can be rated as one horse men, who found a 
trotter that had sufficient speed to warrant a trial 
with the leaders. 

W. W. Bair is the most conspicuous driver on this 
list. He started in the business as a young man and 
was for a time associated with John E. Turner and 
W. H. Doble, being at one time a partner of the 
latter. He failed to find a horse that could earn his 
oats. Moving from Philadelphia to Evansville, Ind., 
Bair remained there two years before locating at 
Chester Park, near Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1876. The 
following year Captain Stone, a resident of Cincin- 
nati, made arrangements with him to develop the 
three-year-old filly, Maud S. Bair took her in hand 
and after weeks of patient work broke her to har- 

As the weeks ran into months and the months into 
years, the name of Maud S. became a household 
word. Bair not only succeeded in making her a 
clever race mare but also a champion that dimmed 
the lustre of St. Julien and Jay Eye See, and finally 


retired her with a world's record of 2:08% to high 
wheels, while as a four-year-old she made a race 
record of 2:13i/2 * n a third heat. 

Eight years elapsed from the time that Bair took 
Maud S. until he returned her to Robert Bonner's 
stable in New York, after her record-breaking mile 
in 2:08% at Cleveland in 1885 and her failure to 
change the figures at Providence, where she trotted 
a half in 1:03 and made a break in the third quar- 
ter. Bair's next efforts as a trainer were with West- 
mont, Lorene and McLeod for Frank Siddall of 
Philadelphia. They were raced out before he took 
them, while none of the other horses which he 
trained after that date attracted attention. 

In 1877 W. Van Valkenberg defeated Barbara 
Patchen and Phyllis with Mars in a three-year-old 
race at Ogdensburg, N. Y., in 2:50%. At that time 
it did not look as if the big, brown filly, by Phil 
Sheridan, would ever cut much of a figure in the 
racing world. Still by training her consistently, 
Charles Wagner, a sturdy Canadian farmer, made 
a place for Phyllis in the turf records, and at the 
same time won a comfortable fortune, which he 

Wagner did not look like a racing man or at least 
one that would be successful in the sulky. His 
square frame, stolid face and full beard appeared 
very much out of place under a peaked cap. Still he 
made good, not because he was a clever reinsman 
tut because he and Phyllis understood each other 
and she kept trotting when " he wound her up." 


After spinning around the half-mile tracks for 
six years, Phyllis appeared in the Grand Circuit in 
1882 and came back regularly for four seasons. Her 
best showing was in 1885, when after winning in 
Texas, Wagner swooped down on the talent with a 
thud. That season Phyllis won fourteen races out 
of twenty-two starts and finished second in seven, 
while she also gave Cleveland such a jolt that the 
statue of Moses Cleaveland in the public square 
trembled for a week. 

A few days prior to the Cleveland meeting Wag- 
ner and his trotter dropped into town. After get- 
ting located he hired a boat and began giving 
Phyllis swimming lessons in Lake Erie instead of 
working her on the track. Those who saw the 
acquatic exhibitions off Gordon Park took it for 
granted that the mare's racing days were about 
over and when she came out to start against Clem- 
mie G., who had defeated her at Detroit, and Maud 
Messenger, they bet accordingly. Wagner with his 
Croker like face and whiskers kept his own council. 
He made a killing as after Clemmie G. gathered in 
the first heat in 2:171,4, he went on and won in 
2:15%, 2:1614, 2:1714. At the close of 1886, after 
she had been started in one hundred and two races, 
of which she won fifty-seven and was second in 
twenty-three, Wagner sold Phyllis for export. She 
died on the Atlantic. 

In 1886, while soliciting entries for the Cleveland 
fall meeting, W. B. Fasig found another one horse 
man at Wheeling, W. Va. He was a small, elderly 


individual with a full beard, and a silent, far-away 
expression. He signed the entry H. D. Kyger, Darr- 
town, Ohio, and named Kit Curry in the forty trot. 
Kyger shipped to Cleveland and won after a two 
days' session. He also made a good winning on the 
race, although all of the others hedged. It prompted 
him to go on with the little brown mare for five 
years, during which he made three trips through the 
Grand Circuit and gave her a record of 2:18V£. 

Week after week, the silent little man sat at the 
door of Kit Curry's stall, rarely venturing a word 
with anyone but at all times seeing that his trotter 
was ready for the fray. He never spared her on 
race day. In fact, it is doubtful if any trotter that 
ever appeared in public received as much punish- 
ment as she did. Still she never resented it and 
was always willing to try in desperately contested 
heats with Gean Smith, Spofford, Susie S. and scores 
of others whose names are almost forgotten. At 
Poughkeepsie, when she defeated Thornless, Pilot 
Knox and David L., that gallant old gentleman, 
Major S. N. Dickinson, offered Kyger enough money 
for Kit Curry to purchase a quarter section of land 
in Ohio, but he shook his head. He would not sell 
the little brown mare and finally after starting her 
in seventy-four races, of which she won twenty-four 
and was second in twenty-seven, he took her back to 
the farm. Kyger tried to find another trotter and 
did race Frank B. He won in 2:15% to the bike 
sulky over the kite track at Sturgis, Mich., but 
failed to show the racing spark of Kit Curry. 


In the early nineties Ohio supplied the trotting 
turf with a unique figure in "Dad" Whitney of 
Chardon. He was tall and slim, with a long beard, 
boyish face and a sparkle in his eye, as well as a 
brand of honesty which some folk said kept him 
poor. Whether it did or not, "Dad" Whitney never 
complained and those who saw him go over the 
range from Illinois to the Atlantic with Fred B. 
have never forgotten him. 

Fred B. was foaled in 1886 and began racing as 
a five-year-old when he made a record of 2:41. He 
gradually reduced this mark to 2:10% after six 
years' racing. In the interval the Reveille gelding 
was started over all Mnds of tracks from sand paths 
to the golden oval at Cleveland and while he was not 
always out in front, it was not because his trainer 
was not trying. 

For four years Fred B.'s racing was confined to 
the half-mile tracks. Finally his owner, who had 
only the winnings of this horse to depend on, made 
a move for the mile rings. While he never jarred 
anyone, "Dad" Whitney was always ready to grab 
a heat at any stage of a race. It was up-hill work 
for Fred B. as week after week Whitney was trying 
to win with a 2:10 trotter from such horses as Grace 
Hastings, Elloree, Athanio, Pilot Boy and Bingen, 
to all of which he was giving three or four seconds. 

In 1896 Fred B. defeated Newcastle at Indianap- 
olis and saved his entrance in the Transylvania. 
In 1898 he also won at Columbus over Tommy Brit- 
ton, Pilot Boy and Dan Cupid in 2:11%. That fall 


after starting in one hundred and three races, of 
which he had won twenty-eight, Whitney consigned 
his old favorite to the Chicago sale, where he was 
purchased by James A. Murphy. His trainer started 
on a still hunt for another trotter of the same cali- 
bre, but failed to find him. 


Webster defines a roan horse as one having bay, 
sorrel or a dark color with spots of gray or white 
thickly interspersed in his coat. Roan is a mixture 
of all the horse colors, the different shades being 
known as black, blue, red, silver or strawberry roan. 
The numerous references to roan horses by the 
early writers shows that they must have been com- 
mon in their day. This has led many to believe that 
roan was the first step from the original dun horse, 
which is still seen in Norway, Sweden, and Central 
Asia to the bay, black, brown, chestnut, and gray of 
the present day. 

Roan thoroughbred horses are very rare, the 
nearest approach to it among the gallopers being a 
sprinkling of white in the coats of bays and chest- 
nuts, especially the latter, when they are freely 
marked with white. When the color appears in 
the light harness horse, it can be traced to an 
ancestor whose breeding is unknown. None of the 
foundation sires, except Tom Hal, were roans. In 
all other families the color was brought in by mares 
of unknown breeding. 


Roan horses have always been distinguished for 
their gameness and endurance. Their success in 
light harness racing, when their number is consid- 
ered, has been phenomenal. The Kentucky Futurity 
was won by the roan fillies, Rose Croix in 1886, 
Nella Jay in 1902, and Baroness Virginia in 1909, 
while Susie J. finished second in 1900, and Tramp- 
fast won the two-year-old division in 1907. 

There were twenty-six roan trotters in the 2:10 
list and thirteen pacers in the 2:05 list at the close 
of 1926. Twenty-one of the trotters trace to the 
roan mares, Lady Franklin, Nell and Laura Fair. 
The breeding of Lady Franklin is unknown, while 
the other two disappear with a roan mare at two 
removes. Of the pacers, the most of them trace 
to the three mares named, Tilla, and the stallion, 
Tom Hal. 

The group of the roan 2:10 performers shows the 
influence that an unknown cross has in the horse 
world. It also demonstrates why breeders hesitate 
before using a horse that has a blank or two in his 

About 1820 a strawberry roan horse was pur- 
chased in Philadelphia. He was called a Canadian. 
This horse was Tom Hal. He appears in the third 
remove of the pedigree of the roan horse, Gibson's 
Tom Hal, whose dam, Julia Johnson, was also a roan. 

Gibson's Tom Hal founded the Hal family of 
pacers. It was the first to beat 2:12 and the first 
to have a representative in the two-minute list. 
Three of Tom Hal's seven performers were roans. 


His descendants show eighteen 2:10 performers of 
the same color. The list includes Roan Hal, 2:00%; 
Alcyfras, 2:031,4; Zulu Hal, 2:03%; Hal S., 2:043/4; 
Roan Wilkes, 2:043/4; Lancelot, 2:05%; Queen Hal, 
2:05%, and Chimes Hal, 2:061/4. In this family 
the roan color frequently disappears and returns 
after one or two generations, as was shown by Zulu 
Hal and Hal S. Both of them were got by bay sons 
of Brown Hal. 

Of the roan mares which transmitted their color, 
Lady Franklin is the most prominent. She made a 
trotting record of 2:2934 in 1864. After being re- 
tired she was mated twice with Mambrino Star. She 
produced Cottage Girl, 2:291/2, and the roan mare, 
Lady Frank. The latter was the dam of the roan 
horse, Jay Bird. He founded a family in which 
there were eighteen roan 2:10 performers. Ten of 
them were trotters and eight pacers. 

In the first remove, Jay Bird is credited with 
Hawthorne, 2:061/4; Dulce Jay, 2:093/4, and Early 
Bird, 2:10, as well as the Kentucky Futurity winner, 
Rose Croix, 2:111/4. Jolly Bird, a roan mare by Jay 
Bird, produced Codero, 2:093/4. Rachel, another 
daughter, is the dam of Bessie Drake, 2:083/4, Vir- 
ginia Reynolds the dam of Baroness Virginia, 
2:0814, and Nimble, the grandam of Bird B., 2:091/4. 
All of them were roan. 

Kentucky lost a great sire when the roan horse, 
Jayhawker, by Jay Bird, died as an eight-year-old. 
He made a record of 2:143/4. During his brief stud 
career he got the roan mare, Susie J., 2:061/2, the 


world's record for four-year-olds when made; the 
Kentucky Futurity winner, Nella Jay, 2:14^, which 
produced the roan horses, Cavalier Gale, 2:08 1 / 4, 
and Director Jay, 2:08^4, as well as Denella, the dam 
of Nella Dillon, 2:05 1 /4, winner of both divisions of 
the Kentucky Futurity. Moonrise, another roan 
mare by Jayhawker, produced the roan horse, Al 
Stanley, 2:0814, who in addition to transmitting his 
coat to the pacer, Ardella, 2:08^, is the sire of Eta- 
wah, 2:03, winner of the Kentucky Futurity and 
Transylvania. Jayfoot Jr., another grandson of Jay 
Bird, is the sire of the roan horse, Moonbeam, 

The line of roan speed from Lady Franklin was 
also continued through The Tramp, a brother of 
Jayhawker. He is the sire of Easton with a three- 
year-old record of 2:06^; Lady Ripples, the dam 
of Peter Buskirk, 2:08*4, over a half-mile track and 
Lady Elmhurst, 2:10, as well as the successful 
sire, Trampfast. The last named was retired to the 
stud after he won the two-year-old division of the 
Kentucky Futurity in 2:12 1 / 4, the race record for 
two-year-olds when made in 1907. Trampfast is 
also passing along his color, the fastest of his roan 
performers being Trampsafe with a three-year-old 
pacing record of 2:02%; Trampabit, 2:07 1 / 4; Bring- 
fast, 2:08%, and Pressfast, 2:09%. 

Laura Fair became connected with turf history 
in 1873 when she produced the roan colt, Keene 
Jim. In 1877 he reduced the four-year-old record 
to 2:241/2, a mark which was subsequently cut to 


2:19!/4 in a race at Buffalo. Laura Fair was by- 
Rattler, her dam being by President, out of a roan 
pacing mare by Copperbottom. Laura Fair also 
produced the roan mare, Maggie Keene. She was 
mated twice with Happy Medium and produced the 
roan mares, Happy Damsel, 2:1614, and Spanish 
Maiden, 2:293/4. 

Spanish Maiden became the dam of two roan colts 
by Baron Wilkes. They were Margrave, 2:151/?, 
and Baron Review. The first named transmitted his 
color to Margate, 2:0814; Princess Margrave, 2:10, 
and Maida Wilkes, 2:091/4. One of her daughters 
produced the roan mare, Margin, 2:05%, with which 
McDonald won the $10,000 event at Detroit in 1909, 
and Princess Margrave is the dam of the roan geld- 
ing, Theodore Guy, 2:0214. Baron Review leads 
the Laura Fair family with fast roan performers. 
He is credited with Baroness Edgewood, 2:03 1 /4; the 
Kentucky Futurity winner, Baroness Virginia, 
2:0814, dam of Baroness Chelsea, 2:1314, and Kate 
Bonner, dam of Hollyrood Kate, 2:0514, the fastest 
roan trotter, and the dam of the roan mare, Holly- 
rood Jacqueline, which in 1927 made a three-year- 
old pacing record of 2:03 3 4. Five trotters and three 
pacers in the 2:10 list trace to Laura Fair. 

Nell is one of the keystone mares in the Trotting 
Register. She produced fifteen foals that either 
made records or produced speed. Nell was foaled in 
1878. She was bred by Caleb Moore, Princeton, 
111. All that is known of her breeding is that she 
was by Estill Eric, a son of Ericsson, whose breeder 


is unknown, out of a roan mare by a son of Embry's 

Nell first attracted attention in 1888, when Belle 
Vara, her fourth foal, made a yearling record of 
2:38. Prior to that date she had produced the 
black filly, Georgette, 2:27, by Count Wilkes; a 
chestnut filly, by Hylas, that died, and the Fayette 
Chief filly, Lissa Ben, which became the dam of 
Lady Carlisle, 2:151/4, and Lissa B., 2:161,4. Nell's 
next three foals were by Vatican. They were Belle 
Vara, 2:08%; the roan horse, Lighthall, 2:251/4, and 
Vassar, another roan with a three-year-old trotting 
record of 2:21% and a pacing record of 2:07. 

S. A. Browne & Co., of Kalamazoo, purchased Nell 
in 1889. While owned in Michigan she produced a 
filly by Anteeo and three foals by Ambassador. The 
Anteeo filly was named La Rose. She produced the 
roan colt, Gray Gem, 2:0914. The Ambassador foals 
were Susie T., 2:093,4; Ambidexter, 2:11%, and Am- 
nell, the dam of Guy Nella, 2:06%; Amie, 2:09%, 
and Aulsbrook, 2:16%. 

Nell passed from Kalamazoo to Shulthurst Farm, 
Port Chester, N. Y., where she dropped five foals by 
Axworthy. All of them were roans, and all made 
records. Nellworthy, the first, was foaled in 1889. 
She trotted in 2:22 and produced Worthy Prince, 
2:06%; Nell Cord, 2:263/4, dam of the roan trotter, 
L. E. O., 2:07%, and Bingen Silk, 2:07%. Nell's 
next foal was Tom Axworthy. He trotted in 2:07. 
Nelaworthy followed in 1901. She trotted in 2:21% 
and produced Nell McLintock, 2:171/2. Nell's foal 


in 1902 was named Nellyworthy. She made a rec- 
ord of 2:25% and is the dam of the roan horse, 
Hayworth, 2:10. Neldaworthy was her last foal. 
She w r as dropped in 1903. After trotting to a rec- 
ord of 2:12 1 /2> Neldaworthy produced the roan 
mares, Prinelda, 2:09 1 /2> and Princess Nelda, 2:14%. 

Nell has seven roan descendants in the 2:10 list. 
Five of them are trotters and two pacers. The trot- 
ters are Tom Axworthy, 2:07; L. E. O., 2:07%; 
Gray Gem, 2:09i/ 2 ; Prinelda, 2:091/2, and Hayworth, 
2:10. The pacers are Vassar, 2:07, and Corvass, 
2:09%, the latter being out of a mare by Vassar. 

The roan mare Tilla was foaled in Tennessee. 
She was by Tattler Chief. The breeding of her 
dam is in doubt. Tilla produced the roan horse, 
Fred S. Wilkes, 2:18. He is represented in the 
2:10 list by the roan horses, Fred S. Wedgewood, 
2:05%; The Contractor, 2:09%, and Tom Calhoun, 

The only other roan mare that left a broad im- 
press of her color on the records of the trotting turf 
was purchased in a New York sale stable by Daniel 
Van Sykle of Wantage, N. J. She was called a 
Morgan. In 1857 this mare was mated with Alex- 
ander's Abdallah. The following year she dropped 
a roan colt. He was known as Wood's Hambletonian. 
During a career of thirty years, this horse was lo- 
cated in a section of Pennslyvania where there were 
few trotting bred horses. Still he founded a family 
which included the old-time roan performers, Mamie 
Woods, 2:20; Nancy Hackett, 2:20; Telephone, 


2:22i/ 2 ; Blue Mare, 2:23; Allegheny Boy, 2:27*4, 
sire of Harry McNair, 2:16, and Chrystine, 2:291,4, 
the dam of the strawberry roan trotter, Mount Mor- 
ris, 2:19i/ 2 - Minnequa Maid, by Wood's Hamble- 
tonian, also produced that splendid race mare, 
Hamlin's Nightingale, 2:08, which reduced the 
three-mile record to 6:55V2; Milan Chimes, 2:13%, 
which dropped dead in a race at Hartford when he 
was up to a mile in 2:10, and Chimes Girl, 2:26, 
the dam of Chilcot, 2:04*4, winner of the Charter 
Oak Purse in 1918. 


"Oh, for a touch of a vanished hand 
And the sound of a voice that is still." 

The above were the lines from Tennyson, that 
flashed through my mind when I heard that John 
Splan died at Lexington, Ky., May 11, 1918. He cer- 
tainly had a glorious career, and one that he built to 
his liking, as nowhere in the history of the turf is 
there a man who can compare with him as a recon- 
teur, a wit, and a reinsman. Merrily he wended his 
way through life, dropping a flower here, and a kind 
word there, without ever a thought of tomorrow. 
Improvident to a degree that was almost reckless, 
he smiled at those who laid aside their gold for a 
rainy day. He was optimistic enough to believe that 
the world owed him a living, that he would always 
have his wants supplied, and he did. 


For years Splan stood like a beacon of good fel- 
lowship and cheer on the path of life, waving the 
signal flags of joy to those who found the footing 
deep, or the going rough, and was always willing, if 
possible, to make the burden lighter for those who 
were passing out with the tide, being at all times a 
living type of Lindsay Gordon's lines 

"Question not, but live and labor, 

Till yon goal is won, 
Helping every feeble neighbor 

Seeking help from none ; 
Life is mostly froth and bubble, 

Two things stand alone — 
Kindness in another's trouble, 

Courage in your own." 

Splan worked his way from the bottom of the ladder 
to the commanding height, that comes to a driver 
who controls a champion. But, with it all, life 
seemed to him but one big round of pleasure, and if 
ever he had any cares, he did not burden his friends 
with them. He lived the life, and after the record- 
ing angel had checked off his seventieth birthday, he 
crossed the bar. 

In his home life with "Little" Splan, he was very 
happy. When she died, it looked as if his days of 
usefulness were over. For years she was his eyes 
in the conduct of his business, and while always liv- 
ing in comparative retirement, she never lost sight of 
John, and his racing ventures out in the limelight. 
In the Rarus days, when the struggle for existence 


in the racing world was over, they traveled from 
coast to coast with the big gelding. Years after, 
when one summer afternoon, I called on the little 
lady at Doan Brook Farm, and told her that Rarus 
was dead, tears came to her eyes, and turning 
towards the painting of the gelding which hung in 
the living room of her home, she said: "You can 
never know what that horse was to us. He won all 
we had, while in return all that we could give him 
was a carrot, some hay and oats, and a little clean 
straw to sleep on." 

Splan started his career as a boy by running away 
from home at Little Falls, N. Y., where he was born 
May 6, 1849, as he remarked "the day after Hamble- 
tonian was foaled. After drifting about for a time 
he pulled up at the Buffalo race track and went to 
work. Pelham Tartar was his first trotter and he 
gradually moved out into the sunlight until he at- 
tracted the attention of Z. E. Simmons. He gave 
him Kansas Chief and while the ex-cattle herder did 
not appear to be much of a find, he proved a good 
horse for him, and won a number of races. 

Rarus added the next leaf to Splan's book of fame. 
He was a race horse, and a champion. In his day he 
met and defeated such trotters as Clementine, Car- 
rie, Adelaide, Bodine, Cozette, Judge Fullerton, 
Smuggler, Sam Purdy, Nettie, Hopeful, Lucille Gold- 
dust and a host of others until finally the great day 
came at Buffalo, August 3, 1878, when he trotted in 
2:13 1 / 4 and dethroned Goldsmith Maid. This mile 
was also made two weeks after Rarus had placed the 


half-mile track record of the world at 2 : 16 at Toledo, 
and was followed by a splendid series of exhibitions, 
which were continued until the horse was sold to 
Robert Bonner at Hartford, and also expelled for 
failing to carry out an engagement at Charter Oak 

When Rarus was retired, Splan turned his atten- 
tion to the Phil Sheridan mare Adelaide and the gray 
gelding Charlie Ford. With the former, he gave 
every one in Cleveland a memorable jolt when he 
won over Prospero and Midnight, while at Chicago 
the followers of Jerry Monroe's gelding received a 
jar when their favorite was defeated by Hannis at 
the West Side track. Splan always contended that 
the judges gave Charlie Ford the worst of it that day 
but whether they did or not, makes no difference now 
as all of them have joined the silent brigade. Wedge- 
wood was another star that was in Splan's stable at 
this time. He made a sweep with him through the 
Grand Circuit in 1880, it being the first on record. 

The marvelous pacer Johnston was the next step- 
ping stone in Splan's career. This was one of the few 
light harness horses foaled ahead of his time. In the 
matter of speed, there was no horse at his gait that 
could get within three or four seconds of him. John- 
ston passed into Splan's hands in 1884 when he was 
in the employ of Commodore Kittson. He drove him 
to his record of 2:06^4 at Chicago. 

After Splan located at Cleveland he was for a time 
in the employ of W. J. Gordon. This thrifty New 


Englander could never look with composure on 
Splan's reckless ways. At every opportunity and 
especially on pay day, he would take Splan aside and 
give him a talk but without making much of an im- 
pression. Splan took it like a soldier as he saw it 
made his employer forget his own ills for a brief 
period and it did not do him any harm. One day, 
however, his wit bubbled over and he said: "Mr. 
Gordon, when I am old like you, if I am broke, I can 
think of the good times I had when I could enjoy it, 
while with all your wealth you cannot even scare up 
a smile, and do nothing but hand your money over 
to doctors and nurses." 

After leaving Mr. Gordon, for whom he raced 
Nobby, Mambrino Sparkle, William H., George V. and 
a few others, Splan dropped into line with Protection 
and the drummer gaited Governor Hill. Both of 
them were winners for him before W. G. Pollock 
purchased a strip of land back of the Cleveland 
Driving Park and built the big barn at Doan Brook 
Farm. When it was completed "Little" Splan and 
her husband located in the old farm house at the end 
of Apple Tree Lane. That place was home to them 
and the first they had outside of a hotel. It was 
also headquarters for all they knew and scarcely a 
day passed that Splan did not march in unannounced 
with several guests for meals beginning with break- 
fast and continuing frequently until after the morn- 
ing glory blossoms on the porch had closed for the 
day. From this stable he went to the races with 
J. Q., Cleo, Newcastle and Newburger. 


When the passing years began to plant a few 
white hairs in Splan's hair, he decided to retire from 
the sulky. For several years he was connected 
with a sale business in Chicago, but finally removed 
to Lexington, where he did a little training, and 
bought and sold horses for his friends. His last 
racing pupil was the beautiful mare, Bi Flora, owned 
by A. B. Deysher of Reading, Pa. 

As a reinsman Splan never had a superior — some 
may claim an equal. In his younger days, before he 
took on weight, his seat in the sulky was perfect, 
and what he would not do for a tired horse in a close 
finish, or one that would not try when matters were 
getting desperate, cannot be found in any book on 
driving. Being rather indolent, except when aroused 
by the excitement of a race, Splan was not the best 
man in the world to get a horse ready, but when the 
bell tapped if his mount was fit for the fray, his back- 
ers got a drive for their money that they never for- 
got. Splan also had one peculiarity that I never saw 
in any other driver, who was disposed to plunge on a 
horse that he was racing. The more he stood to win, 
the better he drove. The risk made him firm as a 
rock. He never seemed to think what would hap- 
pen if he lost. All he thought of was winning at the 
wire, and that by the narrowest margin in the de- 
ciding heat, and not at every fence post in every 

Through life John Splan was a total abstainer. 
The soothing nicotine or sparkling wine had no al- 
lurements for him. All of them were waived aside 


and no one knew better than he, how far a man could 
go on the glowing path of pleasure and return with- 
out impairing his vigor and usefulness. As he 
wended his way through life he never joined a 
party without adding his mite to their merriment, 
and while he never left a message when departing, 
his witty remarks remained with you, and at in- 
tervals popped up in memory like the flash of a glow 
worm on a summer night. 


For over thirty years there was a little blacksmith 
shop with one fire at the lower entrance to the Cleve- 
land Driving Park in Glenville, Ohio. In the early 
days it had a number of occupants but in the eighties 
J. Adams came over from Jefferson, Ohio and located 
there. He was a natural born farrier with a 
thorough love for the trade and what he did not know 
about leveling a horse's foot or correcting defects in 
gait by weight or the shape of a shoe could not be 
found in Robert Bonner's library or any other de- 
voted to that line of literature. 

Adams presided at the fire and made all of the 
shoes by hand, even when the work horses were 
brought in by Jack Denman. Also if there was a 
horse at the end of each of the five or six tie chains, 
all that could be done was to wait your turn like in a 
barber shop on Saturday night, or take the prize 
pupil back to his stall and bring him in when the 
floor was clear. 


In the eighties and early nineties John D. Rocke- 
feller had a stable for his fast road horses on the out- 
side of the track fence about halfway to the three- 
quarter pole. During the summer and early autumn 
months, Sandy McLean was located there with them 
while the balance of the year they were in New York 
in a brick stable on a lot adjoining the building that 
sheltered Robert Bonner's champions. 

One pleasant summer morning while Sandy 
McLean was out on the track jogging the cross 
matched pair, Midnight and Kate McCall, a groom 
appeared at the blacksmith shop leading Bob Frost. 
He was a gelding that William Rockefeller bred and 
was by Independence out of Cleora, the pair of trot- 
ters that pulled a pole cart in 2:161/2 over Charter 
Oak Park at Hartford in 1883. Bob Frost was a 
mealy gray in color with considerable white in his 
tail and while he had a fair turn of speed he could 
not give a very good account of himself when at 
speed unless he had a long toe. Also as his feet 
were brittle, a common fault with gray horses, 
Adams had a difficult task in keeping him balanced 
for fast work. 

That particular morning Bob Frost was minus a 
front shoe, having pulled it off in the stall when 
getting up and as a portion of the shell was broken, 
it looked as if it would be impossible to reset it. In 
that event Bob was booked for a vacation until 
nature supplied a little more horn to fasten the iron 
to. After examining the horse's foot, Adams told 
the groom to ask Sandy McLean to come down and 


take a look at the wreck before he did anything 
with it. 

In a short time he returned with the trainer, who 
was accompanied by a tall man dressed very plainly 
in black and whose brown hair and mustache 
were beginning to show the whitening touch of time. 
Both he and McLean examined Bob Frost's front 
foot very carefully and also watched the smith 
closely when he tested it with the hammer and 
pinchers. Finally after a consultation that was as 
deliberate and grave as though it involved millions, 
they decided to punch another nail hole in the shoe 
and have it reset. Seating themselves on two in- 
verted nail kegs, Sandy McLean and his companion 
watched the floorman point his nails carefully with 
the bevel to the outside and drive them slowly into 
the shattered hoof. As each of the seven nails held 
and was clinched they heaved a sigh of relief and 
after a little rasping Bob Frost was himself again. 

The tall man was so pleased with the work that he 
was soon busy going through his pockets to find 
something to reward the floorman. Finding noth- 
ing but a small watch and a pocket knife, he bor- 
rowed fifty cents from the groom and handed it to 
him while Adams took a piece of chalk and made the 
usual charge of a dollar on the big slate hanging near 
the bellows. With a bow and a good morning Sandy 
McLean and his companion departed and as they 
walked towards the grandstand some one asked 
Adams who the tall man was and he replied: "John 
D. Rockefeller, the richest man in the world." 

T R T A L N G 433 


On March 11, 1914, the representatives of a 
dozen towns met in Boston and organized the Bay 
State Circuit. These delegates pledged the asso- 
ciations which they represented to give a series of 
meetings over New England half-mile tracks which 
w 7 ere then laying idle during the summer months 
except on holidays. 

The returns for the year showed that they held 
eleven race meetings, two of them being in connec- 
tion with fairs. 

The new race towns on the summer map of New 
England were Medford, Haverhill, Worcester, 
Framingham, Springfield, Northampton, Hills Grove 
and Taunton. 

After a lull of over fifteen years the Bay State 
Circuit took the place of the summer racing sched- 
ule which was formerly covered by the mile tracks 
at Hartford, Medford, Allston, and Saugus, and the 
half-mile tracks at Nashua, Worcester and Holyoke. 

Light harness racing in New England during the 
summer time came into its own again through the 
Bay State Circuit. Since 1914 its members gave 
meetings in twenty-one towns. The patrons of 
racing at Springfield followed the trotters and pacers 
from Imperial Park to Willimansett and finally to 
the magnificent course of the Eastern States Expo- 
sition over which Directum J. in 1920 won a heat 
in 2:041/2, the circuit record. 


Woonsocket was given dates in 1915. Windsor 
was assigned a place in 1916. Greenfield joined in 
1918. Of the other meetings, Justin Edwards, who 
usually backed one each season, gave one over the 
mile track at Readville in 1919 and two others were 
blended with the Grand Circuit events on the same 
course. Avon joined in 1920, Norwich in 1923 and 
Stafford Springs in 1928. 

The patrons of the Bay State Circuit had the 
pleasure of seeing a wealth of racing material in ac- 
tion. Walter Cox won the first race with Margaret 
Druien at Combination Park in 1914. Crozier also 
uncovered Earlwood L. that week. On the trip 
down the line that year Eddie Rowe stepped out in 
front and won five races with Doctor G., while Por- 
ter won six with Dick Direct, and Downer the same 
number with Clara Walker. 

In 1914 James Carpenter won at Marshfield with 
Dr. Kilburn. The Cochato gelding was then a four- 
year-old. That he wore well is shown by the fact 
that Crozier won a split heat race with him in 1921 
at Northampton in 2:11%. 

Warman was the leading reinsman in the Bay 
State Circuit in 1914. He won ten races, four with 
Mainstep, three with Emerald, two with Foxy Jane, 
and one with Spark Wilkes. 

In 1915 John R. Hal was the circuit star. He won 
seven races. Dore won six with LaRestina and tied 
for first place with Crozier, each of them being cred- 
ited with nine victories. 

Harry Brusie pushed out into the limelight the 


following year. He won eight races with Koroni. 
The balance of his stable run his score for the sea- 
son in the circuit up to seventeen. Frank Fox was 
his nearest rival with ten, of which Andy Ashland 
and Miss Elmarch each won five. 

Binworth and May Bird were the leaders in 1917. 
Crozier won seven races with the former before he 
shipped to the Orange County Circuit. Fox also won 
seven with May Bird and as she added four more in 
1918 it jumped the number of her victories in the 
circuit to eleven. This was tied by James Albert 
and Forest B. The Canadian bred gelding won three 
in 1917, one in 1918, and seven in 1919. Gillies 
placed three to the credit of Forest B. in 1917, seven 
in 1918, and one in 1921. 

Rose Watts from John Dillon's stable was among 
the leaders in 1918. She won six races. Three 
more were added to her score the following year 
before she was sold for export. Her showing, as 
well as that of Tom Donahue; The Clansman mare, 
Betina; Lord Lochabar, and Silver King jumped 
the number of Flemming's winning mounts to 
twenty-three. Crozier won twenty-one races the 
following year. His leaders in 1919 were Teviston, 
Ashlook, Patrick Duluth, Proud Peter, Plucky Chat, 
Junglewood, and Sweet Spirit. 

The season of 1919 was made memorable by the 
appearance of Margaret Dillon. She slipped in 
and won three races. The following year she gath- 
ered in four more before starting over the mile 
tracks. In 1921 this little marvel won again after 


a seven-heat battle at Windsor from Adioo Guy, 
Directum J., and Direct C. Burnett, and was de- 
feated at Springfield the following week in a five- 
heat encounter with Directum J. 

In 1920 Harry Brusie topped the list of winning 
drivers with a score of eleven. His winners were 
Minor Hal, Berney Hayt, Galeton, Sister Peter T. 
and Monte Volo. 

Thirty-five drivers won the 115 races programmed 
in the Bay State Circuit in 1921. Of this group Joe 
Johnson led with eighteen, nine of them being 
earned by Colonel Bidwell. His other winners were 
Mr. Hoover, Berney Hayt, and Northern Lilly. Of 
the others, Crozier, who was on the ground for sev- 
eral weeks on account of an accident, won eleven; 
Brusie, nine, and Leese, seven, with Lockspur, 
Adioo Guy, and the two-year-old filly, Julia C. 

In 1914 George Graves started Bronson on his re- 
markable career by winning a heat in 2:13*4 at 
Haverhill from Margaret Druien, and by making 
Earlwood L. trot in 2:121/4 to defeat him at Fram- 
ingham. In 1916 Coakley swung into line with 
Earl Jr., and won two races. The old veteran also 
scored once the following year in the eight-heat bat- 
tle which Warman won with Major Wool worth over 
Combination Park, the other starters being Judge 
Ormonde, Roan Hal, Our Colonel, Peter Stevens, 
Possibility, The Ideal Lady, and Andy Ashland. 

In 1919 Kingsley put the stamp of merit on Millie 
Irwin by winning with her at Windsor, where she 
trotted a fourth heat in 2:10%. Sam Hastings flew 


away with the amateur honors that season, when 
he won at Springfield in 2:08% with Oro Fino from 
Ben Ali, Baronatta, and Roan Hal. 

The two surprises of 1919 were put over with 
The Problem at Worcester and Lady Gamage at 
Windsor. Joe Johnson made his debut in the Bay 
State Circuit with the black pacer and won after 
a six-heat encounter from Roan Hal, Baronatta and 
Baxter Lou. Small was up behind Lady Gamage 
when she won from Princelyne and Baby Doll in 
2:09%. Frank Whitcomb had sold the Maine-bred 
mare a few days before the race and after he had 
seen the three heats reeled off at top form he said, 
"Pacers are peculiar. Sometimes they go good for 
you when you own them and sometimes they go 
good for the other fellow when you sell them. ,, 

In 1921 the clip was fast all the way down the 
line. Peter Look opened the ball by reducing the 
track record at Woonsocket to 2:09 when he de- 
feated Margaret Dillon and Un. The following 
week at Avon, Colonel Bidwell cut the record of 
Cherry Park to 2:08*4 when he raced home in front 
of Tony Mack and Charles Direct. 

At Springfield, Hale Garner reduced the three- 
year-old half-mile track record for trotters to 2:11^ 
when he defeated Sylvia Brook, while his stable 
companion, Jackson Grattan, was forced to pace in 
2:061/4 to defeat Mary O'Connor. At Greenfield, 
Labe Riddell trotted in 2: 10^ to win. Grace Dawn 
forced him out and followed her airing at that point 
by winning at Worcester and Woonsocket, where 


she placed two races to her credit and cut her mark 
to 2:1214. 

Iskander was the leader in the Bay State Circuit 
in 1922. He won all of his races that season. 
Trumpet was also a conspicuous figure in the two- 
year-old events and Dan Hedgewood paced in 
2:0514 in Greenfield. 

In 1923, Anoakia, Watts-in-Bond, Sir Etawah, 
The Ultimate and Commodore Wilson kept the 
starters in their respective classes very busy. Two 
meetings were given that year over the mile track 
at Readville, the second one being in connection with 
the Grand Circuit. While it was in progress Com- 
modore Wilson won an engagement in which he 
made a two-year-old record of 2:10%. 

The circuit in 1924 started at Norwich, which was 
admitted to membership the preceding year. This 
trip was made memorable by the two $10,000 events 
which were put on at Windsor. The one for the 
trotters was won by Fayette National. Jennie H. 
won the pace after losing two heats. 

Guesswork won all of her circuit engagements 
that year except at Windsor. The gray gelding, Pale 
Face, also flashed in front at Avon and Springfield 
in 2:07%, while Commodore Wilson made a three- 
year-old record of 2:061/^ over the mile track at 

Peter Buskirk proved the leader in the Bay State 
Circuit in 1925. He won all of his engagements ex- 
cept at Springfield. At Avon he landed a $5,000 
event in 2:08% from Ensign Tige and Great Bells. 


The other $5,000 events at Cherry Park that year 
were won by Counterpart and Silver Weather. 
Windsor renewed its two $10,000 purses. They were 
won by Robert Commodore and Ensign Tige. Har- 
rison Dillon was the most conspicuous three-year- 
old in the circuit in 1925. The two-year-old honors 
were divided between Bright Dawn, Tippie Volo and 
Purple Volo. 

A few speed marvels invaded the Bay State Cir- 
cuit in 1926, when Sturbridge became a member. 
Kate Hal won there in 2:06 1 / 4. She also paced in 
2:05% at Norwich and in 2:06*4 at Avon. Jean 
Grattan dropped into the fast list by winning at 
Norwich in 2:07 1 / / 2 and in 2:08 1 / 4 at Windsor, where 
she placed a $10,000 purse to her credit. 

Cherry Park had two $10,000 purses on its card. 
Subpoena won the trot in 2:10*4 an d Silver Weather 
the pace in 2:08%. Golden Direct won all of his 
engagements, his fastest flight being at Windsor, 
where he paced in 2:06*4. 

All the Bay State Circuit three-year-old trots 
were won by Tippie Volo. She was undefeated in 
1926. The returns for the season gave her thirteen 
first monies. Signal Flash showed so well in the 
two-year-old trots that when he was sent to the 
New York sale he brought $7,100, a fine profit on 
a $300 yearling. 

Millie W. made a sweep in the 1927 Bay State Cir- 
cuit. Her contests with Wayne Hal were the most 
exciting in the summer series. Plucky and Miss 
Eclipse had a number of spirited encounters in the 


two-year-old trots. Doane won four of the seven 
three-year-old events, two of the others going to 
The Buccaneer and one to Bob Maxey. 

The $10,000 races in 1927 at Avon were won by 
Bert Abbe, Silver Weather and Prince Charming, 
and the $5,000 colt stakes by Doane and Azure Volo. 
The contests between Bert Abbe and Carolyn Logan 
proved fast events. The limit was reached at 
Springfield, where the California bred mare won in 
2:05^2- Millie W. was also forced to pace in 2:05% 
at that meeting to defeat Wayne Hal. 

At Windsor the first $10,000 purse went to Billy 
D. after Silver Weather and Guesswork each won a 
heat. In the second Bert Abbe landed in 2:06% 
after dropping a heat to Carolyn Logan. Guy Reaper 
won the $10,000 trot, the third heat in the event 
going to Jeritza. 

Guesswork won the fast pace at the first three 
Bay State Circuit meetings in 1927 and Ace High all 
of his starts in the three-year-old pace, the first one 
being made at Avon. 



In his day Charles Marvin and the Palo Alto trot- 
ters were the most prominent figures in the light 
harness racing world. Wherever world's records 
were being made the little man in gray was very 
much in evidence, as under his peaked cap there was 
enough gray matter to furnish all of the trotting 
world with new material in making speed at a rate 
that was not even dreamed of when Goldsmith Maid, 
2:14, and Smuggler, 2:15*4, were entertaining 

In the early nineties all of the world's records 
stood to the credit of the Electioneer family. Mar- 
vin made them and Palo Alto reaped a golden har- 

While Marvin's greatest honors came to him in 
California, he was born in New York state and was 
descended in the seventh remove from Matthew 
Marvin, one of the original founders of Hartford, 
Conn., and whose home lot was on what is now 
known as the corner of Front and Pleasant streets. 

Matthew Marvin came from England in 1634. He 
landed in Boston and moved with the Hooker com- 
pany to Hartford in 1636. In 1650 he became one of 
the original proprietors of Norwalk. Later on some 
of his descendants moved to New York state and 
located in the Genesee Valley, where Charles Mar- 
vin was born in 1839. 

As a lad he followed the migrations of his father 
to Michigan, Illinois and Iowa, where he struck out 


for himself, his fondness for horses leading him to 
freighting over the plains. During the war between 
the states he was with the northern troops in Kan- 
sas, and when peace was declared his earthly posses- 
sions consisted of a couple of quarter horses. After a 
little experience with them, he found that he could 
not depend on the boys in the saddle. Therefore, 
when he took up racing as an occupation, he selected 
the trotters and did his own driving. 

In 1872, while located at Olathe, Kan., John Mason 
Morgan brought him a bay pacer to train. As there 
was very little money offered at that time for horses 
racing at that gait, Marvin told him he would not 
take the horse unless he could convert him to a 
trotter. Morgan laughed at the idea, but after sev- 
eral months Marvin succeeded in shifting him to a 
trot. Also as soon as the horse learned what was 
wanted of him he improved very rapidly, dropping 
in a few weeks from a mile in four minutes to 2:30, 
and from there to 2 :22, when an offer of $10,000 was 

Early in 1873 Captain Tough, of Leavenworth, 
Kan., bought the converted pacer, which was named 
Smuggler. He shipped him to New York with the 
intention of selling him to Robert Bonner, who at 
that time owned Dexter, 2:17 1 /£. Marvin accom- 
panied him and drove Smuggler over Prospect Park 
three heats in 2:19i/ 2 , 2:21i/ 2 , 2:21. This was the 
three fastest heats ever trotted by a stallion up to 
that date. 

After the performance Mr. Bonner told the Cap- 


tain that if he could show him a mile in 2:16%, 
which was then the world's record held by Goldsmith 
Maid, he would give him $75,000 for him. While he 
was considering this offer, Colonel H. S. Russell, of 
Milton, Mass., gave $30,000 for the horse. Smug- 
gler was shipped to Boston and Marvin returned to 

In 1874 Colonel Russell tried a new trainer with 
Smuggler. As he failed Marvin was sent for. From 
that day he was in the first flight of drivers. For 
the first two seasons he had rough sledding, but in 
1876 Smuggler came to his own when he defeated 
Goldsmith Maid at Cleveland and also placed the 
world's record for stallions at 2:15 1 / 4 over Charter 
Oak Park at Hartford, Conn. 

When conditioning and racing Smuggler, Marvin 
first showed the qualities that made him successful 
at Palo Alto. He was never a brilliant reinsman, 
but he had courage and originality and never hesi- 
tated about jumping out of a rut or taking a chance 
when matters looked desperate or anything was to 
be gained by doing so. He showed this at Cleveland 
in 1876, when he pulled Smuggler out of a pocket 
in the stretch, flashed around the field and won. 
Doble, Green and Mace never forgot that day or what 
they tried to do with Golsmith Maid, Lucille Gold- 
dust, 2:16% and Judge Fullerton, 2:18, in order to 
defeat the man from Kansas. 

In the fall of 1877 Marvin took Smuggler to Cali- 
fornia in the hope that a winter in the mild climate 
would put him in shape for another campaign. He 


broke down and when it looked as though his trainer 
would be forced to return to his old stamping ground 
in Kansas, Governor Stanford invited him to take 
charge of the trotters at Palo Alto. Marvin proved 
the man for the place. When his thorough knowl- 
edge of the horse was grafted on the new ideas ad- 
vanced by Senator Stanford, the Palo Alto stable 
sent out champions as regularly as the years were 
checked from the calendar. 

Attention was first called to the outfit by Fred 
Crocker trotting in 2:251/2 as a two-year-old. He 
was followed by Hinda Rose, with a yearling record 
of 2:3614, and a three-year-old mark of 2:19 1 /2, both 
of which were world's records. The two-year-old 
filly, Wildflower, 2:21, was also trained under his 
direction, while he gave Manzanita, a four-year-old 
record of 2:16 in a race. Their successes were fol- 
lowed by Sunol, 2:08*4, Palo Alto, 2:08%. both 
world's records to high wheel sulkies in 1891. That 
year Marvin also brought out Arion. Very few had 
ever heard of him until one morning the world was 
startled by reading that a two-year-old had trotted 
a mile in 2:10 3 i over the kite track at Stockton. In 
a few months this colt was sold for $125,000. 

Arion was Marvin's masterpiece. In him he united 
all the knowledge which he had acquired in making 
speed and all the skill which he possessed in balanc- 
ing a colt. Being opposed to toe weights, he put the 
weight in the shoe just as John E. Madden did with 
Hamburg Belle and both of them succeeded beyond 
their expectations. 


All of the Palo Alto champions were broken and 
developed by Marvin or under his orders. In their 
fastest performances his mounts did what he taught 
them, many of them making their greatest trials on 
practically a loose line. His driving had none of the 
dash of McHenry or rustle of Jack Curry. With the 
brush system he made speed and taught his pupils 
to carry it through a series of heats. This was his 
gift from Senator Stanford. From Robert Bon- 
ner he acquired a knowledge of the horse's foot and 
shoeing which gave him the key to the unparalleled 
performances of Sunol, Palo Alto and Arion. 

With all of his skill Marvin had one quality that 
endeared him to everybody connected with racing. 
He was honest, and amid all of the temptations that 
beset a driver, no one could ever cast a reflection on 
him. One day, during a race at Chicago, when mat- 
ters were getting desperate in the betting ring, a 
man came to Marvin with an offer to lose a heat. As 
an inducement he laid down several bills of large de- 
nominations on the lid of a trunk in the stall and told 
him what was wanted. The little man in gray 
brushed them aside and when the other, remonstra- 
ting, said that if he had been working for Stanford 
as long as Marvin he would be acting as his banker. 
Marvin replied : "I have known you a long time and 
I have never known you to ever need a banker." 
That ended the interview and the man who called on 
Marvin and those who sent him received their an- 
swer in the next heat as Marvin won. 



The breed of light harness horses was established 
in seventy-five years. Starting from a thorough- 
bred foundation and a few fast road mares, whose 
ancestors except in an odd case were unknown, the 
flying gaited trotters and pacers gradually reduced 
the record from 2:30 to 1:56%. Many families of 
horses battled for supremacy during that period, but 
in the last count all of them were submerged except 

During the life of Hambletonian the rivalry be- 
tween him and Blue Bull was very keen. The In- 
diana horse was a pacer. Many of his get started 
off at that gait. As there were but few purses 
offered for pacers the Blue Bulls were forced to trot 
either by putting on heavy shoes and weights or 
riding them over rails. Very few of them were re- 
served for the stud, while almost all of Hamble- 
tonian's sons and daughters were used there. 

In the third generation the Blue Bull family dis- 
appeared. There was nothing but their sire's speed 
back of them. On the other hand the Hambleton- 
ians increased the rate of speed and volume at each 

Up to the sixties over twenty-five per cent of 
the trotters were Morgans. Ethan Allen was the 
idol of the family and Daniel Lambert his best son. 
His dam was by Abdallah, the sire of Hambletonian. 

As a racing family the Morgans began to fade 
when the rate of speed dropped below 2:20. Lord 


Clinton and Lamp Girl were the only ones that beat 
2:10. The Morgans were road horses of the high- 
est type. As a family they were almost destroyed 
by trying to make race horses out of them. 

When Hambletonian was in the heyday of his 
career the honors of the turf were divided between 
him and the Mambrino, Clay, Bashaw, American 
Star, Cadmus, Pilot, Champion, Norman, Drew, 
Hiatoga, Blue Bull, Morgan and Kentucky Hunter 
families. The Mambrino line traced to Mambrino 
Chief. He was taken to Kentucky and died after 
making a few seasons. His sons, Mambrino Patchen, 
Mambrino Pilot, Clark Chief, Woodford Mambrino 
and Ericsson, proved sires of speed. At the next 
remove Pancoast, Princeps, Mambrino King and 
Kentucky Prince bred on into the fast list. Prin- 
ceps got a champion in Trinket, while Patron, by 
Pancoast, was the first Kentucky bred three-year-old 
trotter to beat 2 :20. 

Mambrino Pilot got a race horse in Hannis. Mam- 
brino King sent out a flock of winners, of which 
Nightingale and Lord Derby were the best. Elyria 
and Heir-at-Law were his only sons that became 
noted as sires. By the end of the century the Mam- 
brino family was among the missing. Alix and 
Minor Heir were its last leaders. 

The Clays dropped out earlier. From the start 
the family was unfortunate in having its leading 
sons from mares with very little or no breeding. 
Then Robert Bonner, who was accepted by many 
as a Delphic Oracle, said he would rather have a 


handful of sawdust in a trotter's pedigree than a 
cross of Clay blood. This statement was made after 
George M. Patchen had proved himself a splendid 
race horse and when American Girl, Lucy and Hope- 
ful were winning in the fastest company. Notwith- 
standing that fact the statement was accepted and 
the family suffered. 

The test of time proved that the Clay blood was 
a valuable asset. Robert Bonner lived to see it. 
Electioneer was out of a mare by Harry Clay. The 
same horse also sired the dam of St. Julien. George 
Wilkes, another leader, was for years reported as 
out of Dolly Spanker, by Henry Clay. Later on the 
man who supplied a part of the evidence said that 
he made a mistake in a date and the Henry Clay 
cross was dropped. Many people believed that he 
told the truth the first time. When the male line 
dropped out the Clay family slipped into the book 
of the dead. 

The Champions were stout horses. The Auburn 
Horse appeared at an early day. He was so high 
class that Hiram Woodruff said he could drive him 
in 2:18 when the world's record was 2:19%. St. 
James was the best race horse in the family. As 
it was located where the stallions got but few well- 
bred mares it was not long before the public gave 
them the gate. 

The Hiatogas were located in Ohio. They traced 
to the horses which the Virginians brought into 
southern Ohio after the Revolution. The Hiatogas 
raced at the trot and pace for about thirty years 


and disappeared. 

The Cadmus line contributed Smuggler and 
Pocahontas and possibly Shanghai Mary, the 
grandam of Electioneer. Smuggler and Pocahontas, 
were pacers. Smuggler was forced to trot by 
weight. Pocahontas became the champion pacer. 
Her son, Tom Rolfe, got Young Rolfe, the sire of 
Nelson, while she also produced Strideaway, a fast 
trotter which appears in the pedigree of Axworthy. 

The American Star was almost a female line. It 
contributed largely to the reputation of Hambleton- 
ian and Volunteer. The best of their performers 
were out of Star mares. The Kentucky Hunter line 
produced Flora Temple and the Drews were for a 
time prominent in Maine. 

The Bashaws traced to Andrew Jackson. The line 
ran through Long Island Black Hawk, whose son, 
Vernol's Black Hawk, got Green's Bashaw. He was 
the first trotting sire of note to stand in Iowa. 

The Pilot line started in Quebec. The founder 
of the family was picked up by a Yankee peddler in 
Montreal. He took him to New Orleans. From 
that point he was shipped to Kentucky, where he 
got Pilot Jr. and the other horses which made a 
place for him in the Trotting Register. 

Pilot Jr. was the best horse in the family. He 
got the trotters, John Morgan and Tattler. As a 
family founder Pilot Jr.'s reputation rests on the 
produce of his daughters. Of these the most noted 
were Midnight, dam of Jay Eye See, the first horse 
to trot in 2:10; Miss Russell, the dam of Maud S., 


2:08%, the first trotter to beat 2:10, and Water- 
witch, dam of Mambrino's Gift, the first stallion to 
trot in 2:20. Tackey proved another leader. She 
produced Pilot Medium, whose son, Peter the Great, 
flooded the turf with winners at all ages and at both 
gaits. The male line of the Pilot family passed out 
with Bayard, but the blood of his daughters form a 
net work in the pedigrees of the present day leaders. 

The Norman line touched its high point with Lula. 
For a time it was continued through Blackwood and 
Swigert. It was stout but none of it can be found 
in the present day pedigrees except through May 
King, the sire of Bingen, his dam being the old-time 
trotter, May Queen, 2:20. 

When Hambletonian died Volunteer took his place 
in public favor. For a time he enjoyed a boom. 
He was entitled to it as few horses sired a better 
lot of racing material than St. Julien, Driver, 
Gloster, Alley, Powers, Bodine, Huntress and 
Unalola. In the stud the returns were different. 
All of his sons failed except Louis Napoleon and 
Landmark. They disappeared at the next remove. 

Other horses in the Hambletonian family took up 
the torch of success. The early leaders were George 
Wilkes in Kentucky and Electioneer in California. 
The rivalry between them was keen. While it was 
in progress the Electioneer family made a new set 
of world's records from yearlings to aged horses. 

George Wilkes made the reputation of the trotter 
in Kentucky. Harold, Belmont, Strathmore, Almont 
and others preceded him, but he soon passed them 


all. His sons and daughters put every man in the 
blue grass country that pinned their faith to them 
on easy street. For the stud he contributed Bour- 
bon Wilkes, Gambetta Wilkes, Jay Bird, Onward, 
Baron Wilkes, Simmons, Young Jim, and Wilkes 
Boy, to whom the Grattans trace, while for racing 
they had Harry Wilkes, J. B. Richardson, So So, 
Joe Bunker, Kentucky Wilkes, Alcantara, Rosa 
Wilkes, and Wilson by the old horse and hundreds 
of performers by his sons, to say nothing of the 
produce of his daughters, which included Rachel, 
Elake, Butterfly, Celaya, Delmarch, Idolita, Poteen, 
Manager and Refina. 

When the time came for the Electioneer and 
George Wilkes lines to show the test of speed pro- 
duction in the third and fourth generation, the 
horses which stood out over and above all others 
came from a pair that were discarded. The Elec- 
tioneer line ran through May King, w T ho would have 
been forgotten if it had not been for Bingen. As 
for the Wilkes line it was carried on by Axworthy, a 
son of Axtell, whose sire, William L., would have 
been sidetracked if C. W. Williams had not bred 
the Mambrino Boy mare, Lou, to him in 1885. 

The story of the Peter the Great line hangs by 
almost as slender a thread. Happy Medium, a son 
of Hambletonian, was standing near Philadelphia. 
The Pilot Jr. mare, Tackey, was sent to his court. 
In 1879 she produced a gray colt afterwards known 
as Pilot Medium. It met with an accident and at 
one time it was decided to kill him. Walter Clark 


saw the colt at Robert Steel's farm and purchased 
him. He took him to Michigan, where at the age of 
seventeen he got Peter the Great. This horse be- 
came one of the big four, the others being Axwor- 
thy, Bingen and McKinney. 

McKinney is a member of the Wilkes tribe. 
Through his dam he brings in the blood of Gover- 
nor Sprague. McKinney was taken to California 
as a colt. While there he got considerable racing 
material, Sweet Marie and Zombro being the best. 
Later he stood in Indiana, New York where he sired 
Belwin and Kentucky. Zombro also got San Fran- 
cisco, a leading speed sire. 

The daughters of McKinney have also made a 
number of notable contributions to the fast list. 
Their leaders are Rose Scott, Highland Scott, and 
Guy McKinney, all of which are in the two-minute 

The high dollar is now paid for the get of horses 
tracing to the Axworthy, Peter the Great, Bingen 
and McKinney families. The leading sires in the 
Peter the Great line are Peter Volo, Peter Scott, 
Azoff , Caduceus the Great, Peter Montgomery, Peter 
McKlyo, Peter O'Donna and Peter Wood. There is 
also an active demand for his daughters. The Ax- 
worthy strain is represented by Guy Axworthy, 
Dillon Axworthy, Ortolan Axworthy, General 
Watts, Morgan Axworthy, now in Europe, and Judge 
Maxey. The mares of the family are also noted 
speed producers. 

Bingen was a family founder. This was shown 


by Bingara, Admiral Dewey, Binjolla, Bingen Silk, 
J. Malcolm Forbes, Joe Dodge, Malcolm Forbes, and 
The Exponent. 

The McKinney line has a long list of representa- 
tives, Merriman, Kashmir and Sumatra being the 
leaders by Belwin. San Francisco, the fastest son 
of Zombro, also sired Sanardo, Lu Princeton, Chil- 
coot, Jeanette Rankin, St. Frisco, Mary Putney and 

The future history of light harness racing will 
be built around the descendants of these four fami- 
lies. All of them are represented in the two-minute 
list and all of them are noted for their racing quali- 
ties and perfect manners. 

Since the Hals and other pacing families dropped 
out the lateral gaited horses have been rated as a by- 
product of the trotters. At present the only promi- 
nent pacing sire traces to Hambletonian through 
Dictator, Director, Direct, Direct Hal to Walter 
Direct, the sire of Napoleon Direct. Ed Geers 
started this line in 1895 when he bred his Tom Hal 
mare, Bessie Hal, to Direct after the "little black 
rascal" defeated Hal Pointer. He got Direct Hal, 
developed him and sold him to C. J. Hamlin. He 
also sat behind him when he won fourteen races in 
1902. Direct Hal retired unbeaten. Walter Direct, 
the next link in the chain, was raced by Geers. He 
also put his son, Napoleon Direct, in the two-minute 

This is a stout pacing line, but there are others 
as has been shown by the get of Grattan Royal, 


Braden Direct, and Barney O'Connor, as well as the 
big four which contributed Margaret Dillon, Miss 
Harris M., Anna Bradford's Girl, Sir Roche, High- 
land Scott, Sanardo, Prince Loree, and Merriman, all 
of which are in the two-minute list. 

knap" McCarthy 

The passing of W. H. McCarthy, at Terre Haute r 
Ind., on September 30, 1917, is entitled to more than 
a stickful of matter in the obituary column. While 
not a very old man, the returns showing that he was 
born at Elmira, N. Y., March 22, 1855, "Knap" Mc- 
Carthy belonged to the old school of trainers, havings 
started racing early in life and remained at it for 
over fifty years. 

The first glimpse of him dates from the opening 
of the Civil War, when, as a tow-headed lad of seven, 
he put in all of his spare time riding army horses for 
a government purchasing agent at Elmira. When 
the seventh Artillery joined the Army of the Poto- 
mac, young McCarthy went with it, and remained 
with that command and the Ninth Cavalry during 
the war. On the battlefield or during the march 
the sturdy little lad from the Empire State was 
always in the van. All of his possessions were 
toted from camp to camp in an old knapsack picked 
up on the battlefield. It made him so conspicuous 
that the soldiers dubbed him "Knapsack," which was 
soon shortened to "Knap" and stuck to him through 


After peace was declared "Knap" remained with 
the government, riding horses offered for sale. When 
they were sold he drifted back to Elmira, where he 
was soon busy riding runners in quarter races and 
dashes at the fairs and race meetings in western 
New York. 

Opportunity tapped at his door in the fall of 1867 
when Dan Mace visited Elmira with a mixed stable 
of trotters and runners to start at the fair. Among 
other horses Mace had the thoroughbred mare, Char- 
lotte F., that in time became famous as the running 
mate of the old-time trotter, Ethan Allen. Young 
McCarthy was selected to ride her at Elmira. His 
work made such a favorable impression that, when 
Mace returned to New York, he took "Knap" along 
with him. The following spring, at the "mature" 
age of thirteen, W. H. McCarthy began a thirteen- 
year apprenticeship with Dan Mace. Being a plod- 
der and entirely devoid of the magnetic tempera- 
ment and light hands which go with a great reins- 
man, "Knap" rose slowly to the surface. Finally 
he was given a mount at St. Louis in 1878. Mace 
w T as injured, and McCarthy was sent out behind 
Darby. He won. Later on he drove Sorrel Dan 
and Hopeful in a few races. This convinced him 
that he could paddle his own canoe, and in the fall 
of 1880 "Knap" made a contract to drive for H. V. 
Bemis, of Chicago. 

The next year he came down the line with Little 
Brown Jug, Sorrel Dan, Bonesetter, Silverton, and 
Fred Douglas. The Jug won twelve races for him 


that season and also paced in 2:11%, 2:11%, 
2:12V2> the fastest three heats on record up to that 
date, when he won over Charter Oak Park track, 
Hartford, Conn. Silverton also won nine races for 
the Bemis stable, and Bonesetter two before he 
dropped dead at Pittsburgh. 

In 1882 "Knap" made a contract to drive for 
Commodore Kittson, of St. Paul, Minn. He invaded 
the Grand Circuit with So So, Fanny Witherspoon, 
Gem, Von Arnim, and Minnie R., as well as Little 
Brown Jug and Silverton, both of which were pur- 
chased from Mr. Bemis. He only had fair success 
with the new outfit, the double-gaited mare, Minnie 
R., and Von Arnim being his best pupils. The next 
year he opened a public stable and remained a free 
lance during the balance of his career, except in the 
early nineties, when he trained a stable of runners 
for D. D. Withers. Starting off with Flora Belle, 
Zoe B., Mattie H. and Belle F., McCarthy held his 
own in the fastest company, and followed up their 
successes with the second money trotter, Felix, 
Jewett, Mambrino Sparkle, Harry Roberts and 
Prince Middleton. 

In the fall of 1887 McCarthy purchased the 
chestnut mare, Geneva S., from Andy Welch. 
Welch knew that she was a good trotter, but he 
didn't want to keep her as she was going blind. 
"Jhat did not stop "Knap," and that he acted wisely 
was shown by the splendid second money cam- 
paigns which she made for him, while she also won 
occasionally when least expected. 


About this date "Knap" selected "safety first" 
as his motto, the hope of winning being allowed to 
go glimmering for the surer and more profitable 
plan of helping. The only slip he ever made in this 
roll with Geneva S. was in 1888 at Rochester, N. Y., 
in the $10,000 Flower City Purse which Budd 
Doble won with Jack. The Kentucky Prince geld- 
ing, Guy, was the favorite. He had five or six 
seconds more speed than any of the other starters, 
but was known to be a bad actor. The result 
depended on Guy getting away on a trot, as he was 
never known to make a break after he took the 
word. Geneva S. won the first heat, which under 
ordinary conditions cinched second money for 
McCarthy. In the second heat Guy was sent away 
behind the field, but trotting. When the horses 
struck the home stretch the word was passed along 
that Guy was coming on the outside. McCarthy 
deliberately carried him into the fence. Doble 
went on and won with Jack. The judges distanced 
McCarthy for the foul, a very mild penalty for the 
offense. W. J. Gordon, the owner of Guy, at the 
close of the season, retired from racing on account 
of this incident. 

After Geneva S. was laid away, "Knap" spent 
about all he had saved for a rainy day trying to 
make a race horse out of the gray mare, Anna 
Mace, by Robert McGregor, dam, Mattie H., 2:27i/ 2 , 
by Blue Bull, and which was bred by his wife. She 
had plenty of speed, but was unfortunate, and fin- 
ally found a place in the discard after the Cleveland 


meeting in 1894, when "Knap" made an effort to 
defeat Eloise after W. B. Fasig refused to divide 
with him. 

Shortly after this race "Knap" made a contract 
to train D. D. Withers' gallopers. Either he or the 
horses failed to make good, the Favordale colt being 
the only good one which he sent to the post. Later 
he returned to the trotters and rounded out his 
career by bringing out Oro, 2:051/4, Nancy Royce, 
2:061/4, Norman B., 2:061/4, Dan Cupid, 2:09%, 
and Derby Boy, 2:091/4, while he also raced the 
Frank Agan, 2:03%, being behind the latter when 
he defeated Joe Patchen, Robert J., Rubenstein, 
and Badge at Cleveland in 1896 in 2:05, 2:05, 
2:03%. This race was also the fastest three-heat 
event paced up to that time. 

In 1906 "Knap" trained the Kentucky Futurity 
winner, Siliko, 2:111/4, for John E. Madden, and 
was severely injured while the race was in prog- 
ress. Ethel Mac, 2:0714, also proved a winner for 
him, and, after being retired, produced a number 
of fast foals. One of his best trotters was W. J. 
Leyburn, which he sold for $15,000 in 1916 after 
showing that he could trot in 2:10 over a half-mile 

Towards the end of his career "Knap" McCarthy 
confined his racing operations to the middle west, 
with headquarters at Terre Haute. In 1917 he 
made a fair showing through the Michigan circuit 
with June Red, winning a number of long, drawn- 
out races with her. He was also behind a member 


of his stable at Charleston, 111., on September 25, 
1917, when he was thrown from his sulky, fractur- 
ing his skull, dying five days later from the injury. 

"Knap" was the hardest working man in the 
light harness racing world. No one ever heard of 
him pulling off anything with a catch mount or 
having a prospective champion handed to him after 
being prepared for a campaign. What he had he 
made and what he won he kept. His methods were 
tough, but thorough, and, if a horse stood his prep- 
aration, he raced well for him. 

Mace told him that he would never make a suc- 
cess as a driver, as he had a heavy hand and could 
never learn to send a horse away at top speed with- 
out holding him as if he were in a vise. This was 
the method of Woodruff, Hoagland, Whelan and 
Pfifer. It was what he had seen as a boy, and he 
clung to it, notwithstanding the fact that he was 
trained under the Mace method of light hand driv- 
ing, perfect balance, and just enough work to keep 
all of the spirit and play in a horse, but at the same 
time sufficient to leg him up for a supreme effort 
in a series of heats. 



Iskander was a pacer, not a Turk. Justin Ed- 
wards bred him. He belonged to the Alcyone fam- 
ily. The line ran through McKinney, Zombro and 
San Francisco. Iskander's dam was the Bingen 
mare, Owaissa. She had a pacing record of 2:06%. 

Owaissa's colt inherited her black coat. He also 
wanted to pace. His breeder said no and sent him 
to Walter Cox to be developed as a trotter. In 1919 
Cox gave him a three-year-old record of 2:28 and 
told Edwards that the black gelding would never do 
to go to the races at that gait. This was the year 
before Cox migrated to Indiana. 

With the Granite State Park speed maker in the 
corn belt, Iskander was shipped to Hartford. Cro- 
zier was requested to go on with him. He got him 
up to a mile in 2:20. At that point Iskander pulled 
up lame. 

In order to save training bills, Iskander was 
turned out with a bunch of misfits. A few cows kept 
the limpers company. One morning the long horns 
became too familiar. There was a battle. When 
the dust rolled away Iskander and his mates had 
killed a cow. No one knew which one struck the 
fatal blow, but all had to pay. 

At that time Roger Rourke appeared on the scene. 
For years he had been attending horse sales, where 
he purchased a few bunches of horsehide with pedi- 
grees attached and turned them into race horses. 
He heard that Iskander had fallen from grace. He 


wanted him and made a deal. The price was $200. 

Iskander was shipped to Greenfield, Mass. Roger 
gave him a few drinks of Green River whiskey — no, 
no, water, and he went sound. Then Iskander began 
to trot. Roger said: "No. You must pace." 
Iskander did not understand the new order of things 
and stuck to a trot. He was shod with light shoes 
in front and heavy ones behind, vice versa and every 
other old way, but it did not change matters. 
Iskander was still a trotter. He refused to be 

Roger Rourke had about decided to pass up 
Iskander when it dawned on him that the big black 
gelding owed him a feed bill. In order to offset it 
he put him to work on the track. Late and early 
the son of San Francisco was busy hauling a float, 
track harrow or one of the other tools that are used 
to keep the Greenfield track like a billiard table. 

Finally it dawned on Iskander that he still had one 
stunt which he had not shown at Greenfield. It was 
a disposition to "shuffle along" on a pace. As soon 
as Roger saw the change he hitched the gelding to 
a cart and encouraged Iskander to go at that gait. 
He made speed very rapidly. 

Iskander was once more back in easy street. He 
had blankets, bandages, leg wash and a groom. As 
his speed increased the news spread to Boston. 
Justin Edwards heard of it. He made a quick trip 
to Greenfield and purchased a half interest. 

In 1921 Iskander beat 2:10 at Readville and paced 
in 2:12 in a race over a half-mile track. The horse 


hunters heard of him. Finally John A. McGregor 
of Athol, Mass., took him home in exchange for a 
$3,500 check. 

In 1922 Iskander won fourteen races over the 
half-mile tracks and was sold to W. N. Reynolds for 
$15,000. The following year he was lame. Iskander 
was tried again in 1924. He made three starts be- 
fore leg trouble laid him away. 


Jack Batchelor was one of the odd characters con- 
nected with light harness racing for a couple of 
decades after the close of the Civil War. He would 
make any kind of a wager if he thought he had a 
shade the best of it, while he hesitated when he 
had to spend over half a dollar for a meal. During 
the racing season a ten-dollar note would have pur- 
chased all of his wearing apparel, of which the most 
conspicuous item was a long linen duster. 

Of Jack Batchelor's racing material the Black 
Bashaw gelding, John H., which made a record of 
2:20, and Mattie Graham, 2:21i/ 2 > by Harold, were 
the most successful. They kept him going for ten 
years from 1872 and met all kinds of company on 
both the mile and half-mile tracks. 

Batchelor's ability to hold his own when playing 
a lone hand in a race came to the surface at Mystic 
Park, Boston, in the fall of 1877. He had John H. 
in with Prospero, Huntress and Lady Snell. The 
drivers of the other starters decided that Huntress 


was the best and played her to win. John H. was 
left out in the cold. Batchelor was convinced that 
his horse had a chance. Scenting what the others 
were doing he sent a friend into the betting ring 
with an order to purchase the cheap tickets on John 
H. They were easy to get and when the bell rang 
for the race Batchelor stood to win enough to carry 
him through the winter if he could finish in front. 

No one appeared to be very anxious to win the 
first heat. It went to John H. in 2 :23. On the next 
trip the others managed to get in his way until well 
into the stretch, when Batchelor pulled his horse to 
the outside of the course and won under the whip 
in 2:21. 

When the horses came out for the third heat 
Batchelor drove John H. up above the distance and 
stopped. As the drivers of the others came up to 
turn he called their attention to a new pin which 
he had sticking in the front of his vest. It was the 
butt of a revolver. 

When they stopped Jack with a few curt remarks 
advised his rivals that he was out to win and any- 
one who got in his way might have a little trouble 
before the finish of the heat. He told them that if 
they could trim him on the level he had nothing to 
say, but that if one of them took a run and set down 
in front of him he might put a dent in his driving 
cap. The heat proved a scorcher. The four horses 
raced like two double teams with John H. at the 
pole. He won by a narrow margin in 2:25. 

During the off season Jack Batchelor toured the 


west, near what was then the frontier. One night in 
Cheyenne he was sitting in a game with a few cow- 
men when a tenderfoot breezed in. Picking two 
fifties from a roll he asked Jack, who was acting as 
banker, for a stack of chips. Batchelor shoved over 
two white ones. The stranger looked surprised and 
asked what was the limit. 

"The green grass and the blue sky," remarked 
Batchelor and as he returned the man his money he 
said, "You will find the game you are looking for in 
the second room down the hall. ,, 

In the fall of 1882 Jack Batchelor dropped off at 
Cleveland with Mattie Graham for a race meeting. 
He ate his meals at O'Brien's Last Chance Saloon, 
which was opposite the entrance of the old Driving 
Park on St. Clair Street. The . day that he was to 
start Mattie Graham, Batchelor dropped in early for 
dinner and began calling O'Brien down for the prices 
which he was charging his boarders. After telling 
him that he paid seven cents for a loaf of bread and 
twelve or fifteen cents for a pound of cheese from 
which he made twenty sandwiches by cutting them 
thin as wafers and charging a dime for each and 
also explaining how O'Brien made twenty cents on 
the sale of each quart of milk that was brought 
into the place, a flashily dressed individual, dec- 
orated with a heavy watch chain and a diamond pin, 
stepped up and offered to pay for Jack's dinner if 
he was shy of cash. 

Batchelor looked at him and said, "My friend, you 
should not interfere with other people's pleasures," 


and pulling out his wallet he offered to bet him a 
thousand even that he did not have five hundred in 
his clothes. When there was no response Jack said 
"The only difference between you and me is I carry 
my capital on the inside while you hang yours on the 
outside where everybody can see it." 

That afternoon Jack Batchelor won with Mattie 
Graham. She picked off the first heat in 2:24%. 
On the next two trips Red Cross and Fred Douglas 
showed in front. The next two went to the Haro.d 

The last time that I met Jack Batchelor was in 
the eighties at Parkville Farm, when John H. Shults 
was selecting brood mares for that establishment. 
He dropped in on a Saturday when Mr. Shults was 
paying off. When he got a chance Jack asked Mr. 
Shults to buy Mattie Graham and her filly by Nut- 
wood. At the same time Jack said he was looking 
for enough money to take him west and leave a grub 
stake. The play in the east had been too brisk for 

When Mr. Shults told Batchelor that he never pur- 
chased horses except at auction and that there 
wouia not be another until late in the fall, Jack 
seemed to be up against it. "We can have an 
auction, however, without waiting if you will agree 
to it," said the master of Parkville Farm. "Get up 
on that box and start calling for bids. When you 
think I have bid enough for the pair knock them 
down." He did. Jack Batchelor was given a 
check. He passed out and never came back. 

466 T R T A L O N G 


Chance has frequently played an important part 
in the production of remarkable individuals in the 
different breeds of horses and cattle. In the horse 
world no family has as much evidence of it as the 

Cassius M. Clay owed his existence to the showing 
made by a catch colt out of his dam. The dam of 
George M. Patchen, the champion stallion of his day, 
was a catch filly and Clay Pilot, the sire of The 
Moore, was out of a filly of the same kind. 

Jersey Kate, the grandam of Cassius M. Clay, was 
a fast road mare of unknown breeding. She was 
used in livery work and was in demand when any 
person had to make a trip for which speed and en- 
durance was required. 

A pair of Canadian stallions were kept in the 
stable with Jersey Kate. They were very stylish 
but did not have any speed. One of them slipped 
his halter one night and got Jersey Kate with foal. 
Her colt when matured showed so much speed on a 
trot that he soon appeared on the New York tracks 
under the name of John Anderson. 

When the owner of Jersey Kate saw what her colt 
by the Canadian pony was doing in races he bred her 
to Henry Clay and got Cassius M. Clay. This horse 
was a fast trotter for his day and in time got George 
M. Patchen, whose dam was a catch filly. 

The dam of George M. Patchen had a peculiar in- 
heritance. She was known as the Carmen Mare and 


was got by a two-year-old colt called Head'em, out of 
a mare which a New York contractor worked in a 
cart. This work mare was at times turned into a 
pasture lot near the home of Samuel Broadhurst. 
The latter at that time owned the American Eclipse 
fillies Frolic and Itaska, both of which were out of 
the noted race mare Betsey Ransom. 

In 1837 Samuel Broadhurst bred Frolic and Itaska 
to imported Trustee. The following year Frolic pro- 
duced a filly and Itaska a colt that was afterwards 
raced as Head'em. In 1840 when Head'em was run- 
ning in the Broadhurst pasture the contractor turned 
his work mare into an adjoining lot. One morning 
it was found that the colt had broken down the fence 
and was in the pasture with the mare. In time she 
proved with foal and produced a chestnut filly. 

After passing through several hands the filly be- 
came the property of Richard Carmen of New York. 
He used her as one of a fast road team until through 
neglect she was foundered. The Carmen Mare was 
then bred to Cassius M. Clay. Her first foal was 
George M. Patchen. He was on the turf from 1855 
to 1863 and held the stallion record for trotters when 
he died in 1864. 

The catch filly that produced Clay Pilot came from 
a good family. Her dam was the Pilot Jr. mare 
Kate that produced the dam of Almont. Through The 
Moore the name of this filly appears in the pedigree 
of Stamboul and the Palo Alto matron, Beautiful 
Bells, whose descendants include Hinda Rose, Adbell, 
Belleflower, Bell Boy, Bow Bells, The Abbott, The 


Monk and Signal Peter. 

The showing made by the descendants of these 
chance products recalls almost as remarkable a one 
in the annals of Hereford cattle. It occurred on the 
farm of David Williams of Newton, Breconshire, in 
Wales in 1844. 

Williams had a bull named Chance of uncertain 
paternity. One night he broke loose from his box 
and served one of his own daughters called Dutchess 
2nd. From this union Williams got a bull calf 
which he named Sir David. The history of Here- 
fords shows that Sir David was the greatest of his 
day and generation. During Sir David's long career 
he was a leader at local and national shows. His sons 
and their sons were also leaders, the group including 
Sir Benjamin, Sir Roger and Lord Wilton. 


The veteran fair manager, I. H. Butterfield, one 
day when in a reminiscent mood said Utica, Michi- 
gan, is my native town. My father's farm was one 
and one-half miles west of the village. Les Voor- 
heis, the breeder of Magna Charta, had a small farm 
two miles north. In the early fifties he had a nice, 
trim, blood like mare that was said to have been 
bought in Kentucky. In 1852 and 1853, a number 
of Morgan stallions were brought from Vermont to 
Michigan. Among them was a horse called Morgan 
Eagle, a grandson of Woodbury Morgan. He was a 
smooth, compact horse with good bone and weighed 


about 1,100 pounds. He was not fast, probably 
could trot a mile in four minutes, but he was strong 
enough to draw two men in a buggy at that gait. 

In 1854 Voorheis bred his mare to Morgan Eagle 
and the following spring Magna Charta was foaled. 
He was a very handsome colt and was purchased in 
1857 when two years old by Ezra Wright, a local 
horseman. Wright broke him to harness and soon 
found that he could trot fast. There was no track 
at Utica at that time and Wright trained the colt 
on a smooth stretch of road which ran through my 
father's farm. I often saw them there that sum- 
mer when I was working in the fields. 

Magna Charta's training was continued in his 
three-year-old form, when Wright showed him at 
the State Fair in Detroit, where he trotted a half- 
mile track, at least it was called that, in 2:57. He 
was awarded first premium as the best Morgan at 
the fair. In 1859 Ezra Wright took Magna Charta 
to Coldwater to a summer race meeting and while 
there traded him to F. V. Smith & Co. for another 
horse and considerable cash. The colt's new owners 
exhibited him at the State Fair that year, when he 
trotted a mile in 2:47 and was again awarded first 
premium. Later in the season, they shipped him 
to Kalamazoo, where he won a race in 2:33V:>> mak- 
ing a new world's record for four-year-olds, and also 
the first one ever placed to the credit of a Michigan 
bred trotter. 

One day when Wright was jogging Magna Charta 
in his two-year-old form, he drove into my father's 


yard. While he was there, a six weeks' old calf, 
which as a rule can run like a deer for about half a 
mile, got out of the barn and raced down the road. 
Someone was trying to turn it back when Wright 
said "Hold on, I will get ahead of him," and raced 
away at full speed. He did not head the calf, how- 
ever, until it turned a corner and stopped. 

Wright never heard the last of that trip, while 
the mention of it recalls a similar incident at the 
California State Fair at Sacramento in 1862. I was 
with John D. Patterson, a stock breeder who ex- 
hibited sheep and cattle. Among the latter he had 
a Jersey cow and calf. On the last day of the fair, 
when we were taking the stock from the grounds, 
the calf ran on to the track near the first turn just 
as a heat in a team race was started. The calf ran 
off ahead of the teams and kept the lead clear around 
the track, the occupants of the grandstand applaud- 
ing the performance to an echo, as the calf and 
horses raced through the stretch. By that time the 
calf was winded and I got him off the course, while 
the teams finished the mile. 


John Goldsmith was but thirty-six years old when 
he died at Washingtonville, N. Y., in 1895, in the 
house in which he was born and from which as a 
mere lad he went forth to make a reputation as well 
as a fortune on the trotting turf. In his brief span 
of life he made a reputation for a few Volunteer trot- 


ters, swept through the Grand Circuit with Director, 
started the Sidneys on the high road of success, and 
established the fame of the Guy Wilkes family. The 
returns show that he reduced the yearling record 
with Freedom, made a new three year old mark with 
Sable Wilkes, won the first S10,000 Charter Oak 
Purse and the first Kentucky Futurity as well as 
hundreds of other races. Also while he was busy 
starting the big round dollars rolling toward his 
father, Alden Goldsmith, and his first employer, 
Monroe Salisbury, as well as Count Valensin and 
William Corbett, he did not overlook his own welfare 
as when his estate was probated it showed that he 
was worth over $100,000 in hard cash, all of which 
was made with trotting horses. He never owned a 
share of stock or a bond, but he did train and race 
horses that could win, and he was also clever enough 
to know when they were fit to go to the front and get 
a decision in his favor. John Goldsmith was the 
first reinsman to adopt the extreme high arm style 
of driving. At times he seemed to carry a tired 
horse along at top speed on his finger tips while the 
gloved hand of steel was ready at all times to take 
back one that faltered or showed a disposition to 
make a mistake. By this method he appeared to be 
able to give the most sensitive touch to the bit of a 
trotter that was all out at the end of the mile. 



Time takes the toll. Frequently the call comes 
early and occasionally after the four score mark has 
been checked. One of the latter was recorded in 
March, 1926, when William E. Weeks passed at 
Tampa. He had lived twenty days beyond his 
eighty-third birthday. 

With Budd Doble and George Saunders he was 
frequently referred to as the three horsemen born in 
the forties of the last century. Each of them sported 
silk on high wheel sulkies when a 2:20 trotter was a 
champion and a 2:30 horse a Grand Circuit prospect. 

Dcble was born in 1841 and George Saunders in 
1846. In 1882 Saunders won everything with Cling- 
stone until Turner caught him with Edwin Thorne 
at Hartford. 

While Billy Weeks was born at Palmyra, N. Y., he 
took the air during the first ten years of his life on 
the "sidewalks of New York." In 1854 his parents 
moved to Illinois. He accompanied them and re- 
mained in that state until Lincoln called for volun- 
teers. Weeks went to the front with the Illinois 
Cavalry. When mustered out he was in the New 
York Artillery. 

When the war clouds scattered Weeks arrived in 
New York with a pair of trotters which he had 
driven in 2:40 over the half-mile track at Waterloo, 
N. Y. They were as good as the gold in those days. 
W. H. Van Cott, who had a stable on 37th street near 
Broadway, purchased them and employed their 


owner as stable manager and bookkeeper. 

Van Cott belonged to one of the old Dutch families 
on Long Island. His father was a horseman. For 
a few years he had charge of imported Bellfounder, 
the sire of the dam of Rysdyk's Hambletonian. As 
a lad W. H. frequently exercised this English horse 
under the saddle on the Jamaica Turnpike, where 
Boston Blue in 1818 trotted the first recorded mile in 
three minutes. 

With this as a starter, young Van Cott drifted into 
the stable business in New York City. For many 
years he selected the racing material for the gentle- 
men who boarded their horses with him. Late in 
life he moved to 58th street to a stable which at 
times sheltered over a hundred trotters and fast road 
horses, a number of which were owned by Major 
Dickinson, Peter Duryea, Andy Welch, W. Hamilton 
and Jerry Coster. 

While Weeks was in Van Cott's employ Dan Mace 
and a few other enthusiasts put on a series of trot- 
ting races under the saddle in Madison Square Gar- 
den. This was not the building which was pulled 
down in 1925, but the one which preceded it on the 
same site. At one time it was used as a freight shed 
by the New York Central railroad, the trains being 
pulled down to it by horses from the present ter- 
minal through the Park avenue tunnel. It was 
abandoned when the 42nd street station was built. 
From that time it was leased for large amusement 

The first National Horse Shows were held in this. 


building. For a portion of one winter Mace and his 
friends had trotting races under the saddle there at 
night. Everything was conducted as at a regular 
meeting, the betting at times being very heavy. 

While the races were in progress Mace was always 
on a still hunt for riders. Johnny Murphy was the 
leader at that time. Almost all of his mounts were 
favorities and they usually won. 

Van Cott suggested to Weeks that he take a 
mount. He did. After a few nights in the saddle 
Billy was the talk of the town. 

At that time Murphy's reputation as a rider was 
established. He had placed the stamp of merit on it 
by giving Dexter a record of 2:18 1 ,4, over the Fash- 
ion Course. It was something of a surprise to have 
an unknown soldier lay aside his pen and snatch a 
few laurels from the "Red Prince. " 

When Fleetwood Park was opened in 1870 Weeks 
engaged a stable. It was at the end of the row 
referred to as Wall Street. Murphy's headquarters 
was back of it at the end of the Broadway row. Here 
as in Madison Square Garden the rivalry between 
Weeks and Murphy continued until the latter died in 
the summer of 1889. 

While they met in many races to harness none of 
them attracted so much attention as two matches 
under the saddle in November, 1876, between the 
gray gelding, Tanner Boy and the black mare, May 
Bird, one of the few trotters got by George Wilkes 
before he was taken to Kentucky. Murphy won 
both with May Bird. The first required five heats, 


one of them being trotted in 2:19%, and the second 

W. H. Van Cott was so pleased with these races 
that he gave McAuliff e an order for a painting of the 
event. The black and gray trotters in action with 
Murphy and Weeks in the saddle and a Fleetwood 
Park background was one of the most attractive pic- 
tures in the Van Cott gallery- 
Weeks was located at Fleetwood Park for over 
twenty years. During that time he did considerable 
racing. Strange to relate almost all of his mounts 
were geldings. Along towards the end of his so- 
journ he had a few mares and one stallion. 

The last named was moved into his stable in the 
summer of 1887 during the July meeting of the Driv- 
ing Club of New York. On the opening day Weeks 
won the first race with J. B. Thomas, a horse which 
he had campaigned for Doc Hedges but which was 
then owned by the circus man, J. Bailey. This race 
was sandwiched with a 2:20 trot for a $500 purse in 
which there were fourteen starters. All of the local 
talent and a few from New Jersey were represented. 
Jesse Yearance was up behind Perplexed while Hurd 
was driving Jesse. Murphy was out behind West- 
ern Belle and Frank Van Ness had Governor C. Dave 
Herrington started Montgomery Boy, while Hiram 
Smith drove Cuba and Weeks the gray gelding Mar- 
cus. The New Jersey visitors brought over Sir Wal- 
ter, Jr., a handsome chestnut stallion, and Jesse 
while Mathew Riley, who had risen from a bell boy 
in the Hoffman House to a villa at Newport, started 

476 T R T A L O N G 

the chestnut gelding Dan. 

Yearance won the first heat with Perplexed, After 
that he faded for the day. Western Belle won the 
second and was distanced in the fifth. The third 
went to Dan. Sir Walter Jr. won the next two in 
2:23^, the fastest in the race. By that time it was. 
getting dark and the race went over. It was also 
announced that Major Dickinson had purchased Sir 
Walter Jr. for $6,000 and turned him over to Weeks, 
whose mount, Marcus, had been drawn after going* 
three heats. 

On the following day Dan, Perplexed and Sir 
Walter Jr. went out to finish the race. Perplexed 
won the sixth heat, Weeks going an easy mile so as 
to get a line on his horse. In the seventh Weeks 
started to win. At the point of rocks he was in 
front. Coming into the stretch Sir Walter Jr. threw 
a toe weight, made a break and Perplexed won the 
heat and race in 2:32. 

Later on Sir Walter Jr. reduced his record to 
2:18^ in a race at Utica. Today he is referred to 
as the side of Alcidalia, 2:10 1 / 4, and Blondella, the 
dam of Uhlan, 1 :58. 

While the names of the horses which Weeks raced 
are unknown to the modern race goers it will not do 
any harm to rub the dust off their name plates and 
show by their records how fast they had to go to win 
in the fastest company in the old days. Tanner Boy 
was his best. He trotted in 2:221/2- The others 
were George Moody, 2:35i/ 2 , Eight Bells, 2:35V 2 > 
Frank Wood, 2:24, Captain Emmons, 2:19% r Glos- 


ter, 2:26, Charley Champlin, 2:21%, Pickard, 
2:181/4, J. B. Thomas, 2:18i/ 2 > Tony Newell, 2:19i/ 2 , 
Keene Jim, 2:19 1 ,4, and the pacer, Bay Billy, 
2:14. Weeks did not mark the last named but in 
1882 he won a splendid race with the Hal gelding at 
Chicago from Buffalo Girl, Mattie Hunter, Gem, 
Sorrel Dan and Lucy. 

The mares that Weeks won with were Adele 
Gould, 2:19, and Nora Temple, 2:27*4, while he took 
a few mounts behind Miss Alice after E. C. Walker 
parted company with the handsome daughter of 

In 1893 Billy Weeks went to France to train the 
trotters owned by Antonio Terry. He raced over 
the European tracks for seven years, winning a 
number of events with Cash and Bosque Bonita. He 
also tendered the tip which resulted in unmasking 
Heffner and his associates when they were racing 
Bertie R. in France as Adria. 

None of the old time or modern trainers ever ap- 
proached Weeks in the upkeep of their stables. All 
of his appointments were perfect, either in the stable 
or on the course. The men who worked for him 
were busy from sun up. His system pleased the own- 
ers with whom he did business, it being a common 
remark with some of them that they would rather 
have a horse in Weeks' stable and lose than with 
those who gave him a lick and a promise and won. 



The turnover in the New York horse auction each 
year recalls the sensational transfers which were 
made since Peter C. Kellogg started combination 
sales about fifty years ago. Kentucky Prince was 
the first high-priced one to pass under the hammer. 
He was consigned by A. B. Darling in 1878 and sold 
for $10,700 to Charles Backman for Stony Ford. 

The era of high prices at auction dates from the 
Glenview Farm sale at Louisville, Ky., in 1886, when 
John H. Shults paid $28,000 for Pancoast and H. L. 
and F. D. Stout $22,000 for Nutwood. Pancoast was 
shipped to Parkville, Long Island, where his new 
owner established Parkville Farm. 

After being there a little over a year Pancoast 
was struck with lightning. From that time his days 
of usefulness were over, although he was subse- 
quently sold and taken to Bardstown, Ky. 

Nutwood was transferred to Dubuque, Iowa. He 
became the most successful stock horse of his day, 
while mares by him rivalled the descendants of 
Mambrino Patchen as speed producers. 

After Palo Alto and San Mateo Farm received 
good money in the New York market for their sur- 
plus stock other California breeders dropped into 
line. Consignments were sent by L. J. Rose, Count 
Valensin and finally the Hobart horses. Stamboul 
was among the latter. 

During the autumn of 1892 there was a contest 
between Stamboul and Kremlin for the stallion rec- 


ord. Kremlin was at Nashville, Tenn., and Stam- 
boul at the kite track at Stockton, Cal. 

Kremlin stopped at 2:07 3 /4. Stamboul came back 
with a mile in 2:07%. The time in this and other 
miles trotted by Stamboul was then attacked by 
the followers of Kremlin. 

At the time Kremlin's owner, William Russell 
Allen, was the President of the American Trotting 
Register Association. StambouPs performances 
were rejected by that Association, the record cred- 
ited to him being 2:11, which he made in 1890. 

N. T. Smith, the Treasurer of the Southern Pa- 
cific Railroad, was then- second Vice-President of the 
National Trotting Association. He was delegated 
to investigate the performances of Stamboul. After 
exhaustive hearings Mr. Smith reported that Stam- 
boul trotted in 2:07i/ 2 . 

While this battle was being waged Stamboul was 
sold in New York. Notwithstanding the uproar he 
brought $41,000. The last bidders were A. J. 
Welch, a Mr. Wallace from Springfield, Mass., and 
E. H. Harriman. Stamboul was knocked down to 
Mr. Harriman. 

After the sale there was some correspondence 
about the record between Rensselaer Weston and the 
American Trotting Register Association. The As- 
sociation would not accept the record and was ad- 
vised that while Mr. Harriman was a stockholder 
in the Association he would never register a horse 
with it. 

As the years rolled by the horses and all of the 


parties to the controversy passed away. Finally 
in December, 1926, I purchased a controlling inter- 
est in the American Trotting Register Association 
for E. Roland Harriman, a son of the owner of 
Stamboul. A transfer of the Association to Goshen, 
N. Y., followed and its office is now located within a 
hundred yards of Stambours grave. 

The most sensational transfer of a gelding was 
seen at Cleveland in 1889 when W. J. Gordon sent 
Guy to the Fasig sale. He was a speed marvel and 
looked like a trotter that would change the 2:08% 
of Maud S. 

J. I. Case wanted Guy. His horse, Jay Eye See, 
was in 1884 champion for a day. He wanted an- 
other thrill. Guy did not go to Racine. The Case 
representative stopped at $15,000. When the limit 
was in sight, D. J. Campau bid $29,500. H. A. 
Stevens, a local merchant, said $29,750, and the 
horse was knocked down to him. Later, Mr. Gor- 
don gave him $1,000 for his bargain and sent Guy 
back to Gordon Glen. 

In 1893, after Mr. Gordon died, Guy was sold 
again. I purchased him for D. J. Campau for $1,500. 
The following summer he had the pleasure of seeing 
Guy reduced the wagon record to 2:13 and trot to 
a bike sulky in 2:09%. 

Both of these records were made at the Detroit 
Grand Circuit meeting. Notwithstanding that fact 
Guy's record of 2:09% was rejected by the Amer- 
ican Trotting Register Association because his name 
was not on the score card. 


At that time there was a feud between D. J. 
Campau and John H. Steiner, the Secretary of the 
American Trotting Register Association. He dug 
up this rule to annoy Mr. Campau. 

On account of this Guy appears in the Year Book 
with a record of 2:10%, which he made to a high 
wheel sulky in 1889. 

Star Pointer, the first two-minute performer, 
made three trips to the auctions. In 1896 J. Titley 
consigned him to a Cleveland sale. A few days be- 
fore he was shipped Star Pointer was wounded on 
the side by the discharge of a gun in the stable 
office, which was separated from his stall by a thin 
partition. The wound had not healed when the 
horse was sold. Ed. Geers was there with C. J. 
Hamlin and begged him to buy Star Pointer. Mr. 
Hamlin stopped at $5,000 and the horse went to 
Boston on a bid of $5,500. As he was led away Wal- 
lace Pierce said "There goes Geers' first chance to 
drive a horse in two minutes." 

The honor went to Dave McClary in 1897. In the 
interval James W. Murphy had purchased Star 
Pointer at a New York auction for $15,600 and sub- 
sequently sold him to W. J. White in the same man- 
ner for $15,000. 

An unusual sale occurred at Lexington in the win- 
ter of 1891, when Barnhart, a brother to Allerton, 
passed under the hammer. He was the first horse 
in the catalogue. When Barnhart was led out there 
was but one bid. It was $20,000. H. S. Henry made 
the bid. The horse was knocked down to him. 


H. S. Henry began buying trotting horses in 1887 
at the Alden Goldsmith dispersal sale. At that time 
he would not pay over $300 for any horse. Later 
on he paid all kinds of prices. 

In Henry's day there were a number of wash 
sales of high-priced horses. He and S. A. Browne 
did considerable. It continued until Henry handed 
Browne Anteeo for $50,000 and collected the price. 

S. A. Browne developed Bell Boy, a brother to 
Bellflower and Chimes. He was a clever two-year- 
old and was sold a couple of times for big money. 
His last transfer was for over $50,000 to George H. 
Hopper and Judson H. Clark at auction. Part of 
the bidding was done by a man behind a partition. 
Bell Boy was paid for and was shortly after de- 
stroyed by fire. 

The single bid for Barnhart recalls another that 
was made for the imported horse, St. Blaise, in New 
York. It was $100,000. It stunned the other 
prospective buyers and the horse was sold. 

The Harvester made three trips to the auction 
ring. Walnut Hall Farm sold him as a three-year- 
old. After he had become a champion and toured 
Europe he brought $31,000 at the Billings dispersal. 
In 1928 when twenty-three years old The Harvester 
was sold again at the Forest Park Farm dispersal 
for $1,000. Bingen was disposed of at the Forbes 
Farm dispersal sale at Readville and was subse- 
quently purchased to take the place of Todd when 
he died at Bradley Farm in New Jersey. 

Todd went with Guy Axworthy to the Bradley 


Farm from the auction ring. During a stringency 
in the money market J. M. Johnson disposed of his 
trotters, including Todd and Nancy Hanks. Pay- 
ment for the horses that year was in cash. After 
the sale Johnson returned to Boston with over 
$40,000 in currency. 

Peter the Great and Guy Axworthy went to Ken- 
tucky from the New York auctions. Peter Duryea 
selected Peter the Great. Guy Axworthy made four 
trips before he was selected for Walnut Hall Farm. 
On the day of his last appearance Pierre Lorillard 
told me that Averill Harriman and three others 
•dined at a New York hotel. Averill proposed that 
■each of them chip in $5,000, buy Guy Axworthy 
and send him to Kentucky as a public stallion. He 
liad an engagement which prevented him going to 
the sale and when the price moved above the figure 
fixed by the syndicate, Guy Axworthy went to the 
establishment where he made a world-wide reputa- 

C. K. G. Billings purchased Lou Dillon as an un- 
marked trotter for $12,000. He made all kinds of 
amateur records with her and also had the pleasure 
of seeing her cut the world's record to 1:58*4. 

The two trips which John R. Gentry made to the 
auctions shows the value of a world's record. Early 
in 1896 Andrews asked William Simpson to buy this 
horse. He cost $7,600. That year John R. Gen- 
try won in the fastest company and reduced the 
world's record to 2:001/2- This was followed by 
another trip to the Garden. John R. Gentry sold 


for $19,900. Later when his new owner met with 
reverses E. H. Harriman purchased the "little red 
horse" and he remained the property of his estate 
until he died in Tennessee. 


During the past forty years no one in America 
bred, bought or owned so many high-priced race 
horses as John E. Madden. He paid the high dollar 
and received it when he sold. 

When adverse legislation blighted the running 
meetings in New York state, there was a shrinkage 
in values. Instead of reducing his operations like 
most breeders, Madden went in deeper until he had 
over four hundred brood mares at Hamburg Place 
in Kentucky. 

When the tide turned, Madden had horses to sell. 
When the Hamburg Place products began to win 
in all kinds of company, more buyers appeared. Mad- 
den supplied the demand. After they had culled 
the crop, Madden went to the races with what they 
left and won. 

John E. Madden's success made him an authority 
on race horses. What he knows has stood the acid 
test. On account of this his remark that the sire 
is more than three-fourths of the stud has weight. 
He said : "Mares are necessary but at the best they 
can give you but one failure or winner each year. 
A stallion will get from fifty to seventy-five. If 
he is a blank, and many are, two or three years will 


put a large operator on the rocks. 

"Patchen Wilkes, a fine individual and a well- 
bred horse for his day, failed absolutely. From the 
same mares Peter the Great sent out a shoal of 
winners. Milton Young had a leader in Hanover. 
When he died Lamplighter was selected. He was 
a good race horse and just as well bred. Lamp- 
lighter failed. 

"Of the Hanover colts I selected Hamburg. He 
was good. One day at Sheepshead Bay after Ham- 
burg had won a stake with 138 pounds up, I was 
holding him by the head in the paddock. A thick 
set man with a stubby mustache came up and said, 
'Young man, do you own that colt V 

" That depends/ I replied, 'whether you want to 
buy or attach him.' 

" 'I would be pleased to buy him,' said my caller, 
who was Marcus Daly. 'What is the price?' 

"I told him §45,000. 

" 'Rather steep/ he remarked. 

" 'Not for this kind/ I replied. 

"Marcus Daly gave me $40,001 for Hamburg. He 
handed me a Wells Fargo draft for $40,000 and a 
silver dollar. 

"Hamburg had a brother named Frankfort. I 
owned him. While I w r as in New York the stable 
in which he was kept was burned. The farm super- 
intendent wired me and added Frankfort was res- 
cued. I replied that so long as the brother of Ham- 
burg was saved, the loss of the barn did not amount 
to anything. Someone heard of the dispatch and 


made me a swell offer for Frankfort. He got him. 

"Brothers and sisters among race horses do not 
amount to much. When I went to Kentucky back 
in the eighties, if you went out to Barney Treacy's 
farm you were shown into a stable full of brothers 
and sisters to horses with records. They were all 
dolled up and for sale. If by any chance you drifted 
to the training stable, the brother and sister stuff 
was cut out. You were told how fast each one could 
go. Later on their brothers and sisters would be 
in the sale barn. 

"The same thing was seen at Woodburn. As 
soon as a visitor arrived, Mr. Brodhead or one of 
his assistants would be calling for Mr. Hull to bring 
out the brother or sister of Maud S. or Nutwood. 
If purchased their new owners did not get very rich 
racing them. As for the training stable it was the 
same as Treacy's. 

"Each race horse must be judged by what he can 
do. His relatives will not help him very much in 
the thick of the fight. If a runner is sound and 
will race he can be used somewhere. The ones that 
will not make stake horses can be aired as selling 
platers or sold for bush horses. 

"The trotters are different. Their chances are 
cut into four parts. One-fourth breeding, one- 
fourth growth and development, one-fourth balanc- 
ing with a toe weight tossed in, and the last quarter 
training and driving. 

"Some one remarked that horses race in all 
shapes. He did not say how far. Without racing; 


blood no horse can train on and show class. Unless 
a horse is grown properly a trainer has nothing to 
build on. Gameness is another name for strength 
with the racing spirit back of it. 

"A horse that is not balanced does not have a 
chance. It is only a matter of time until he gives 
himself a rap that will put him on the shelf. I gave 
$5,000 for Hamburg Belle. She was hitting her 
knees. I tried what Robert Bonner and Charles 
Marvin showed me on foot balance and added a few 
of the ideas that I picked up. Hamburg Belle went 
clear. The day she placed the world's race record 
at 2:01% I sold her for $50,000. 

"As for a horse being trained and driven proper- 
ly, it is only necessary to look around and see what 
some folk get for their money. In some men's hands 
a $30,000 horse looks like 30 cents. He goes and 
acts all right but he cannot deliver. The horse is 
not placed properly. 

"All cannot be champions. A skillful man knows 
that. He starts his mounts where they have a. 
shade the best of it or at least a chance. 

"There are horses which train to stake form. 
There are others that have speed to burn until they 
are classed. The trainer who learns that before 
the bell rings is always near the top of the winning 

"Many trotters and pacers go their races before 
they go to the races. They are drilled, not trained. 
Their owners are happy on workout day and blue 
on race day." 

University of